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Human Geo 8

Semester Test Study Guide

QuestionAnswer
states politically organized territory with: permanent population, defined territory, and a government ex:USA, Namibia, Yemen
nations the people that make up an area ex: kurds, amenians, chilean miners
nation-states politically organized area in which nation and state occupy the same space
stateless nations group of people without a sovereign country with borders ex: basques, palestinians, french canadians
theocracy government based on religion ex: vatican city
mercantilism accumulation of wealth through plunder, colonization, and protection of home industries and foreign markets
centripetal forces forces that unify a country ex: same language, outside threats, same religion
centrifugal forces forces that divide a country ex: different languages, different religions, different ethnicities
types of boundaries There are geometric boundaries that use longitude\latitude or township and range. There are Physical-political boundaries that follow an agreed-upoun feature.
colonialism Rule by an autonomous power over a subordinate and alien people and place. Creates unequal cultural and economic relations
imperialism control of a territory already occupied
electoral geography the analysis of the methods, behavior, and results of elections in the context of geographic space and using geographical techniques.
gerrymandering practice of dividing areas into electoral districts to give one political party an electoral majority in a large number of districts while concentrating the voting strength of the opposition in as few districts as possible
majority-minority districts process by which a majority of the population is from the minority
nationalism The strong belief that the interests of a particular nation-state are of primary importance
devolution the process whereby regions within a state demand and gain political strength and growing autonomy at the expense of the ventral government
shatterbelt a large, strategically located region that is occupied by a number of conflicting interests of adjoining Great Powers; a zone of chronic political spilintering and fracturing
irredentism a policy of cultural extension and potential political expansion by a country aimed at a group of its nationals living in a neighboring country
truman proclamation
median-line principle statement in UNCLOS declaring that when there is not enough water for each country on o0pposite sides of the sea to have 200 nautical miles of exclusive economic zone, the two or more countries involved will divide the water evenly
EEZ Exclusive Economic Zone an area from the shore in which a state has rights to explore, exploit, and manage natural resources in the seas
territorial seas
UNCLOS I, II, III is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which took place from 1973 through 1982
landlocked states lacks a direct outlet to the sea because it is completely surrounded by several other countries
supranationalism a venture involving 3 or more nation-states involving formal political, economic, and/or cultural cooperation to promote shared objectives(ex. the UN)
define, delimit, demarcation of boundaries
microstates a state that encompasses a very small land area
ministates an imprecise term for a territory, extremely small in both area and population
forward capital capital city positioned in actually or potenially contested territory, usually near an international border; it confirms the state's determination to maintain its presence in the region in contention
unitary state a state governed constitutionally as a unit, without internal divisions or a federalist delegation of powers
federal state an internal organization of a state that allocates most powers to units of local government
exclaves a bounded territory that is part of a particular state but is separated from it by the territory of a different state
enclaves any small and relatively homogenous group or region surrounded by another larger and different group or region
organic theory a species of political collectivism which maintains that the state transcends individuals within the State in power, right, or priority.
heartlands theory Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland and in return commands the world-Mackinder
rimland theory Those that control the rim (border) of europe and asia will have total control
international sanctions actions taken by countries against others for political reasons
geopolitics the study of the interplay between political relations and the territorial context in which they occur
peacemaking to make peace?
boundary disputes Definitional- disputes over language Locational- disputes over location Operational- disputes over administration Allocation- disputes over sea floor
NAFTA is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral rules-based trade bloc in North America.
berlin conference the metting of European powers in 1884-85 resulting in the Berlin Treaty and the partition of Africa into colonies of the attending nations
4 pillars of statehood territory, population, government, general recognition by international community
peace of westphalia treaty that ended the 30 years war; beginning of nation-state, 1648
territorial morphologies 1. Compact-squised, generally equidistic e.g. Poland 2. Elongated-lots of coast line, weather diversity. e.g. Chile 3. Fragmented: In pieces, culturally diverse e.g. Indonesia 4. Protruded:Come through\hangs e.g. Thailand 5. Perforated: Hole in it
Created by: Emily.Austin