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FINAL Chap 1-4 Terms

FINAL Chapter Terms

QuestionAnswer
acute care hospitals Hospitals providing services to diagnose & treat diseases for a short period of time. They also provide emergency & obstetrical care.
ambulatory care centers Clinics that provide services that don't require overnight hospitalization. Services include simple surgeries, diagnostic testing, or therapy.
ancillary reports reports from various treatments and therapies the patient has received, such as rehabilitation, social services, or respiratory therapy.
anesthesiologist's report relates the details regarding substances given to a patient, the patient's response to anesthesia, and vital signs during surgery.
combining form The word root, or foundation of a medical term, and its combining vowel. The combining form is written in a word root/vowel form.
combining vowel Vowel that links the word root to another word root or suffix in medical terms.
consultation report report given by specialists whom the physician has asked to evaluate the patient.
diagnostic reports results of diagnostic tests performed on the patient, principally from the clinical lab & medical imaging.
discharge summary comprehensive outline of the patient's entire hospital stay; includes condition at time of admission, admitting diagnosis, test results, treatments & patient's responses, final diagnosis, & follow up plans.
general hospitals Same as acute care hospitals. Provide services to diagnose & treat diseases for a short period of time. They also provide emergency & obstetric care.
health maintenance organization (HMO) Provides a wide range of services by a group of primary-care physicians, specialists, & other healthcare professionals in a prepaid system.
history and physical Written & dictated by admitting physician; details patient's history, results of physician's exam, initial diagnosis, & plan of treatment.
home health care provides nursing, therapy, personal care, or housekeeping services in the patient's home.
hospices provides supportive treatment to terminally ill patients and their families.
informed consent document voluntarily signed by the patient or a responsible party that clearly describes the purpose, methods, procedures, benefits, and risks of diagnostic or treatment procedure.
long-term care facilities provide long-term care for patients who need extra time to recover from an illness or injury before returning home, or for persons who can no longer care for themselves.
medical record (chart) A permanent physical record documenting a patient's daily condition, services received, & response to treatment. Each health care professional in contact w/the patient completes the appropriate report of that contact & adds it to the medical record.
nurse's notes Record of a patient's care throughout the day; includes vital signs, treatment specifics, patient's response to treatment, and patient's condition.
nursing homes facility providing long-term care for patients who need extra time to recover from an illness or injury before returning home, or for persons who can no longer care for themselves.
operative report report from a surgeon detailing an operation; includes pre- and postoperative Dx, specific details of the surgical procedure itself, & how the patient tolerated the procedure.
outpatient clinics Clinics that provide services that don't require overnight hospitalization. Services include simple surgeries, diagnostic testing, or therapy.
pathologist's report report given by a pathologist who studies tissue removed from the patient (bone marrow, blood, or tissue biopsy).
physician's offices provide Dx and Tx services in a private office setting.
physician's orders complete list of the care, medications, tests, and treatments the physician orders for the patient.
physician's progress notes physician's daily record of the patient's condition, results of the physician's examinations, summary of test results, updated assessment & Dx, & further plans for care.
prefix The beginning of a medical term
rehabilitation centers provide intense physical and occupational therapy. They include inpatient and outpatient Tx.
specialty care hospitals provide care for very specific types of diseases. For example, a psychiatric hospital.
suffix End of a medical term
surgical centers Clinics that provide services that don't require overnight hospitalization. Services include simple surgeries, diagnostic testing, or therapy.
word root the foundation of the medical term.
abdominal pertaining to the abdomen.
abdominal cavity superior portion of abdominopelvic cavity.
abdominal region Abdominal area containing abdominal cavity.
adipose Also called fat. Stores energy and provides protective padding.
anatomical position Position where the body is standing erect w/arms at side, palms facing forward, & eyes looking straight ahead. Legs are parallel, w/feet & toes pointing forward. Used to describe positions & relationships if a structure in the body.
anterior Near or on the front of the body.
apex directional term meaning tip or summit.
base Bottom or lower part.
blood component of hematic system containing watery plasma, red blood cells, and white blood cells
body Cells, tissues, organs, and systems working together to sustain life.
bone A type of connective tissue and organ of MS system. Provide support for body and serve as sites for muscle attachment.
brachial pertaining to the arm
brachial region the arm regions of the body.
brain organ that coordinates most of the body's activities. The center for thought, memory, judgment, and emotions.
cardiac muscle Involuntary muscle found in the heart.
cardiology Branch of medicine dealing with conditions of the cardiovascular system.
cardiovascular system system that transports blood to all areas of the body.
cartilage strong, flexible connective tissue found throughout the body.
caudal Directional term meaning toward the feet or tail.
cell the basic unit of all living things.
cell membrane the outermost boundary of a cell.
cephalic Directional term meaning toward the head.
cephalic region The head region of the body.
cervical pertaining to the neck or cervix.
cervical region The neck area of the body.
connective tissue The supporting and connecting tissue in body structures, like cartilage, bone, and adipose tissue.
coronal plane vertical plane that divides the body in front and back.
coronal section sectional view of the body produced by a cut along the frontal plane.
cranial pertaining to the skull.
cranial cavity Dorsal body cavity within the skull that contains the brain.
cross-section internal view of the body produced by a slice perpendicular to the long axis of the structure.
crural pertaining to the leg
crural region lower extremity region of the body
cytology study of cells
cytoplasm watery internal environment of the cell
deep directional term meaning away from the surface of the body.
dermatology branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the integumentary system
diaphragm Major muscle of inspiration separating the thoracic from the abdominal cavity
digestive system system that digests food and absorbs nutrients
distal directional term meaning located farthest from point of attachment to the body
dorsal Directional term meaning near or on the back or spinal cord of the body
dorsum posterior region of the back of the body
endocrine system system consisting of glands that secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream
endocrinology branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the endocrine system.
epigastric pertaining to above the stomach
epithelial tissue tissue found throughout the body as the skin, the outer covering of organs, & inner lining for tubular or hollow structures.
epithelium epithelial tissue composed of close-packed cells that form the covering for and lining of body structures.
female reproductive system system responsible for producing eggs for reproduction & providing a place for a growing baby.
frontal plane vertical plane that divides the body into front and back. Also called coronal plane.
frontal section sectional view of the body produced by a cut along the frontal plane. Also called a coronal section.
gastroenterology branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the gastrointestinal system
gastrointestinal system (GI) System that digests food and absorbs nutrients. Organs include the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines, liver, gallbladder, and anus. Also called the digestive system.
gluteal pertaining to the buttocks
gluteal region Refers to the buttock region of the body.
gynecology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the female reproductive system.
hematic system The system that consists of plasma and blood cells-erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets; responsible for transporting oxygen, protecting against pathogens, and controlling bleeding.
hematology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the hematic system.
histology The study of tissues.
horizontal plane A horizontal plane that divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) sections. Also called the transverse plane.
hypogastric Pertaining to below the stomach. An anatomical division of the abdomen, the middle section of the bottom row.
immunology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the lymphatic and immune systems.
inferior Directional term meaning toward the feet or tail, or below.
integumentary system The skin and its appendages including sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails. Sense organs that allow us to respond to changes in temperature, pain, touch, and pressure are located in the skin. It is the largest organ in the body.
lateral Directional term meaning to the side.
left hypochondriac An anatomical division of the abdomen, the left side of the upper row.
left iliac An anatomical division of the abdomen, the left side of the upper row.
left lower quadrant A clinical division of the abdomen. It contains portions of small and large intestines, left ovary and fallopian tube, and left ureter.
left lumbar An anatomical division of the abdomen, the left side of the middle row.
left upper quadrant A clinical division of the abdomen. It contains the left lobe of the liver, spleen, stomach, portion of the pancreas, and portion of small and large intestines.
longitudinal section An internal view of the body produced by a lengthwise slice along the long axis of a structure.
lower extremities the legs
lymphatic system System that helps the body fight infection. Organs include the spleen, lymph vessels, and lymph nodes.
male reproductive system System responsible for producing sperm for reproduction; organs include testes, vas deferens, urethra, prostate gland, and penis.
medial Directional term meaning to the middle or near the middle of the body or the structure.
median plane Plane that runs lengthwise from front to back and divides the body or any of its parts into right and left portions; also called the sagittal plane.
mediastinum The central region of the chest cavity. It contains the organs between the lungs, including the heart, aorta, esophagus, and trachea.
muscle fibers he bundles of muscle tissue that form a muscle.
muscle tissue Tissue that is able to contract and shorten its length, thereby producing movement. Muscle tissue may be under voluntary control (attached to the bones) or involuntary control (heart and digestive organs).
muscular Pertaining to muscles.
musculoskeletal system System that provides support for the body and produces movement. Organs of the musculoskeletal system includes muscles, tendons, bones, joints, cartilage.
nephrology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the urinary system.
nerves Structures in the nervous system that conduct electrical impulses from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and other organs.
nervous system System that coordinates all the conscious and subconscious activities of the body. Organs include the brain, spinal cord, and nerves.
nervous tissue Nervous tissue conducts electrical impulses to and from the brain and the rest of the body.
neural Pertaining to nerves.
neurology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the nervous system.
neurons he name for an individual nerve cell. Neurons group together to form nerves and other nervous tissue.
neurosurgery Branch of medicine specializing in surgery on the nervous system.
nucleus Organelle of the cell that contains the DNA.
obstetrics (OB) Branch of medicine that treats women during pregnancy and childbirth, and immediately after childbirth.
ophthalmology Branch of medicine specializing in condition of the eye.
organic pertaining to the organs
organs A group of different types of tissue coming together to perform special functions. For example, the heart contains muscular fibers, nerve tissue, and blood vessels
orthopedic surgery surgery to treat conditions of the musculoskeletal system
orthopedics Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the musculoskeletal system.
otorhinolaryngology Branch of medicine that treats diseases of the ears, nose, and throat. Also referred to as ENT.
parietal layer Term meaning the outermost layer.
parietal peritoneum The outer layer of the serous membrane sac lining the abdominopelvic cavity.
parietal pleura The outer layer of the serous membrane sac lining the thoracic cavity.
pelvic Pertaining to the pelvis.
pelvic cavity The inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity.
pelvic region Lowest anterior region of the trunk.
pericardial cavity Cavity formed by the serous membrane sac surrounding the heart.
peritoneal pertaining to the peritoneum
peritoneum Membranous sac that lines the abdominal cavity and encases the abdominopelvic organs. The kidneys are an exception since they lay outside the peritoneum and alongside the vertebral column.
pleura A protective double layer of serous membrane around the lungs. The parietal membrane is the outer layer and the visceral layer is the inner membrane. It secretes a thin, watery fluid to reduce friction associated with lung movement.
pleural Pertaining to the pleura.
pleural cavity Cavity formed by the serous membrane sac surrounding the lungs.
posterior Directional term meaning near or on the back or spinal cord side of the body.
proctology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the lower gastrointestinal system.
prone Directional term meaning lying horizontally facing downward.
proximal Directional term meaning located closest to the point of attachment to the body.
pubic Pertaining to the pubis; one of the pelvic bones.
pubic region The genital region of the body.
pulmonology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the respiratory system.
respiratory system System that brings oxygen into the lungs and expels carbon dioxide. Organs include the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, and lungs.
right hypochondriac An anatomical division of the abdomen; the right upper row.
right iliac An anatomical division of the abdomen; the right lower row. Also called the right inguinal.
right lower quadrant A clinical division of the abdomen. It contains portions of small and large intestines, right ovary and fallopian tube, appendix, right ureter.
right lumbar An anatomical division of the abdomen, the right middle row.
right upper quadrant A clinical division of the abdomen. It contains the right lobe of the liver, the gallbladder, a portion of the pancreas, and portions of small and large intestine.
sagittal plane A vertical plane that divides the body into left and right sections.
sagittal section Sectional view of the body produced by a cut along the sagittal plane.
skeletal muscle A voluntary muscle that is attached to bones by a tendon.
smooth muscle An involuntary muscle found in internal organs such as the digestive organs or blood vessels.
somatic pertaining to the body
special senses The special sense organs perceive environmental conditions. The eyes, ears, nose, and tongue contain special sense organs.
spinal pertaining to the spine.
spinal cavity A dorsal body cavity within the spinal column that contains the spinal cord.
spinal cord The spinal cord provides a pathway for impulses traveling to and from the brain. It is a column of nerve fibers that extends from the medulla oblongata of the brain down to the level of the second lumbar vertebra.
superficial Directional term meaning toward the surface of the body.
superior Directional term meaning toward the head, or above.
supine Directional term meaning lying horizontally and facing upward.
systemic pertaining to a system
system several organs working in a compatible manner to perform a complex function.
tendon The strong connective tissue cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones.
thoracic pertaining to the chest
thoracic cavity A ventral body cavity in the chest area that contains the lungs and heart.
thoracic region The chest region of the body.
thoracic surgery Branch of medicine specializing in surgery on the respiratory system and thoracic cavity.
tissues Tissues are formed when cells of the same type are grouped to perform one activity. For example, nerve cells combine to form nerve fibers. There are four types of tissue: nerve, muscle, epithelial, and connective.
transverse plane A horizontal plane that divides the body into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) sections. Also called the horizontal plane.
transverse section Sectional view of the body produced by a cut along the transverse plane.
trunk The torso region of the body.
umbilical An anatomical division of the abdomen; the middle section of the middle row.
upper extremities arms
urinary system System that filters wastes from the blood and excretes the waste products in the form of urine. Organs include the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra.
urology Branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the urinary system and male reproductive system.
ventral Directional term meaning near or on the front or belly side of the body.
vertebral pertaining to the vertebrae
vertebral region The spinal column region of the body.
viscera The name for the internal organs of the body, such as the lungs, stomach, and liver.
visceral pertaining to the internal organs
visceral layer The inner pleural layer. It adheres to the surface of the lung.
visceral peritoneum The inner layer of the serous membrane sac encasing the abdominopelvic viscera.
visceral pleura The inner layer of the serous membrane sac encasing the thoracic viscera.
abrasion Scraping away a portion of the surface of the skin. Performed to remove acne scars, tattoos, and scar tissue.
abscess Swelling of soft tissues of the jaw as a result of infection.
acne Inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles that results in papules and pustules.
acne rosacea Hypertrophy of sebaceous glands causing thickened skin generally on the nose, forehead, and cheeks.
acne vulgaris A common form of acne occurring in adolescence from an oversecretion of the oil glands. It is characterized by papules, pustules, blackheads, and whiteheads.
albinism A condition in which the person not able to produce melanin. An albino person has white hair and skin and the pupils of the eye are red.
allograft Skin graft from one person to another; donor is usually a cadaver.
alopecia Absence or loss of hair, especially of the head.
anesthetic Produces a lack of feeling that may be of local or general effect, depending on the type of administration.
anhidrosis Abnormal condition of no sweat.
antibiotics Destroys or prohibits the growth of microorganisms. Used to treat bacterial infections. Have not been found to be effective in treating viral infections. To be effective must be taken regularly for a specified period.
antifungals Kill fungi infecting the skin.
antiparasitics Kill mites or lice.
antipruritics Reduce severe itching.
antiseptic Used to kill bacteria in skin cuts and wounds or at a surgical site.
anti-virals used to reduce viral activity/replication
apocrine glands Type of sweat glands that open into hair follicles located in the pubic, anal, and mammary areas. These glands secrete a substance that can produce an odor when it comes into contact w/bacteria on the skin causing what's commonly referred to as body odor.
arrector pili A small slip of smooth muscle attached to hairs; when this muscle contracts the hair shaft stands up and results in “goose bumps.”
autograft Skin graft from a person's own body.
basal cell carcinoma Tumor of the basal cell layer of the epidermis. A frequent type of skin cancer that rarely metastasizes or spreads. These cancers can arise on sun-exposed skin.
basal layer The deepest layer of the epidermis. This living layer constantly multiplies and divides to supply cells to replace the cells that are sloughed off the skin surface.
biopsy A piece of tissue is removed by syringe and needle, knife, punch, or brush to examine under a microscope. Used to aid in diagnosis.
burn A full-thickness burn exists when all the layers are burned; also called a 3rd degree burn. A partial-thickness burn exists when the first layer of skin, the epidermis, is burned, & the 2nd layer of skin, dermis,is damaged; also called a 2nd-degree burn.
carbuncle Inflammation and infection of the skin and hair follicle that may result from several untreated boils. Most commonly found on neck, upper back, or head.
cauterization Destruction of tissue using an electric current, a caustic product, or a hot iron, or by freezing.
cellulitis Inflammation of the cellular or connective tissues.
chemabrasion Abrasion using chemicals; also called a chemical peel.
cicatrix a scar
collagen fibers fibers made up of an insoluble fibrous protein present in connective tissue that forms a flexible mat to protect the skin and other parts of the body.
comedo Medical term for a blackhead. It is an accumulation of sebum in a sebaceous gland that has become blackened.
contusion Injury caused by a blow to the body; causes swelling, pain, and bruising; the skin is not broken.
corium The living layer of skin located between the epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue. Also referred to as the dermis, it contains hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerve fibers, and muscle fibers.
corticosteroid cream A powerful anti-inflammatory cream.
cryosurgery Exposing tissues to extreme cold in order to destroy them. Used in treating malignant tumors, and to control pain and bleeding.
culture and sensitivity A laboratory test in which a colony of pathogens that have been removed from an infected area are grown to identify the pathogen and then determine its sensitivity to a variety of antibiotics.
curettage Removal of superficial skin lesions with a curette (surgical instrument shaped like a spoon) or scraper.
cutaneous membrane Another term for the skin
cuticle The thin skin-like layer overlapping the base of a nail.
cyanosis Slightly bluish color of the skin due to a deficiency of oxygen and an excess of carbon dioxide in the blood. It is caused by a variety of disorder, ranging from chronic lung disease to congenital and chronic heart problems.
cyst Fluid-filled sac under the skin.
debridement Removal of foreign material and dead or damaged tissue from a wound.
decubitus ulcers Bedsores or pressure sores caused by pressure over bony prominences on the body. They are caused by a lack of blood flow.
depigmentation Loss of normal skin color or pigment.
dermabrasion Abrasion or rubbing using wire brushes or sandpaper.
dermatitis Inflammation of the skin.
dermatologist A physician specialized in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the integumentary system.
dermatology The branch of medicine specializing in conditions of the integumentary system
dermatome Instrument for cutting the skin or thin transplants of skin.
dermatopathy General term for skin disease.
dermatoplasty The surgical repair of the skin.
dermatosis The surgical repair of the skin.
dermis The living layer of skin between the epidermis & the subcutaneous tissue. It's also referred to as the corium or the true skin. It contains hair follicles, sweat glands, sebaceous glands, blood vessels, lymph vessels, nerve fibers, & muscle fibers.
diaphoresis Excessive or profuse sweating.
dry gangrene Late stages of gangrene characterized by the affected area becoming black and leathery.
ecchymosis Skin discoloration or bruise caused by blood collecting under the skin.
eczema Superficial dermatitis accompanied by papules, vesicles, and crusting.
electrocautery To destroy tissue with an electric current.
epidermal Pertaining to upon the skin.
epidermis The superficial layer of skin composed of squamous epithelium cells.
erythema Redness or flushing of the skin.
erythroderma Red skin
eschar A thick layer of dead tissue and tissue fluid that develops over a deep burn area.
exfoliative cytology Scraping cells from tissue and then examining them under a microscope.
fissure A deep groove or slit-type opening.
free edge The exposed edge of a nail that is trimmed when nails become too long.
frozen section A thin piece of tissue is cut from a frozen specimen for rapid examination under a microscope.
fungal scrapings Scrapings, taken with a curette or scraper, of tissue from lesions are placed on a growth medium and examined under a microscope to identify fungal growth.
furuncle Staphylococcal skin abscess with redness, pain, and swelling. Also called a boil.
gangrene Necrosis of the skin usually due to deficient blood supply.
hair A structure in the integumentary system.
hair follicle Cavities in the dermis that contain the hair root. Hair grows longer from the root.
hair root Deeper cells that divide to grow a hair longer.
hair shaft Older keratinized cells that form most of the length of a hair.
heterograft Skin graft from an animal of another species (usually a pig) to a human; also called a xenograft.
hirsutism Excessive hair growth over the body.
hyperemia Redness of the skin caused by increased blood flow to the skin.
hyperhidrosis Abnormal condition of excessive sweat
hyperpigmentation Abnormal amount of pigmentation in the skin, which is seen in diseases such as acromegaly and adrenal insufficiency.
hypodermic Pertaining to under the skin.
hypodermis The deepest layer of skin; composed primarily of adipose.
ichthyoderma Dry and scaly skin condition.
ichthyosis Condition in which the skin becomes dry, scaly, and keratinized.
impetigo A highly contagious staphylococcal skin infection, most commonly occurring on the faces of children. It begins as blisters that then rupture and dry into a thick, yellow crust.
incision and drainage Making an incision to create an opening for the drainage of material such as pus.
integument Another term for skin.
integumentary system The skin and its appendages including sweat glands, oil glands, hair, and nails. Sense organs that allow us to respond to changes in temperature, pain, touch, and pressure are located in the skin. It is the largest organ in the body.
intradermal Pertaining to within the skin.
Kaposi's Sarcoma Form of skin cancer frequently seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Consists of brownish-purple papules that spread from the skin and metastasize to internal organs.
keloid Formation of a scar after an injury or surgery that results in a raised, thickened red area.
keratin A hard protein substance produced by the body. It is found in hair and nails, and filling the inside of epidermal cells.
keratosis Overgrowth and thickening of the epithelium.
laceration a torn or jagged wound
laser therapy Removal of skin lesions and birthmarks using a laser beam that emits intense heat and power at a close range. The laser converts frequencies of light into one small, powerful beam.
lesion A general term for a wound, injury, or abnormality.
leukoderma Disappearance of pigment from the skin in patches, causing a milk-white appearance. Also called vitiligo.
lipectomy Surgical removal of fat.
lipocytes Medical term for cells that contain fat molecules.
lipoma Fatty tumor that generally does not metastasize.
liposuction Removal of fat beneath the skin by means of suction.
lunula The lighter colored, half-moon region at the base of a nail.
macule Flat, discolored area that is flush with the skin surface. An example would be a freckle or a birthmark.
malignant melanoma Malignant, darkly pigmented tumor or mole of the skin.
melanin The black color pigment in the skin. It helps to prevent the sun's ultraviolet rays from entering the body.
melanocytes Special cells in the basal layer of the epidermis. They contain the black pigment melanin that gives skin its color and protects against the ultraviolet rays of the sun.
melanoma Also called malignant melanoma. A dangerous form of skin cancer caused by an overgrowth of melanin in a melanocyte. It may metastasize or spread. Exposure to ultraviolet light is a risk factor for developing melanoma.
nail bed Connects nail body to connective tissue underneath.
nail body Flat plate of keratin that forms most of the nails.
nail root Base of a nail; nails grow longer from the root.
nails A structure in the integumentary system.
necrosis Dead tissue
nevus A structure in the integumentary system.
nodule Solid, raised group of cells.
onychectomy Excision of a nail.
onychia Infected nailbed.
onychomalacia Softening of the nails
onychomycosis abnormal condition of nail fungus
onychophagia nail biting
pallor abnormally pale skin
papule Small, solid, circular raised spot on the surface of the skin, often as a result of an inflammation in an oil gland.
paronychia Infection around a nail.
pathogens Disease-bearing organisms.
pediculosis Infestation with lice.
perspiration Another term for sweating.
petechiae Flat, pinpoint, purplish spots from bleeding under the skin.
photosensitivity Condition in which the skin reacts abnormally when exposed to light such as the ultraviolet rays of the sun.
plastic surgery Surgical specialty involved in repair, reconstruction, or improvement of body structures such as the skin that are damaged, missing, or misshapen. Physician is a plastic surgeon.
pruritus Severe itching
psoriasis Chronic inflammatory condition consisting of crusty papules forming patches with circular borders.
purpura Hemorrhages into the skin and mucous membranes.
purulent Pus-filled sputum, which can be the result of infection.
pustule Raised spot on the skin containing pus.
pyoderma Pus producing skin infection.
pyogenic pus-forming
rhytidectomy Surgical removal of excess skin to eliminate wrinkles. Commonly referred to as a facelift.
rhytidoplasty Excision of wrinkles.
rubella Contagious viral skin infection; commonly called German measles.
scabies Contagious skin disease caused by an egg-laying mite that causes intense itching; often seen in children.
scleroderma Disorder in which the skin becomes taut, thick, and leather-like.
sebaceous cyst Sac under the skin filled with sebum or oil from a sebaceous gland. This can grow to a large size and may need to be excised.
sebaceous gland Also called oil glands. They produce a substance called sebum that lubricates the skin surface.
seborrhea Excessive discharge of sebum.
sebum Thick oily substance secreted by sebaceous glands that lubricates the skin to prevent drying out. When sebum accumulates, it can cause congestion in the sebaceous glands & whiteheads or pimples may form. When sebum becomes dark it's called a blackhead.
sensory receptors Nerve fibers that are located directly under the surface of the skin. These receptors detect temperature, pain, touch, and pressure. The messages for these sensations are conveyed to the brain and spinal cord from the nerve endings in the skin.
skin The major organ of the integumentary system. It forms a barrier between the external and internal environments.
skin graft The transfer of skin from a normal area to cover another site. Used to treat burn victims and after some surgical procedures.
squamous cell carcinoma Epidermal cancer that may go into deeper tissue but does not generally metastasize.
stratified squamous epithelium Describes the layers of flat or scale-like cells found in the epidermis. Stratified means multiple layers and squamous means flat.
strawberry hemangioma Congenital collection of dilated blood vessels causing a red birthmark that fades a few months after birth.
subcutaneous Pertaining to under the skin.
subcutaneous layer This is the deepest layer of the skin where fat is formed. This layer of fatty tissue protects the deeper tissues of the body and acts as an insulation for heat and cold.
sudoriferous glands The typical sweat glands of the skin.
suppurative Containing or producing pus.
sweat duct Duct leading from a sweat gland to the surface of the skin; carries sweat.
sweat glands Glands that produce sweat, which assists the body in maintaining its internal temperature by creating a cooling effects when it evaporates.
sweat pore The surface opening of a sweat duct.
systemic lupus erythematosus Chronic disease of the connective tissue that injures the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system, and mucous membranes. May produce a characteristic butterfly rash across the cheeks and nose.
tinea Fungal skin disease resulting in itching, scaling lesions.
tinea capitis Fungal infection of the scalp; commonly called ringworm.
tinea pedis Fungal infection of the foot; commonly called athlete's foot.
trichomycosis Abnormal condition of hair fungus.
ulcer Open sore or lesion in skin or mucous membrane.
ungual Pertaining to the nails.
urticaria Hives, a skin eruption of pale reddish wheals (circular elevations of the skin) with severe itching. Usually associated with food allergy, stress, or drug reactions.
varicella Contagious viral skin infection; commonly called chickenpox.
verruca Warts; a benign neoplasm (tumor) caused by a virus. Has a rough surface that is removed by chemicals and/or laser therapy.
vesicle Small, fluid-filled raised spot on the skin.
vitiligo Disappearance of pigment from the skin in patches, causing a milk-white appearance. Also called leukoderma.
wet gangrene Area of gangrene becoming infected by pus-producing bacteria.
wheal Small, round raised area on the skin that may be accompanied by itching.
xenograft Skin graft from an animal of another species (usually pig); also called heterograft.
xeroderma Dry skin.
abduction Directional term meaning to move away from the median or middle line of the body.
action The type of movement a muscle produces.
adduction Directional term meaning to move toward the median or middle line of the body.
adhesion Scar tissue forming in the fascia surrounding a muscle making it difficult to stretch the muscle.
amputation Partial or complete removal of a limb for a variety of reasons, including tumors, gangrene, intractable pain, crushing injury, or uncontrollable infection.
ankylosing spondylitis Inflammatory spinal condition that resembles rheumatoid arthritis; results in gradual stiffening and fusion of the vertebrae; more common in men than women.
antagonistic pairs Pair of muscles arranged around a joint that produce opposite actions.
appendicular skeleton The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper and lower extremities, shoulder, and pelvis.
arthralgia pain in a joint
arthritis Inflammation of a joint that is usually accompanied by pain and swelling. A chronic disease.
arthrocentesis Removal of synovial fluid with a needle from a joint space, such as in the knee, for examination.
arthroclasia Surgically breaking loose a stiffened joint.
arthrodesis Surgical fusion or stiffening of a joint to provide stability. This is sometimes done to relieve the pain of arthritis.
arthrogram Record of a joint.
arthrography Visualization of a joint by radiographic study after injection of a contrast medium into the joint space.
arthroscope Instrument to view inside a joint.
arthroscopic surgery Use of an arthroscope to facilitate performing surgery on a joint.
arthroscopy Examination of the interior of a joint by entering the joint with an arthroscope. The arthroscope contains a small television camera that allows the physician to view the interior of the joint on a monitor during the procedure.
arthrotomy Surgically cutting into a joint.
articular cartilage Layer of cartilage covering the ends of bones forming a synovial joint.
articulation Another term for a joint, the point where two bones meet.
atonia Lack of tone.
atrophy Lack or loss of normal development.
axial skeleton The axial skeleton includes the bones in the head, spine, chest, and trunk.
biceps An arm muscle named for the number of attachment points. Bi- means two and biceps have two heads attached to the bone.
bone graft Piece of bone taken from the patient and used to replace a removed bone or a bony defect at another site.
bone marrow Soft tissue found inside cavities in bones; produces blood cells.
bone reabsorption inhibitors Conditions that result in weak and fragile bones, such as osteoporosis and Paget's disease, are improved by medications that reduce the reabsorption of bones.
bones A type of connective tissue and an organ of the musculoskeletal system. They provide support for the body and serve as sites of muscle attachments.
bone scan Patient is given a radioactive dye and then scanning equipment is used to visualize bones. It is especially useful in observing the progress of treatment for osteomyelitis and cancer metastases to the bone.
bradykinesia Slow movement, commonly seen with the rigidity of Parkinson's disease.
bunion Inflammation of the bursa of the great toe.
bunionectomy Removal of a bunion.
bursa A sac-like connective tissue structure found in some joints. protects moving parts from friction. Some common bursa locations are the elbow, knee, and shoulder joints.
bursectomy Excision of a bursa.
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
calcium supplements Maintaining high blood levels of calcium in association with vitamin D helps maintain bone density and treats osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and rickets.
callus The mass of bone tissue that forms at a fracture site during its healing.
cancellous bone The bony tissue found inside a bone. It contains cavities that hold red bone marrow. Also called spongy bone.
cardiac muscle The involuntary muscle found in the heart.
carpals The wrist bones in the upper extremity.
carpal tunnel release Surgical cutting of the ligament in the wrist to relieve nerve pressure caused by carpal tunnel disease, which can be caused by repetitive motion such as typing.
carpal tunnel syndrome A painful disorder of the wrist and hand, induced by compression of the median nerve as it passes under ligaments on the palm side of the wrist. Symptoms include weakness, pain, burning, tingling, and aching in the forearm, wrist, and hand.
cartilage strong flexible connective tissue found in several locations in the body, such as covering the ends of bones in a synovial joint, nasal septum, external ear, eustachian tube, larynx, trachea, bronchi, and the intervertebral discs.
cartilaginous joint A joint that allows slight movement but holds bones firmly in place by a solid piece of cartilage. The public symphysis is an example of a cartilaginous joint. The fetal skeleton is composed of cartilaginous tissue.
cast Application of a solid material to immobilize an extremity or portion of the body as a result of a fracture, dislocation, or severe injury. It is most often made of plaster of paris.
cervical Pertaining to the neck.
cervical vertebrae vertebrae in the neck
chiropractic Health care field concerned with Dx and Tx of spine and musculoskeletal system.
chondrectomy Excision of cartilage.
chondroma cartilage tumor
chondromalacia Abnormal softening of cartilage
chondroplasty surgical repair of cartilage
circumduction Movement in a circular direction from a central point.
clavicle Also called the collar bone. A bone of the pectoral girdle.
clavicular pertaining to the collar bone
closed fracture fracture where the skin has not been broken
coccygeal pertaining to the coccyx
coccyx The tailbone, the four small fused vertebrae at the distal end of the vertebral column.
Colles' fracture A specific type of wrist fracture.
comminuted fracture A fracture in which the bone is shattered, splintered, or crushed into many pieces or fragments. The fracture is completely through the bone.
compact bone The hard exterior surface bone. Also called cortical bone.
compound fracture An open fracture in which the skin has been broken through by the fracture.
compression fracture Fracture involving loss of height of a vertebral body.
condyle Refers to the rounded portion at the end of a bone.
contracture An abnormal shortening of a muscle making it difficult to stretch the muscle.
cortical Pertaining to the cortex.
cortical bone The hard exterior surface bone. Also called compact bone.
corticosteroids General term for the group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex. They include mineralocorticoid hormones, glucocorticold hormones, and steroid sex hormones.
costal Pertaining to the ribs.
cranial pertaining to the skull
craniotomy incision into the skull
cranium skull
creatine phosphokinase A muscle enzyme found in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle; blood test becomes elevated in disorders such as heart attack, muscular dystrophy, and other skeletal muscle pathologies.
crepitation Sound of broken bones rubbing together.
deep tendon reflex Muscle contraction in response to a stretch caused by striking the muscle tendon with a reflex hammer; test used to determine if muscles are responding properly.
diaphysis The shaft portion of a long bone.
dislocation Occurs when the bones in a joint are displaced from their normal alignment.
dorsiflexion Backward bending, as of hand or foot.
dual-energy absorptiometry Measurement of bone density using low dose x-ray for the purpose of detecting osteoporosis.
dyskinesia Difficult or painful movement.
dystonia Abnormal tone.
electromyogram Recording the electrical activity of the brain by placing electrodes at various positions on the scalp. Also used in sleep studies to determine if there is a normal pattern of activity during sleep.
electromyography Recording of the electrical patterns of a muscle in order to diagnose diseases.
elevation A muscle action that raises a body part, as in shrug the shoulders.
epicondyle A projection located above or on a condyle.
epiphysis The wide ends of a long bone.
ethmoid bone A cranial bone.
eversion Directional term meaning turning outward.
Ewing's sarcoma Malignant growth found in the shaft of long bones that spreads through the periosteum. Removal is treatment of choice, as this tumor will metastasize or spread to other organs.
exostosis A bone spur.
extension Movement that brings limb into or toward a straight condition.
extensor carpi A muscle named for its action, extension.
external oblique A muscle named for the direction of its fibers, on an oblique angle.
facial bones The skull bones that surround the mouth, nose, and eyes; muscles for chewing are attached to the facial bones.
fascia Connective tissue that wraps muscles. It tapers at each end of a skeletal muscle to form tendons.
fascial pertaining to fascia
fascitis inflammation of the fascia
fasciotomy Incision into fascia.
femoral pertaining to the femur
femur Also called the thigh bone. It is a lower extremity bone.
fibromyalgia A condition with widespread aching and pain in the muscles and soft tissue.
fibrous joint A joint that has almost no movement because the ends of the bones are joined together by thick fibrous tissue. The sutures of the skull are an example of a fibrous joint.
fibula One of the lower leg bones in the lower extremity.
fibular pertaining to the fibula
fissure A deep groove or slit-type opening.
fixation A procedure to stabilize a fractured bone while it heals. External fixation includes casts, splints, and pins inserted through the skin. Internal fixation includes pins, plates, rods, screws, and wires that are applied during an open reduction.
flat bone A type of bone with a thin flattened shape. Examples include the scapula, ribs, and pelvic bones.
flexion Act of bending or being bent.
flexor carpi A muscle named for its action, flexion.
foramen A passage or opening through a bone for nerves and blood vessels.
fossa A shallow cavity or depression within or on the surface of a bone.
fracture An injury to a bone that causes it to break. Fractures are named to describe the type of damage to the bone.
frontal bone The forehead bone of the skull.
ganglion cyst Knot-like mass of nerve tissue located outside the brain and spinal cord.
gluteus maximus buttocks
greenstick fracture Fracture in which there is an incomplete break; one side of the bone is broken and the other side is bent. This type of fracture is commonly found in children due to their softer and more pliable bone structure.
head The large ball-shaped end of a bone. It may be separated from the shaft of the bone by an area called the neck.
herniated nucleus pulposus A rupture of the fibrocartilage disk between two vertebrae. This results in pressure on a spinal nerve and causes pain, weakness, and nerve damage. Also called a slipped disk.
humeral pertaining to the humerus
humerus The upper arm bone in the upper extremity.
hyoid bone A singe, U-shaped bone suspended in the neck between the mandible and larynx. It is a point of attachment for swallowing and speech muscles.
hyperkinesia An excessive amount of movement.
hypotonia insufficient tone
iliac Pertaining to the ilium; one of the pelvic bones.
ilium The third portion of the small intestines. Joins the colon at the cecum. The ileum and cecum are separated by the ileocecal valve.
impacted fracture Fracture in which bone fragments are pushed into each other.
innominate bone Also called the os coxae or hip bone. It is the pelvis portion of the lower extremity. It consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis and unites with the sacrum and coccyx to form the pelvis.
insertion The attachment of a skeletal muscle to the more movable bone in the joint.
intermittent claudication Attacks of severe pain and lameness caused by ischemia of the muscles, typically the calf muscles; brought on by walking even very short distances.
intervertebral Pertaining to between vertebrae.
intervertebral disc fibrous cartilage cushion between vertebrae
intracranial Pertaining to inside the skull.
inversion Directional term meaning turning inward or inside out.
involuntary muscle Muscles under the control of the subconscious regions of the brain. The smooth muscles found in internal organs and cardiac muscles are examples of involuntary muscle tissue.
irregular bones A type of bone having an irregular shape. Vertebrae are irregular bones.
ischial Pertaining to the ischium, one of the pelvic bones.
ischium One of the three bones that form the os coxae or innominate bone of the pelvis.
joint capsule elastic capsule enclosing the synovial joint
joint The point at which two bones meet. It provides flexibility.
kinesiology the study of movement
kyphosis Abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine. Also known as hunchback or humpback.
lacrimal bone A facial bone.
laminectomy Removal of a portion of a vertebra in order to relieve pressure on the spinal nerve.
lateral epicondylitis Inflammation of the muscle attachment to the lateral epicondyle of the elbow; often caused by strongly gripping. Commonly called tennis elbow.
ligaments Very strong bands of connective tissue that bind bones together at a joint.
long bone A type of bone that is longer than it is wide. Examples include the femur, humerus, and phalanges.
lordosis Abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine. Also known as swayback.
lower extremities the legs
lumbar Pertaining to the five low back vertebrae.
lumbar vertebrae The five vertebrae in the low back region.
mandible The lower jawbone.
mandibular pertaining to the lower jawbone
maxilla The upper jawbone.
maxillary pertaining to the upper jawbone.
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medullary cavity The large open cavity that extends the length of the shaft of a long bone; contains yellow bone marrow.
metacarpals The hand bones in the upper extremity.
metatarsals The ankle bones in the lower extremity.
motor neurons Nerves that carry activity instruction from the CNS to muscles or glands out in the body; also called efferent neurons.
muscle biopsy Removal of muscle tissue for pathological examination.
muscles Muscles are bundles of parallel muscle tissue fibers. As their fibers contract, they pull whatever they are attached to closer together. This may move two bones closer together or make an opening more narrow.
muscle tissue fibers The bundles of muscle tissue that form a muscle.
muscular Pertaining to muscles.
muscular dystrophy Inherited disease causing a progressive muscle weakness and atrophy.
myalgia Muscle pain.
myasthenia Lack of muscle strength.
myelography Injection of a radiopaque dye into the spinal canal. An X-ray is then taken to examine the normal and abnormal outlines made by the dye.
myeloma Malignant neoplasm originating in plasma cells in the bone.
myocardial Pertaining to heart muscle.
myocardium The middle layer of the muscle. It is thick and composed of cardiac muscle. This layer produces the heart contraction.
myoneural junction The point at which a nerve contacts a muscle fiber.
myopathy Any disease of muscles.
myoplasty surgical repair of a muscle
myorrhaphy suture of a muscle
myorrhexis ruptured muscle
myotonia muscle tone
nasal bone a facial bone
neck A narrow length of bone that connects the ball of a ball-and-socket joint to the diaphysis of a long bone.
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs A large group of drugs including aspirin and ibuprofen that provide mild pain relief and anti-inflammatory benefits for conditions such as arthritis.
oblique fracture Fracture at an angle to the bone.
occipital bone A cranial bone.
opposition Moves thumb away from palm; the ability to move the thumb into contact with the other fingers.
origin The attachment of a skeletal muscle to the less movable bone in the joint.
orthopedics Branch of medicine specializing in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions of the musculoskeletal system.
orthotics The use of equipment, such as splints and braces, to support a paralyzed muscle, promote a specific motion, or correct musculoskeletal deformities.
os coxae Also called the innominate bone or hip bone. It is the pelvis portion of the lower extremity. It consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis and unites with the sacrum and coccyx to form the pelvis.
osseus tissue Bony tissue. One of the hardest tissues in the body.
ossification The process of bone formation.
ostealgia Bone pain.
osteoarthritis Noninflammatory type of arthritis resulting in degeneration of the bones and joints, especially those bearing weight.
osteoblasts Embryonic bone cells.
osteochondroma Tumor composed of both cartilage and bony substance.
osteoclasia Intentional breaking of a bone in order to correct a deformity.
osteocytes bone cells
osteogenic sarcoma The most common type of bone cancer; usually begins in osteocytes found at the ends of long bones.
osteomalacia Softening of the bones caused by a deficiency of phosphorus or calcium. It is thought that in children the cause is insufficient sunlight and vitamin D.
osteomyelitis Inflammation of the bone and bone marrow due to infection; can be difficult to treat.
osteopathy Form of medicine that places great emphasis on the musculoskeletal system and the body system as a whole. Manipulation is also used as part of the treatment.
osteoporosis Decrease in bone mass that results in a thinning and weakening of the bone with resulting fractures. The bone becomes more porous, especially in the spine and pelvis.
osteotome An instrument to cut bone.
osteotomy Incision into a bone.
Paget's disease A fairly common metabolic disease of the bone from unknown causes. It usually attacks middle-aged and elderly people and is characterized by bone destruction and deformity.
palatine bone A facial bone.
parietal bone A cranial bone.
patella kneecap
patellar pertaining to the kneecap
pathologic fracture Fracture caused by diseased or weakened bone.
pectoral girdle Consists of the clavicle and scapula; functions to attach the upper extremity to the axial skeleton.
pelvic Pertaining to the pelvis.
pelvic girdle Consists of the ilium, ischium, and pubis; functions to attach the lower extremity to the axial skeleton.
percutaneous diskectomy A thin catheter tube is inserted into the intervertebral disk through the skin and the herniated or ruptured disk material is sucked out or a laser is used to vaporize it.
periosteum The membrane that covers most bones. It contains numerous nerves and lymphatic vessels.
phalangeal Pertaining to the phalanges or finger and toe bones.
phalanges finger or toe bones
plantar flexion Bend sole of foot; point toes downward
podiatry Health care profession specializing in diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the feet and lower legs. Heath professional is a podiatrist.
polymyositis Disease involving muscle inflammation and weakness from an unknown cause.
process A projection from the surface of a bone.
pronation To turn downward or backward, as with the hand or foot.
prosthesis Artificial device used as a substitute for a body part that is either congenitally missing or absent as a result of accident or disease; for instance, an artificial leg or hip prosthesis.
prosthetics Artificial devices, such as limbs and joints, that replace a missing body part.
pseudohypertrophic muscular dystrophy One type of inherited muscular dystrophy in which the muscle tissue is gradually replaced by fatty tissue, making the muscle look strong.
pubic Pertaining to the pubis; one of the pelvic bones.
pubis One of the three bones that form the os coxae or innominate bone.
radial Pertaining to the radius; a lower arm bone.
radiography Making of X-ray pictures.
radius One of the forearm bones in the upper extremity.
rectus abdominis A muscle named for its location and the direction of its fibers: rectus means straight and abdominis means abdominal.
red bone marrow Tissue that manufactures most of the blood cells. It is found in cancellous bone cavities.
reduction Correcting a fracture by realigning the bone fragments. Closed reduction is doing this without entering the body. Open reduction is making a surgical incision at the site of the fracture, often necessary where there are bony fragments to be removed.
repetitive motion disorder Group of chronic disorders involving the tendon, muscle, joint, and nerve damage, resulting from the tissue being subjected to pressure, vibration, or repetitive movements for prolonged periods
rheumatoid arthritis Chronic form of arthritis with inflammation of the joints, swelling, stiffness, pain, and changes in the cartilage that can result in crippling deformities.
rib cage Also called the chest cavity. It is the cavity formed by the curved ribs extending from the vertebral column around the sides and attaching to the sternum. The ribs are part of the axial skeleton.
rickets Deficiency in calcium and vitamin D found in early childhood that results in bone deformities, especially bowed legs.
rotation Moving around a central axis.
rotator cuff injury The rotator cuff consists of the joint capsule of the shoulder joint that is reinforced by the tendons from several shoulder muscles; at high risk for strain or tearing injuries.
sacral Pertaining to the sacrum.
sacrum The five fused vertebrae that form a large flat bone in the upper buttock region.
scapula Also called the shoulder blade. An upper extremity bone.
scapular pertaining to the shoulder blade
scoliosis Abnormal lateral curvature of the spine.
short bones A type of bone that is roughly cube shaped. The carpals are short bones.
sinus A hollow cavity within a bone.
skeletal muscle A voluntary muscle that is attached to bones by a tendon.
skeletal muscle relaxants Produces the relaxation of skeletal muscle.
skeleton bones forming the framework for the body
smooth muscle An involuntary muscle found in internal organs such as the digestive organs or blood vessels.
spasm A sudden, involuntary, strong muscle contraction.
sphenoid bone A cranial bone.
spina bifida Congenital defect in the walls of the spinal canal in which the laminae of the vertebra do not meet or close. Results in membranes of the spinal cord being pushed through the opening. Can also result in other defects, such as hydrocephalus.
spinal fusion Surgical immobilization of adjacent vertebrae. This may be done for several reasons, including correction for a herniated disk.
spinal stenosis Narrowing of the spinal canal causing pressure on the cord and nerves.
spiral fracture Fracture in an S-shaped spiral. It can be caused by a twisting injury.
spondylolisthesis The forward sliding of a lumbar vertebra over the vertebra below it.
spondylosis A degenerative condition of the vertebral column.
spongy bone The bony tissue found inside a bone. It contains cavities that hold red bone marrow. Also called cancellous bone.
sprain Pain and disability caused by trauma to a joint. A ligament may be torn in severe sprains.
stress fracture A slight fracture caused by repetitive low-impact forces, like running, rather than a single forceful impact.
striated muscle Another name for skeletal muscle referring to its striped appearance under the microscope.
subluxation An incomplete dislocation, the joint alignment is disrupted, but the ends of the bones remain in contact.
supination Turn the palm or foot upward.
synovectomy Excision of the synovial membrane.
synovial fluid The fluid secreted by a synovial membrane in synovial joint. It lubricates the joint and reduces friction.
synovial joint A freely moving joint that is lubricated by synovial fluid.
synovial membrane The membrane that lines a synovial joint. It secretes a lubricating fluid called synovial fluid.
synovitis Inflammation of the synovial membrane.
systemic lupus erythematosus Chronic disease of the connective tissue that injures the skin, joints, kidneys, nervous system, and mucous membranes. May produce a characteristic butterfly rash across the cheeks and nose.
talipes Congenital deformity of the foot. Also referred to as a clubfoot.
tarsals The ankle bones in the lower extremity.
temporal bone A cranial bone.
tendinitis inflammation of tendons
tendinous Pertaining to a tendon.
tendon The strong connective tissue cords that attach skeletal muscles to bones.
tendoplasty surgical repair of the tendon
tendotomy surgical incision into tendon
tenodesis Surgical procedure to stabilize a joint by anchoring down the tendons of the muscles that move the joint.
tenodynia pain in the tendons
tenoplasty surgical repair of tendons
tenorrhaphy suture of tendons
thoracic pertaining to the chest
thoracic vertebrae The 12 vertebrae in the chest region.
tibia Also called the shin bone. It is a lower extremity bone.
tibial pertaining to tibia
torticollis Severe neck spasms pulling the head to one side; commonly called wryneck or a crick in the neck.
total hip arthroplasty Surgical reconstruction of a hip by implanting a prosthetic or artificial hip joint.
total knee arthroplasty Surgical reconstruction of a knee joint by implanting a prosthetic knee joint; also called total knee arthroplasty.
traction Process of pulling or drawing, usually with a mechanical device. Used in treating orthopedic (bone and joint) problems and injuries.
transverse fracture Complete fracture that is straight across the bone at right angles to the long axis of the bone.
trochanter The large blunt process that provides the attachment for tendons and muscles.
tubercles Small, rounded processes that provide the attachment for tendons and muscles.
tuberosity A large, rounded process that provides the attachment to tendons and muscles.
ulna One of the forearm bones in the upper extremity.
ulnar pertaining to the ulna
upper extremities the arms
vertebral column The vertebral column is part of the axial skeleton & consists of 26 vertebra that form the backbone & protect the spinal cord. It has 5 sections: cervical vertebrae, thoracic vertebrae, lumbar vertebrae, sacrum, & coccyx. Also called spinal column.
visceral muscle The muscle found in the walls of internal organs such as the stomach.
Vitamin D therapy Maintaining high blood levels of calcium in association with vitamin D helps maintain bone density and treats osteomalacia, osteoporosis, and rickets.
voluntary muscles Muscles that a person can consciously choose to contract. The skeletal muscles of the arm and leg are examples of this type of muscle.
vomer bone A facial bone.
whiplash Injury to the bones in the cervical spine as a result of a sudden movement forward and backward of the head and neck. Can occur as result of a rear-end auto collision.
yellow bone marrow Yellow bone marrow is located mainly in the center of the diaphysis of long bones. It contains mainly fat cells.
zygomatic bone a facial bone.
Created by: AltheaMathews