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Unit 3 AP: Notes

Unit 3 AP History notes

Who led the Spaniards that took over the Incas? Fransico Pizzaro
What were the spaniards looking for? God and Glory
How big was the Inca empire? The inca empire was from Ecuador to Chile
Describe the Lucky advanatge that Pizzaro had over the Incas: Europe's continet shape was horizantal, so trade, animals, language, & agriculture spread easier. America is verticaly shaped wich makes it harder for things to spread & the Inca's were much less advance bc trade couldn't get down because of the andes.
What agriculture did Inca have? Skilled with corn and llamas
Who was the leader of the Incas? Atahulpa
What was the real power of the Spaniards? Why? STEEL. They had steel swords(Which was better then guns atm) such as the Rapier
What did a sword symbolize? Upper class men wore them with their daily outifts to symbolize they are future conqueres
What advancements did the Europeans have? Firearms and printing press
What was the first deadly diesease to enter America? Smallpox
Why were the incas never exposed to smallpox before the spaniards? They had llamas, not pigs and cows(Who devolped the disease)
Why did the Incan survivors convert to catholiscm when the spaniards left? Because the Spaniard's god was protecting them (They never got smallpox) and their own gods were not(The spaniards killed them and the incas got smallpox)
What ultimately killed the incas? Smallpox, not pizzaro
How did the Yuan end? A succesful peasent revolt
What was the affect of the revolt? They reinstaed chinese buracracy and formed the Ming Dynasty
What did the Ming finish that the Qin did not many years ago? They made the Great Wall out of stone.
How was the Ming immeadiately after the revolt? They jumped back into Indian Ocean trade and built masive Junks, most anchored by Zheng He.
What did Zheng He bring back to China? girrafes and elephants
What happened to the Ming Dynasty in 1450? The called back Zheng He and made a law that you couldn't build GINAT junks anymore.
Describe Europe at the end of Unit 2? They were devasted by three things: religous crisis, black death, 100 years war
What does Renissance mean? Rebirth
What was the purpose of the renissance? they don't want to go back to the high middle ages; they want to build on their classical ages
Where did the Renissance start? Samll city states in Italy
How did the Renissance start/happen? 2 Reasons: Byzantine Empire fell to the muslims, so citizens fled with their books of Aristotle & other greek philosphers, which spread once they moved somewhere else. Also, the invention of the Printing Presss allowed for cheaper books & faster making
What was the most printed books in during the Renissance? The bible and Words of CLassical Greece
What are some consequences of the printing press? The "Wicked Bible", bad information accidently spreading, and censorship.
What is a bourgaize? People who live on a cash market and work for themself
Who was the main market of the printing press? The bourgaize
What is Humanism? Man in the center of the world and you should be proud to be human and celebrate it (Greek philosphy)
Describe Renissance religion: More positive, anti-medival, hhumanism, blended christianity and classical age
Describe the social causes of the renaissance: rise of the middle class, bourgeoisie,mass production of books because of printing press, Lorenzo valla
What was the Donation of Constantine? Kind of like a far well letter where Constantine gave political power to the pope, signed by Constantine
What did Lorenzo Valla do? studied the donation of Constantine and discovered that it was fake and made up by the catholic church because words in the donation were not invented until way after Constantine's death
What is Lorenzo Valla an example of? the power of individualism
What did Erasmus do? Studied the debates of the holy trinity and realized that the catholic church wrote in a verse in the bible about the trinity to support their own theory
The Reformation means... Christianity in Europe is split
What did Martin Luther do? Wrote 95 thesis abuot what he thought was wrong with the church on the church door. the church excommunicated him and he later form the protestants
Lutherans religion in Germany where Luther translated the bible to German
What was an unexpected result of the printing press? Allowed indivuals to defy the authority they have always been told
What was a political result of the reformation? Kings could break away from the catholic church and rule without the Pope
An example of a King leaving catholocism for protestanism Henry the 8th left cath and started the Church of England
Before Modern science, all methods of gaining knowledge were based on: Presumptive Authority and Deductive Logic
Describe the Ptolemaic Model of the Universe It was geocentric and base on presumptive authority and deductive logic
What did Ptolemaic support? retrograde motion because they wanted to believe that earth was in the middle
What did Copernicus do? decided to say that the sun was in the middle and he knew that retro grade didn't make sense mathematically
What did Galileo do? Proved that Coprernicus was correct by observation. This made Observation replce presumptive authority
What did Kepler do? Discover laws of planetary motion
What did Newton do? Invented calculus to describe the motion of the planets
Results of scientific method: 1. There was an emphasis placed on experience and observation. 2. mans view on the cosmos became rationalized and mathmatized. 3. euorpeans applied these methods to improve technology
The difference between Muslims and Christians in science? Muslims still believed in presumptive authority while the Christians didn't
T.O. Maps maps that show symbolic importance, not real things
Prince Henry the Navigator destroyed the muslim city of ceuta which opened more exploration around africa and allowed for better mapping
Barthalamul Diaz Found the bottom of africa, the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco de Gama The first european to sail completely around Africa and into the indian ocean thus forming a trade route in the indian ocean
What African cities did Portugal blow up because they wouldn't let Portugal control them? Ethiopia and Swahili Coast
How did the Portuguese try to control indian ocean trade? By implementing a passport system
Did Portugal successfully control indian ocean trade? No
Who took over after Portugal in the indian ocean? Spain
Why was Portugal unsuccesful in indian ocean trade? They were too small of a contry to have any real power
WHat was the last muslim power in spain and when were they defeated? Granada in 1492
Describe Spain presence in Indian Ocean trade: They wanted God, gold and glory. They were not very successful in Indian ocean but successful in Northern Phillipenses in terms of conversions.
What made Spain lose power in Indian Ocean trade? In 1588 they tried to take over England and their Armada was sunk in a huge storm which made spain very inactive
What do the Dutch and the English have in common? They were both protestant and had very strong middle classes
Why did the the Dutch and English have a very strong middle class? Because protestants see every job as a noble job
How did the Dutch and English afford theses explorations into the Indian ocean? They invested in joint stock companies
What is a joint stock company? rich peopele invest their money in an exploration and then get their profits based on how well the exploration did. high risk but high reward
Describe the diffrence between the funds of Spain's and Portugal's explorations compared to Englands and Netherlands? Spain and Portugal got their money from monarchs while the english and dutch got their money from joint stock companies
How was Spain and Protugal's reasons for exploration diffrent then englands and netherlands? JSC was not missonary minded like Spain and Portugal was
What did the Dutch do in the spice islands? They didn't want Malaka, they wanted the actual spice islands and in order to get the spices on the islands they took advantage of tribal conflicts
Why did the Dutch and English almost go to war in reagrds to Indian Ocean trade? The dutch were taking over the spice islands and England was getting angry
How did the English and Dutch end their Indian Ocean trade conflict? They made an agreement. Dutch gave England Inda and New Amsterdam and the dutch kept the spice islands.
Explain the result of the agreement that the dutch and british made: The result was that even though the Dutch got the spice islands, the English figured out that they could grow those spices anywhere in the world, not just the islands
What is unit 3 the age of? The age of Presumptive Authority
Which class in more important in unit 3? The middle class
What did Joint Stock Companies invent? Capitalism
Who was the first in Indian Ocean trade? Portugal
What is the reconquest of Spain? And How? Spain wanted to take back Grenada from the moors. How? The government allowed conquistadors to retake portions of land and enslave moors
Did the method that Spain used to reconquer Grenada work in the new world? nope
What is Mita? A Spanish method of controlling the new world
Describe mita: Spain set up a tribute system with SA by taking a certain amount of males from a village and forcing them to mine silver. The Village was allowed to self govern themselves as long as they supplied the tributes
What is Hacienda? A Spanish method of controlling the new world
Describe Hacienda: land grant was by the king to a loyal subject to own land in the new world
What is Encomienda? A Spanish method of controlling the new world
Describe Encomienda: A large land grant where they grow everything to be self suffiecnt and local trade. Did not work very well because of need for labor
What is the Treaty of Tordesillas? The Pope drew a lone over a map of SA to settle a land dispute between two catholic countries (Spain and Portugal)
What happened to Portugal in the Treaty of Tordesillas? Porugal got VERY small amount of land so they asked the pope to redraw which he did but it was still small.
What did Portugal do with their area? Introduced sugar cane
Describe Sugar Cane labor and sugar cane: There was alot a money to be found in sugar cane but it was so labor intensive that the indians became sick and died
Why african slaves? Europeans brought in salves from africa because they were easily indentified as slaves because of their skin color and they couldn't run home
What is the plantation system? The opposite of the encomienda because the food was used for trade around the world. It was very labor intensive and used african slave men as workers
Describe the average slave: Mostly male and lived to be 30
Did Spanish settlers mix with natives? Yes
Did English settlers mix with natives? No
Describe the Spanish class system in order: 1. Peninsulares 2. Creoles 3. Mixed Blood 4. Mulatto 5. Slaves and natives
Peninsulare from iberia
Creoles Spanish desecnt (no indian blood) but born in South America
Mixed Blood mixed native and spanish
Mulatto mixed between spaniard and slave
Difference between Spain and English settlers and settlements: Spanish intergrated with indians and slaves in South America while the English did not in Norht America. English knew how to rule themselves without the kind while the spanish didn't.
What are viceroys? A loyal that the Kings sends to the new world. The king makes the decions and the Viceroy ascts as the enforcer and messenger
What was the affecect of South America because of the Vice roy system? The citizens were never used to ruling the lands themselves. So When EVENTUALLY the power left, the citizens didn't know how to rule themselves
Jamestown started by english who modled their OWN goverment based on the english parliment
What was the Jamestown government called? House of Burgesse
Mayflower Rule the people on the boat made the Mayflower Compacr so the knew how to rule themselves when they landed
Describe the Atlantic System: From Africa to New World-Slaves... Europe to Africa - Guns... New World to Europe- Rum, sugar, raw materials...
What is Middle Passage? A ship that had human cargo (slaves)
What is the Colombian Exchange? Things that could only be found in one part of the world gets traded to another part and vice versa
Examples of Colombian Exchange: Chili from Mexico to Asia... Malaria, Measles,and smallpox from old world to new world... tobacco form old world to new world... peaches and apples from old world to new world...
WHat was the first african colony established by Portugal? Angola
Impact of Slavery on Africa: Largest Forced Migration... increase in violence in Africa... change in power... gender imbalance...african diaspora
How many slaves were transported out of Africa? 12 million
Describe the increase of Violence in Africa: other tribes were trying to capture other tribes to sell them as slaves in exchange for guns and freedom
Why did gender imbalance increase after slavery in Africa? there was a premium on male slaves, so more women were in africa leading to pilgemy
What is the African Diaspora? spreading out of africans around the world
What religion were most slaves? Christian
Effects of African Diaspora? Africans brought animistic beilfs to Haiti which combined with cath. to form voodoo.... music (blues, jazz, gospel)
Who initially spearheaded the indepence movement from the Mongul rule in Russia? the aristocrats boyars
What was Ivan the 3rd goal for Russia? To liberate all of Russia from Mongul rule
What did Ivan the 3rd do? Married the niece of the last byzantine emperor, claiming he was the new Caesar and Moscow was the new Rome
Russian Aristocrats are called... Boyars
What did Ivan the Terrible do? used his own terrorists to take down the boyars and centralize russia
Who are the Romanovs? A family that took over after Ivan the terrible's death and ruled for 3 centuries
Most important Romanov? Peter the Great
How did Peter the great improve russia? Selectively chose what he liked about western europe and transforme russia with th Petrine Reforms
Describe the Petrine Reforms: military reforms...building infrastructure... expansion of territory...reorganization of burecracy and tax...relocation of capital...
What was the goal of the Petrine Reforms? force westernization of russia
Describe Russian Military reforms: Brought in new skill of metallurgy to make firearms and gunpowder
What does building infrastructure in russia mean? expanding communication roads
Describe russian expansion of territory: going to war and taking parts of sweden
Describe russian reorganization of burecracy and taxes: Taxes done per person instead of per household
Describe russin relocation of capital: St.Petersburg instead of Moscow
Describe the cultural westernization of russia: Men had to shave their beards and boyars had to learn french and read the book "manual of etiquette"
Things peter the great did not want to emulate from Western Europe: Representative government
What did Catherine the Great do with Art? She took the Hermitage and turned it into an art center called the window to the west
What did Catherine's interest in europe cause? a peasant revolt
Pugachev Peasant revolt: Peasants resisting the boyars and kind, eventually killed by Russian arm but scared Catherine the great
what is a gunpowder empire? an mpire built on the strength f firearms
Describe the Ottoman Empire: Gunpowder empire... muslim...tolerant of other monotheistic religions as long as they payed a tax
What was the capital of the Ottoman? Istanbul
Who were the Janissaries? The small military elite of the ottoman, obtained form christian families and raised by the state
What Islam did the Ottoman practice? Sunni
Major difference between Safavid and ottoman? Safavid was Shia, not Sunni
What happened in 1514? The Battle of Chaldiran, where the sunni and shia fought and the sunni ottoman won
Effects of the Battle of Chaldiran: the growth o the Shia ended and Sunni was preserved
What is the Mugal Empire and where were they? Muslim monguls and they lived in India and controlled an empire with the citizens of hindus
Major diffrence between Safivd/Ottoman and Mugal: Mugal was controlled by Muslims and the citizens were hindus while ottoman were muslims ruling muslims
Who is the most famous Mugal ruler? Akbar
Who built the taj mahal? mugal empire
Created by: ShanonRR