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FINALChap13-14 Terms

achromatopsia Color blindness. Unable to perceive one or more colors; more common in males.
acoustic pertaining to hearing
acoustic neuroma Benign tumor of the eighth cranial nerve sheath, which can cause symptoms from pressure being exerted on tissues.
amblyopia Lazy eye. Loss of vision not caused by eye pathology. Usually occurs in those who see 2 images. To see only 1 image, the brain no longer recognizes the image sent to it by 1 of the eyes. May occur if strabismus isn't corrected. Not treatable w/lenses.
American Sign Language Nonverbal method of communicating in which the hands and fingers are used to indicate words and concepts. Used by people who are deaf and speech impaired.
anacusis Total absence of hearing; unable to perceive sound. Also called deafness.
anesthetic ophthalmic solution eye drops for pain relief associated with eye infections, corneal abrasions, or surgery.
antibiotic ophthalmic solution eye drops for the treatment of bacterial eye infections.
antibiotic otic solution Eardrops to treat otitis externa.
antiemetic Control nausea and vomiting.
antiglaucoma medications Drugs that reduce intraocular pressure by lowering the amount of aqueous humor in the eyeball. May achieve this by either reducing the production of aqueous humor or increasing its outflow.
anti-inflammatory otic solution Reduces inflammation, itching, & edema associated with otitis externa.
aqueous humor A watery fluid filling the spaces between the cornea and lens.
artificial tears medications, may of them over the counter, to treat dry eyes.
astigmatism Condition in which light rays are focused unevenly on the retina, causing a distorted image, due to an abnormal curvature of the cornea.
Audiogram record of hearing
Audiologist hearing specialist
audiology Study of hearing.
audiometer instrument to measure hearing
audiometry process of measuring hearing w/an audiometer
Auditory pertaining to hearing
auditory canal The canal that leads from the external opening of the ear to the ear drum.
auditory tube Another name for the eustachian tube connecting the middle ear and pharynx.
aural pertaining to the ear
auricle The external ear
auricular pertaining to the ear
binaural Referring to both ears
blepharectomy removal of the eyelid
blepharitis eyelid inflammation
blepharoplasty surgical repair of eyelid
blepharoptosis drooping eyelid
cataract Damage to the lens causing it to become opaque or cloudy, resulting in diminished vision. Treatment is usually surgical removal of the cataract or replacement of the lens.
cerumen ear wax
ceruminoma ball of ear wax
choroid The middle layer of the eyeball. This layer provides the blood supply for the eye.
cilia A term for eyelashes that protect the eye from foreign particles or for nasal hairs that help filter dust and bacteria out of inhaled air.
ciliary body The intraocular eye muscles that change the shape of the lens.
cochlea A portion of the labyrinth associated with hearing. It is rolled in the shape of a snail shell. The organs of Corti line the cochlea.
cochlear pertaining to the cochlea
cochlear implant Mechanical device that is surgically placed under the skin behind the outer ear (pinna). It converts sound signals into magnetic impulses to stimulate the auditory nerve.
cochlear nerve The branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve that carries hearing information to the brain.
color vision tests Use of polychromatic (multicolored) charts to determine the ability of the patient to recognize color.
conductive hearing loss Loss of hearing as a result of the blocking of sound transmission in the middle ear & outer ear.
cones The sensory receptors of the retina that are active in bright light and see in color.
conjunctiva A protective mucous membrane lining on the underside of each eyelid and across the anterior surface of each eyeball.
conjunctival pertaining to the conjunctiva
conjunctivitis conjunctiva inflammation
conjunctivoplasty surgical repair of the conjunctiva
cornea A portion of the sclera that is clear and transparent and allows light to enter the interior of the eye. It also plays a role in bending light rays.
corneal pertaining to the cornea
corneal abrasion Scraping injury to the cornea. If it doesn't heal, it may develop into an ulcer.
cryoextraction Procedure in which cataract is lifted from the lens with an extremely cold probe.
cryoretinopexy surgical fixation of the retina by using extreme cold.
cycloplegia paralysis of the ciliary body
dacryocystitis tear bladder inflammation
deafness The inability to hear or having some degree of hearing impairment.
decibel Measure the intensity or loudness of a sound.
diplopia double vision
emmetropia (EM) State of normal vision.
enucleation surgical removal of the eyeball.
equilibrium The sense of balance.
esotropia Inward turning of the eye; also called cross-eyed. An example of a form of strabismus, or muscle weakening of the eye.
eustachian tube Tube or canal that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and allows for a balance of pressure between the outer and middle ear.
exotropia Outward turning of the eye, also called wall-eyed. Also an example of strabismus.
external auditory meatus The opening into the external ear canal.
external ear The outermost portion of the ear. It consists of the auricle, auditory canal, & eardrum.
eyeball The eye by itself, without any appendages such as the eye muscles or tear ducts.
eyelashes cilia
eyelids An upper and lower fold of skin that provides protection from foreign particles, injury from the sun & intense light, and trauma.
eye muscles six muscles that connect the eyeball to the orbit cavity & allow for rotation of the eyeball.
falling test Test to observe balance & equilibrium. The patient balances on 1 foot, then w/1 foot in front of the other, & then walks forward. The test is repeated w/eyes closed. Swaying or falling w/eyes closed can indicate an ear & equilibrium malfunction.
fluorescein angiography Process of injecting a dye (fluorescein) to observe the movement of blood & detect lesions in the macular area of the retina. Used to determine if there is a detachment of the retina.
fluorescein staining Applying dye eye drops that are a bright green fluorescent color. Used to look for corneal abrasions or ulcers.
fovea centralis The area of the retina that has the sharpest vision.
glaucoma Increase in intraocular pressure.If untreated w/medication or surgery, it may result in optic nerve atrophy & blindness.Persons 60+, of African ancestry, who've had a serious eye injury, or a family history of diabetes or glaucoma have increased risk.
hearing One of the special senses; sound waves detected by the ear.
hemianopia Loss of vision in half of the visual field. A stroke patient may suffer from this disorder.
hertz (HZ) measurement of the frequency or pitch of sound.
hordeolum Refers to a stye (or sty), a small, purulent inflammatory infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid; treated w/hot compresses and/or surgical incision.
hyperopia Farsightedness. Condition where a person can see things in the distance but has trouble reading material at close range. Can be corrected w/converging or biconvex lenses.
incus One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. Also called the anvil.
inner ear Pertaining to within the eye.
intraocular pertaining to within the eye
iridal pertaining to the iris
iridectomy removal of iris
iridoplegia paralysis of iris
iridosclerotomy incision into the iris and sclera
iritis iris inflammation
keratitis cornea inflammation
keratometer instrument to measure (curve of) cornea
keratometry Measurement of the curvature of the cornea using an instrument called a keratometer.
keratoplasty surgical repair of the cornea is the simple translation of this term that is used to mean corneal transplant.
keratotomy incision into the cornea
labyrinth The term that refers to the inner ear. It is several fluid-filled cavities within the temporal bone.
labyrinthectomy removal of the labyrinth
labyrinthitis inflammation of the labyrinth
labyrinthotomy incision into the labyrinth
lacrimal pertaining to tears
lacrimal apparatus Consists of the lacrimal gland, lacrimal ducts, and the nasolacrimal duct.
lacrimal ducts Tear ducts located in the inner corner of the eye socket. They collect the tears and drain them into the lacrimal sac.
lacrimal gland A gland located in the outer corner of each eyelid. It washes the anterior surface of the eye with fluid called tears.
laser photocoagulation use of a laser beam to destroy very small precise areas of the retina. May be used to treat retinal detachment or macular degeneration.
laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) correction of myopia using laser surgery to remove corneal tissue.
legally blind Describes a person with severely impaired vision. Usually defined as having visual acuity of 20/200 that can't be improved with corrective lenses or having a visual field of less than 20 degrees.
lens The transparent structure behind the pupil and iris. It functions to bend light rays so they land on the retina.
macrotia (abnormally) large ears
macula lutea Images are projected onto the area of the retina.
macular degeneration Deterioration of the macular area of the retina of the eye. May be treated w/laser surgery to destroy the blood vessels beneath the macula.
malleus One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. Also called the hammer.
Meniere’s disease Abnormal condition within the labyrinth of the inner ear that can lead to a progressive loss of hearing. The symptoms are dizziness or vertigo, hearing loss, and tinnitus.
microtia (abnormally) small ears
middle ear The middle section of the ear. It contains the ossicles.
miotic any substance that causes the pupil to constrict. These medications may also be use to treat glaucoma.
monaural Referring to one ear.
monochromatism Unable to perceive one color.
mucous membrane These membranes line body passages that open directly to the exterior of the body, such as the mouth, & secrete a thick substance, or mucus.
mydriatic Any substance that causes the pupil to dilate by paralyzing the iris and/or ciliary body muscles. Particularly useful during eye exams and eye surgery.
myopia Nearsightedness. Condition where a person can see things close up but distance vision is blurred. This condition is corrected with diverging or biconcave lenses.
myringectomy Excision of the eardrum.
myringitis eardrum inflammation
myringoplasty surgical repair of the eardrum
myringotomy incision into the eardrum
nasal cavity Large cavity just behind the external nose that receives the outside air. It is covered with mucous membrane to cleanse the air.
nasolacrimal duct Duct that collects tears from the inner corner of the eye socket and drains them into the nasal cavity.
nyctalopia Difficulty seeing in dim light; also called night-blindness. Usually due to damaged rods.
nystagmus Jerky-appearing involuntary eye movements, usually left and right. Often an indication of brain injury.
oblique muscles Oblique means slanted. Two of the eye muscles are oblique muscles.
ocular pertaining to the eye
oculomycosis abnormal condition of eye fungus
ophthalmalgia eye pain
ophthalmic pertaining to the eyes
ophthalmic decongestants Over-the-counter medications that constrict the arterioles of the eye, reduce redness and itching of the conjunctiva.
ophthalmologist specialist in the eye
ophthalmology Branch of medicine involving the diagnosis & treatment of conditions & diseases of the eye & surrounding structures. The physician is an ophthalmologist.
ophthalmoplegia eye paralysis
ophthalmorrhagia rapid bleeding from the eye
ophthalmoscope instrument to view inside the eye
ophthalmoscopy Examination of the interior of the eyes using an ophthalmoscope. The physician dilates the pupil in order to see the cornea, lens, & retina. Used to identify abnormalities in the blood vessels of the eye & some systemic diseases.
optic pertaining to the eye or vision
optic disk The area of the retina associated with the optic nerve. Also called the blind spot.
optician Specialist in grinding corrective lenses.
optic nerve The second cranial nerve that carries impulses from the retinas to the brain.
optometer instrument to measure vision
optometrist one who measures vision
optometry Medical profession specializing in examining the eyes, testing visual acuity, & prescribing corrective lenses. A doctor of optometry is an optometrist.
organs of Corti The sensory receptor hair cells lining the cochlea. These cells change sound vibrations to electrical impulses & send them to the brain via the vestibulocochlear nerve.
ossicles The three small bones in the middle ear. The bones are the incus, malleus, and stapes. The ossicles amplify & conduct sound waves to the inner ear.
otalgia ear pain
otic pertaining to the ear
otitis ear inflammation
otitis externa infection of outer ear
otitis media infection of middle ear
otologist ear specialist
otology Study of ear.
otomycosis abnormal condition of ear fungus
otoplasty surgical repair of the (external) ear
otopyorrhea pus discharge from the ear
otorrhagia bleeding from the ear
otosclerosis Progressive hearing loss caused by immobility of the stapes bone.
otoscope instrument to view inside the ear
otoscopy process of viewing inside the ear w/an otoscope
oval window The division between the middle and inner ear.
papilledema Swelling of the optic disk. Often as a result of increased intraocular pressure. Also called choked disk.
phacoemulsification use of high-frequency sound waves to emulsify (liquefy) a lens with a cataract, which is then aspirated (removed by suction) with a needle.
photophobia A strong sensitivity to bright light.
photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) use of a laser to reshape the cornea and correct errors of refraction.
pinna Also called the auricle. The external ear, which functions to capture sound waves as they go past the outer ear.
pressure equalizing tube small tube placed in the ear to drain an infection
presbycusis hearing loss due to old age.
presbyopia Visual loss due to old age, resulting in difficulty focusing for near vision (such as reading).
pterygium Hypertrophied conjunctival tissue in the inner corner of the eye.
pupil The hole in the center of the iris. The size of the pupil is changed by the iris dilating or constricting.
pupillary pertaining to the pupil
radial keratotomy (RK) spokelike incisions around the cornea that result in it becoming flatter. A surgical treatment for myopia.
rectus muscles Rectus means straight. Four of the eye muscles are rectus muscles.
refractive error test Vision test for a defect in the ability of the eye to accurately focus the image that is hitting it. Refractive errors result in myopia and hyperopia.
refracts bending of light rays as they enter the eye.
residual hearing Amount of hearing that is still present after damage has occurred to the auditory mechanism.
retina The innermost layer of the eye. It contains the visual receptors called rods & cones. The rods and cones receive the light impulses & transmit them to the brain via the optic nerve.
retinal pertaining to the retina
retinal blood vessels The blood vessels that supply oxygen to the rods and cones of the retina.
retinal detachment Occurs when the retina becomes separated from the choroid layer. This seriously damages blood vessels & nerves, resulting in blindness. May be treated w/surgical or medical procedures to stabilize the retina & prevent separation.
retinitis pigmentosa Progressive disease of the eye resulting in the retina becoming hard (sclerosed), pigmented (colored), and atrophying (wasting away). There is no known cure.
retinoblastoma Malignant eye tumor occurring in children, usually under the age of 3. Requires enucleation.
retinopathy retina disease
retinopexy surgical fixation of the retina
Rinne and Weber tuning-fork A tuning fork, or instrument that produces a constant pitch when struck. It is held against or near the bones on the side of the head to assess both nerve & bone conduction of sound.
rods The sensory receptors of the retina that are active in dim light and do not perceive color.
saccule Found in the inner ear. It plays a role in equilibrium.
salpingitis eustachian tube inflammation
salpingotomy incision into the Eustachian tube
sclera tough protective outer layer of the eyeball. Also referred to as the white of the eye.
scleral buckling Placing a band of silicone around the outside of the sclera that stabilizes a detaching retina.
scleral pertaining to the sclera
scleritis inflammation of the sclera
scleromalacia softening of the sclera
sclerotomy incision into the sclera
sebaceous glands Also called oil glands. They produce a substance called sebum that lubricates the skin surface.
semicircular canals A portion of the labyrinth associated with balance and equilibrium.
sensorineural hearing loss Type of hearing loss in which the sound is conducted normally through the external & middle ear but there’s a defect in the inner ear or w/the cochlear nerve, resulting in the inability to hear. A hearing aid may help.
slit lamp microscopy Examining the posterior surface of the cornea.
Snellen chart Chart used for testing distance vision named for Dutch ophthalmologist Hermann Snellen.It contains letters or varying sizes & is administered from a distance of 20 ft.A person who can read @ 20 ft what the average person can read @ 20 ft has 20/20 vision.
stapedectomy removal of the stapes
stapes One of the three ossicles of the middle ear. It is attached to the oval window leading to the inner ear. Also called the stirrup.
strabismus Eye muscle weakness commonly seen in children resulting in the eyes looking in different directions at the same time. May be corrected w/glasses, eye exercises, and/or surgery.
strabotomy incision into the eye muscles in order to correct strabismus.
tears Fluid that washes and lubricates the anterior surface of the eyeball.
tinnitus ringing in the ears
tonometry Measurement of the intraocular pressure of the eye using a tonometer to check for glaucoma. The physician places a tonometer lightly on the eyeball & a pressure measurement is taken. Generally part of a normal eye exam for adults.
trachoma Chronic infectious disease of the cunjunctiva & cornea caused by bacteria. Occurs more commonly in those living in hot, dry climates. Untreated, it may lead to blindness when the scarring invades the cornea. Can be treated w/antibiotics.
tympanectomy removal of the eardrum
tympanic pertaining to the eardrum
tympanic membrane the eardrum
tympanitis eardrum inflammation
tympanometer instrument to measure eardrum
typanometry measurement of eardrum w/tympanometer
tympanoplasty surgical repair of the eardrum
tympanorrhexis eardrum rupture
tympanotomy incision into the eardrum
utricle Found in the inner ear. It plays a role in equilibrium.
uveitis inflammation of the choroid
vertigo dizziness
vestibular nerve The branch of the vestibulocochlear nerve responsible for sending equilibrium information to the brain.
vestibulocochlear nerve The 8th cranial nerve. It is responsible for hearing & balance.
visual acuity (VA) test Measurement of the sharpness of a patient's vision. Usually, a Snellen chart is used for this test in which the patient identifies letters from a distance of 20 ft.
vitreous humor The transparent jelly-like substance inside the eyeball.
wax emulsifiers Substances that soften ear wax to prevent buildup in the external ear canal.
xerophthalmia Dry eyes.
abnormal psychology The study & treatment of behaviors that are outside of normal & detrimental to the person or society. These maladaptive behaviors range from occasional difficulty coping with stress, to bizarre actions & beliefs, to total withdrawal.
active exercise exercises that a patient performs without assistance
active range of motion (AROM) range of motion for joints that a patient is able to perform without assistance from someone else
active-resistive exercises exercises in which the patients work against resistance applied to a muscle such as a weight. Used to increase strength
activities of daily living activities performed in the course of a normal day, like getting dressed, eating, etc.
adaptive equipment modification of equipment or devices to improve the function and independence of a person with a disability
addiction Acquired dependence on a drug.
additive Sum of the action of 2 or more drugs given. In this case, the total strength of the medications is equal to the sum of the strength of each individual drug.
aerosol Drugs inhaled directly into the nose and mouth.
Alzheimer's disease Cognitive disorder. Organic mental disease prevalent in adults 40-60. Causes apathy, speech disturbances, loss of memory, etc.
amnesia Dissociative disorder Amnesia is loss of memory.
analgesic medication to relieve pain
anesthesia Partial or complete loss of sensation with or without a loss of consciousness as a result of a drug, disease, or injury.
anesthesiologist physician who has a specialization in the practice of administering anesthetics.
anesthetic medication to produce partial to complete loss of sensation
anorexia nervosa refusal to eat
anteposterior view positioning the patient so the x-rays pass through the body from the anterior side to the posterior side
antidepressant drug Drugs that alter the patient's mood by affecting levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. These drugs are classified as stimulants. MAO inhibitors are an example of a type of antidepressant.
antidote Substance that will neutralize poisons or their side effects.
antipsychotic drugs Drugs use to treat patients with psychoses and schizophrenia. Thorazine and Haldol are examples.
antisocial personality disorder behaviors that are against legal or social norms.
anxiety A feeling of apprehension or worry.
anxiety disorders Characterized by persistent worry and apprehension; includes panic attacks, anxiety, phobias, and obsessive-compulsive disorder.
aspirator A surgical instrument used to suction fluids.
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Inattention and impulsive behavior. Diagnosed in childhood.
autism extreme withdrawal. Diagnosed in childhood.
barium (Ba) Soft metallic element from the earth used as a radiopaque X-ray dye.
benign A tumor that is not cancerous. A benign tumor is generally not progressive or recurring.
biopsy excision of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination to assist in determining a diagnosis.
bipolar disorder (BPD) Alternation between periods of deep depression and mania.
body mechanics use of good posture and position while performing activities of daily living to prevent injury and stress on body parts
brand name The name a pharmaceutical company chooses as the trademark or market name for its drug. Also called proprietary or trade name.
broad spectrum Ability of a drug to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms.
buccal Drugs that are placed under the lip or between the cheek and gum.
bulimia binge eating and intentional vomiting
carcinogen substance or chemical agent that produces or increases the risk of developing cancer. For example, cigarette smoke and insecticides are carcinogens.
carcinoma in situ (CIS) Malignant tumor that has not extended beyond the original site.
cauterization using heat, cold, electricity, or chemicals to scar, burn, or cut tissues.
chemical name The name for a drug based on its chemical formula or molecular structure.
chemotherapy treating disease by using chemicals that have a toxic effect on the body, especially cancerous tissue.
circulating nurse nurse who assists the surgeon & scrub nurse by providing needed materials during the procedure & by handling the surgical specimen. This person doesn’t wear sterile clothing & may enter & leave the operating room during the procedure.
clamp A surgical instrument used to grasp tissue and control bleeding.
clinical psychologist Diagnoses & treats mental disorders; specializes in using individual & group counseling to treat patients with mental &¬ emotional disorders
cognitive disorders Deterioration of mental functions due to temporary brain or permanent brain dysfunction; includes dementia & Alzheimer's disease; also called organic mental disease.
computed tomography scan (CT scan) an imaging technique that is able to produce a cross-sectional view of the body. X-ray pictures are taken at multiple angles through the body. A computer then uses all these images to construct a composite cross-section.
contraindication Condition in which a particular drug shouldn't be used.
contrast studies radiopaque substance is injected or swallowed. X-rays are then taken that will outline the body structure containing the radiopaque substances. For example, angiograms and myelograms
controlled substances Drugs that have a potential for being addictive or can be abused.
conversion reaction anxiety is transformed into physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, paralysis, or blindness.
cryosurgery technique of exposing tissue to extreme cold to produce cell injury & destruction. Used in the treatment of malignant tumors or to control pain and bleeding.
cryotherapy using cold for therapeutic purposes
cumulative action Action that occurs in the body when a drug is allowed to accumulate or stay in the body.
curette A surgical instrument used to scrape and remove tissue.
cytologic testing examination of cells to determine their structure and origin. Pap smears are a form of cytologic testing.
day surgery type of outpatient surgery in which the patient is discharged on the same day he/she is admitted. Also called ambulatory surgery.
debridement removal of dead or damaged tissue from a wound. Commonly performed for burn therapy
delusions A false belief held even in the face of contrary evidence
dementia Cognitive disorder. Progressive confusion and disorientation. Dementia is an organic mental disease.
dilator A surgical instrument used to enlarge an opening by stretching.
disorders diagnosed in infancy and childhood Mental disorders associated with childhood; includes mental retardation, attention deficit disorder, & autism.
dissection surgical cutting of parts for separation and study.
dissociative disorder disorder in which severe emotional conflict is so repressed that a split in personality occurs.
Doppler ultrasonography use of ultrasound to record the velocity of blood flowing through blood vessels. Used to detect blood clots and blood vessel obstructions
draping process of covering the patient with sterile cloths that allow only to operative site to be exposed to the surgeon.
Drug Enforcement Agency The government agency that enforces regulation of controlled substances.
drug interaction Occurs when the effect of one drug is altered because it was taken at the same time as another drug.
drug tolerance Decrease in susceptibility to a drug after continued use of the drug.
eardrops drops placed directly into the ear canal to relieve pain or treat infection.
eating disorders Abnormal behaviors related to eating; includes anorexia nervosa & bulimia.
electrocautery use of an electric current to stop bleeding by coagulating blood vessels.
electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Procedure occasionally used for prolonged major depression. This controversial treatment involves placing an electrode on one or both sides of a patient's head & turning a current on briefly to cause a convulsive seizure.
electromyogram (EMG) graphic recording of the contraction of a muscle. The result of applying an electrical stimulation to the muscle
encapsulated growth enclosed in a sheath of tissue that prevents tumor cells from invading surrounding tissue.
endoscopic surgery use of a lighted instrument to examine the interior of a cavity.
ergonomics study of human work including how the requirements for performing work and the work environment affect the musculoskeletal and nervous system
exploratory surgery surgery performed for the purpose of determining if cancer is present or if a known cancer has spread. Biopsies are generally performed.
explosive disorder Impulse control disorder. Violent rages.
eyedrops drops placed in the eye to control eye pressure in glaucoma. Also used during eye exams to dilate the pupil of the eye.
factitious disorders Intentionally feigning illness symptoms in order to gain attention such as malingering.
family and group psychotherapy solution focused therapy where the therapist places minimal emphasis on patient history & strong emphasis on having patient state goals & find ways to achieve them.
film badge Badge containing film that is sensitive to X-rays. This is worn by all personnel in radiology to measure the amount of X-rays to which they are exposed.
film Thin sheet of cellulose material coated with a light-sensitive substance that is used in taking photographs. There is a special photographic film that's sensitive to X-rays.
fine motor skills use of precise and coordinated movements in such activities such as writing, buttoning, and cutting
Fluoroscopy X-rays strike a fluorescing screen rather than a photographic plate, causing it to glow. The glowing screen changes from minute to minute, therefore movement, such as the heart beating or the digestive tract moving, can be seen
forceps A surgical instrument used to grasp tissues.
Fowler position Surgical position in which the patient is sitting with back positioned at a 45 degree angle.
gait manner of walking
gait training assisting a patient to learn to walk again or how to use an assistive device to walk
general anesthesia General anesthesia produces a loss of consciousness including an absence of pain sensation. The patient's vital signs are carefully monitored when using a general anesthetic.
generic name The recognized and accepted official name for a drug. Each drug has only one generic name. This name is not subject to trademark, so any pharmaceutical manufacturer may use it. Also called nonproprietary name.
grade A tumor can be graded from grade I - IV. The grade is based on the microscopic appearance of the tumor cells. A grade I tumor is well differentiated & easier to treat than the more advanced grades.
gross motor skills use of large muscle groups that coordinate body movements such as walking, running, jumping, and balance
habituation Development of an emotional dependence on a drug due to repeated use.
hallucinations perceiving something that isn't there.
hemostasis stopping the flow of blood using instruments, pressure, and/or medication.
hemostat A surgical instrument used to grasp blood vessels to control bleeding.
hormone therapy treatment of cancer with natural hormones or with chemicals that produce hormonelike effects.
humanistic psychotherapy Therapist doesn't delve into patient's past. Instead, it's believed the patient can learn how to use their own internal resources to deal w/problems. Also called client-centered or nondirective psychotherapy
hydrotherapy application of warm water as a therapeutic treatment. Can be done in baths, swimming pools, and whirlpools
hyperplasia excessive development of normal cells within an organ.
hypochondria preoccupation with health concerns
iatrogenic Usually an unfavorable response resulting from taking a medication.
idiosyncrasy Unusual or abnormal response to a drug or food.
immunotherapy strengthening the immune system to attack cancerous cells.
impulse control disorder inability to resist an impulse to perform an act that’s harmful to self or others.
inhalation To breathe air into the lungs. Also called inspiration.
insomnia sleeping disorder. Inability to sleep
intracavitary Injection into a body cavity such as the peritoneal and chest cavity.
intradermal Pertaining to within the skin.
intramuscular pertaining to within the muscles
intraoperative period of time during surgery.
intrathecal Injection into the meninges space surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
intravenous Injection into the veins.
invasive disease tendency of malignant tumor to spread to immediately surrounding tissue and organs.
kleptomania Impulse control disorder. Kleptomania is stealing.
laser surgery use of a controlled beam of light for cutting, hemostasis, or tissue destruction.
lateral recumbent position Lying on either the left or right side.
lateral view Positioning of the patient so that the side of the body faces the X-ray machine.
lithium Special category of drug used successfully to calm patients who suffer from bipolar disorder.
lithotomy position Lying face up with hips and knees bent at 90 degree angles.
local anesthesia Local anesthesia produces a loss of sensation in one localized part of the body. The patient remains conscious when this type of anesthetic is used.
Lower extremity (LE) refers to one of the legs
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use of electromagnetic energy to produce an image of soft tissues in any plane of the body. When the body is exposed to this magnetic field the nuclei of the body’s atoms emit radio-frequency signals that can be used to create an image
major depression Mood disorder. Instability in mood with suicide potential.
malignant A tumor that is cancerous. Malignant tumors are generally progressive & recurring.
malingering Factitious disorder. Pretending to be ill or injured to gain attention.
mania Mood disorder. Extreme elation
masochism gratification derived from being hurt or abused
massage kneading or applying pressure by hands to a part of the patient’s body to promote muscle relaxation and reduce tension
mental retardation sub-average intellectual functioning. Diagnosed in childhood.
metastasis (mets) movement and spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another. Metastases is plural.
minor tranquilizers Valium, Xanax. Classified as central nervous system depressants and prescribed for anxiety.
mobility state of having normal movement of all body parts
mobilization treatments such as exercise & massage to restore movement to joints & soft tissue
moist hot packs applying moist warmth to body part to produce the slight dilation of blood vessels in the skin. Causes muscle relaxation in the deeper regions of the body and increases circulation, which aids in healing
mood disorders Characterized by instability in mood; includes major depression, mania, & bipolar disorder.
morbidity number representing the sick persons in a particular population.
mortality number representing the deaths in a particular population.
multiple personality disorder Dissociative disorder. Having 2 or more distinct personalities.
mutation change or transformation from the original.
narcissistic personality disorder abnormal sense of self-importance.
neoplasm new and abnormal growth or tumor that can be benign or malignant.
nerve conduction velocity test to determine if nerves have been damaged by recording the rate at which an electrical impulse travels along a nerve. If the nerve is damaged, the velocity will be decreased.
nonproprietary name The recognized and accepted official name for a drug. Each drug has only one generic name, which is not subject to trademark, so any pharmaceutical manufacturer may use it. Also called generic name.
normal psychology Behaviors that include how the personality develops, how people handle stress, and the stages of mental development.
nuclear medicine use of radioactive substances to Dx diseases.A radioactive substance known to accumulate in certain body tissues is injected or inhaled. After the substance travels & arrives at the area of interest, radioactivity level is recorded.Commonly called a scan.
nurse anesthetist A registered nurse who has received additional training and education in the administration of anesthetic medications.
oblique view Positioning of the patient so that the X-rays pass through the body at an angle.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Anxiety disorder. Performing repetitive rituals to reduce anxiety.
occupational therapy Assists patients to regain, develop, and improve skills that are important for independent functioning.
oncogenic Cancer causing
oncology The branch of medicine dealing with tumors.
operative report A medical record report from the surgeon detailing an operation. It includes a pre- and postprocedure itself, and how the patient tolerated the procedure.
oral pertaining to the mouth
organic mental disease Deterioration of mental functions due to temporary brain or permanent brain dysfunction; includes dementia and Alzheimer's disease; also called cognitive disorders.
orthotics use of equipment, such as splints and braces, to support a paralyzed muscle, promote a specific motion, or correct musculoskeletal deformities
over-the-counter drug Drugs that are accessible in drugstores without a prescription. Also called nonprescription drugs.
pain control managing pain through a variety of means, including medications, biofeedback, and mechanical devices
palliative therapy treatment designed to reduce the intensity of painful symptoms, but does not produce a cure.
panic attack Anxiety disorder. Feeling of intense apprehension, terror, or sense of impending danger.
paranoid personality disorder exaggerated feelings of persecution
passive aggressive personality indirect expression of hostility or anger.
Passive range of motion (PROM) therapist putting a patient’s joints through available range of motion without assistance from the patient
pathological gambling Impulse control disorder. Inability to stop gambling.
pathologist A physician who specializes in evaluating specimens removed from living or dead patients.
pedophilia sexual interest in children
perioperative period of time that includes before, during, and after a surgical procedure.
personality disorder Inflexible or maladaptive behavior patterns that affect person's ability to function in society.
pharmaceutical Related to medications or pharmacies.
pharmacist Receives drug requests made by physicians, & gathers information that would affect the dispensing of certain drugs, reviews patients' medications for drug interactions, provides health care workers w/information regarding drugs, & educates the public.
pharmacology Study of the origins, nature, properties, and effects of drugs on the living organism.
phobias Anxiety disorder. Irrational fear, such as arachnophobia, or fear of spiders.
phonophoresis use of ultrasound waves to introduce medication across the skin and into the subcutaneous tissues
physical medicine branch of medicine focused on restoring function. Primarily cares for patients with musculoskeletal and nervous disorders. Physician is a physiatrist
physical therapy Treating disorders using physical means and methods. Physical therapy personnel assess joint motion, muscle strength and endurance, function of heart and lungs, and performance of activities required in daily living.
placebo Inactive, harmless substance used to satisfy a patient's desire for medication. This is also used in research when given to a control group in a study in which another group receives a drug. The effect of the placebo versus the drug is observed.
Positron emission tomography (PET) image is produced following injection of radioactive glucose.The glucose accumulates in areas of high metabolic activity. so the process highlights areas that are consuming a large quantity of glucose.This may show an active area of the brain or a tumor.
posteroanterior view Positioning of the patient so that the X-rays pass through the body from the posterior side to the anterior side.
postoperative (post-op) period of time immediately following the surgery.
Postural drainage with clapping draining secretions from the bronchi or a lung cavity by having the patient lie so that gravity allows drainage to occur. Clapping is using the hand in a cupped position to perform percussion on the chest. Assists in loosening secretions and mucus
potentiation Giving a patient a second drug to boost (potentiate) the effect of another drug. The total strength of the drugs is greater than the sum of the strength of the individual drugs.
preop, pre-op preoperative
preoperative (preop, pre-op) period of time preceding surgery.
prescription A written explanation to the pharmacist regarding the name of the medication, the dosage, and the times of administration.
prescription drug A drug that can only be ordered by a licensed physician, dentist, or vet.
primary site term used to designate where a malignant tumor first appeared.
probe A surgical instrument used to explore tissue.
prone Directional term meaning lying horizontally facing downward.
prophylaxis Prevention of a disease. For example, an antibiotic can be used to prevent the occurrence of disease.
proprietary name trade name of a drug
prosthetics artificial devices, such as limbs and joints, that replace a missing body part
protocol The actual plan of care, including the medications, surgeries, and treatments for the care of a patient.
psychiatric nurse A nurse with additional training in the care of patients with mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders.
psychiatric social worker A social worker with additional training in the care of patients with mental, emotional, or behavioral disorders.
psychiatrist A physician with specialized training in diagnosing and treating mental disorders; prescribes medication and conducts counseling.
psychiatry The branch of medicine that deals w/the Dx, Tx, & prevention of mental disorders.
psychoanalysis Developed by Freud. Method of obtaining a detailed account of past & present emotional & mental experiences from the patient to determine the source of the problem & eliminate effects.
psychology The study of human behavior and thought process. This behavioral science is primarily concerned w/understanding how human beings interact w/ their physical environment & w/each other.
psychopharmacology Study of the effects of drugs on the mind and particularly the use of drugs in treating mental disorders.
psychotherapy A method of treating mental disorders by mental rather than chemical physical means.
pyromania Impulse control disorder. Setting fires.
radiation therapy Exposing tumors and surrounding tissues to X-rays or gamma rays to interfere w/their ability to multiply.
radical surgery extensive surgery to remove as much tissue associated with a tumor as possible.
radioactive implant embedding a radioactive source directly into tissue to provide a highly localized radiation dosage to damage nearby cancerous cells. Also called brachytherapy.
radiography Making of X-ray pictures.
radioisotope Radioactive form of an element.
radiologist Physician who uses images to diagnose abnormalities and radiant energy to treat various conditions such as cancer.
radiology use of high energy radiation, X-rays, to expose a photographic plate. The image is a black and white picture with radiopaque structures such as bone appearing and radiolucent tissue such as muscles appearing dark.
radiolucent Structures that allow X-rays to pass through; expose the photographic plate and appear as black areas on the X-ray.
radiopaque Structures that are impenetrable to X-rays, appearing as a light area on the radiograph (X-ray).
range of motion (ROM) range of movement of a joint, from maximum flexion through maximum extension. It is measured as degrees of a circle
rectal Drug introduced directly into the rectal cavity in the form of suppositories or solution.
regional anesthesia nerve block. This anesthetic interrupts a patient's pain sensation in a particular region of the body.
rehabilitation process of treatment and exercise that can help a person with a disability attain maximum function and well-being
relapse return of disease symptoms after a period of improvement.
remission period during which symptoms of a disease or disorder leave. Can be temporary.
resection to surgically cut out or remove; excision
roentgen Unit for describing an exposure dose of radiation.
roentgenology x-rays
scalpel A surgical instrument used to cut and separate tissue.
scan Recording on a photographic plate the emission of radioactive waves after a substance has been injected into the body.
Schedule I Drugs w/highest potential for addiction or abuse. Not accepted for medical use.
Schedule II Drugs w/high potential for addiction or abuse. Accepted for medical use. Codeine, morphine.
Schedule III Drugs w/moderate to low potential for addiction or abuse. Acetaminophen w/codeine.
Schedule IV Drugs w/lower potential for addiction or abuse than Schedule III.
Schedule V Drugs w/low potential for addiction and abuse.
Schizophrenia Mental disorders characterized by distortions of reality, such as delusions and hallucinations.
scrub nurse surgical assistant who hands instruments to the surgeon.
sexual disorders disorders including aberrant sexual activity and sexual dysfunction.
shield protective device used to protect against radiation.
side effect Response to a drug other than the effect desired. Also called adverse reaction.
sleeping disorder disorder related to sleeping.
sleepwalking getting up and walking around unaware while sleeping.
somatoform disorder patient has physical symptoms for which no physical disease can be determined.
speculum A surgical instrument used to spread apart walls of a cavity.
staging The process of classifying tumors based on their degree of tissue invasion and the potential response to therapy.
staging laparotomy surgical procedure in which the abdomen is entered to determine the extent and staging of a tumor.
subcutaneous Pertaining to under the skin.
sublingual under the tongue
substance-related disorders overindulgence or dependence on chemical substances including alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs.
supine Directional term meaning lying horizontally and facing upward.
suppositories A method for administering medication by placing it in a substance that will melt after being placed in a body cavity, usually rectally, & release the medication.
surgeon A physician who has completed additional training of 5 years or more in a surgical specialty area.
surgery The branch of medicine dealing with operative procedures to correct deformities and defects, repair injuries, and diagnose and cure diseases.
suture material Used to close a wound or incision. Catgut, silk thread, staples are examples. They may or may not be removed when the wound heals, depending on type of material used.
tagging Attaching a radioactive material to a chemical, and tracing it as it moves through the body.
tenacululm A long-handled clamp surgical instrument.
therapeutic exercise exercise planned and carried out to achieve a specific physical benefit, such as improved range of motion, muscle strength, or cardiovascular function
thermotherapy applying heat to the body for therapeutic purposes
tolerance Development of a capacity for withstanding a large amount of a substance, such as foods, drugs, or poison, without any adverse effect. A decrease sensitivity to further doses will develop.
topical Applied directly to the skin or mucous membranes. They are distributed in ointment, cream, or lotion form. Used to treat skin infections and eruptions.
topical anesthesia anesthesia applied directly to the skin.
toxicity Extent or degree to which a substance is poisonous
traction process of pulling or drawing, usually with a mechanical device. Used in treating orthopedic (bone and joint) problems and injuries
trademark A pharmaceutical company’s brand name for a drug.
transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application of an electric current to a peripheral nerve to relieve pain
transdermal Route of drug administration; medication coats the underside of a patch that is applied to the skin. The medication is then absorbed across the skin.
Trendelenburg position A surgical position in which the patient is lying face up and on an incline with the head lower than the legs.
trephine A surgical saw used to remove the disk-shaped piece of tissue.
tumor Abnormal growth of tissue that may be benign or malignant. Also called a neoplasm.
ultrasound (US) use of high frequency sound waves to create heat in soft tissues under the skin. It is particularly useful in treating injuries to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, as well as muscle spasms.
unit dose drug dosage system that provides prepackaged, prelabeled, individual medications ready for immediate use by the patient.
Upper extremity (UE) refers to one of the arms
uptake Absorption of radioactive material and medicines into an organ or tissue.
vaginal pertaining to the vagina
voyeurism gratification from observing others engaged in sexual acts
whirlpool bath in which there are continuous jets of hot water reaching the body surfaces
X-ray High-energy wave that can penetrate most solid matter and present the image on a photographic film.
Created by: AltheaMathews