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Echo3 midterm lists

Study aids for Echo 3 midterm

List the following:Items:
9 Complications of bioprosthetic valves: o Perivalvular leak o Dehiscence o Degeneration o Regurgitation o Annulus abnormalities o Stenosis o Thrombus o Infective endocarditis o Calcification
12 complications of mechanical valves: o Perivalvular leak o Dehiscence o Degeneration o Regurgitation o Annulus abnormalities o Stenosis o Thrombus o Infective endocarditis o Calcification o Pannus ingrowth o Mechanical failure • Hemolysis
3 types of tissue which can be used to make bioprosthetic valves: Dura Mater, Fascia lata, and Bovine pericardium
5 secondary etiologies for PHTN: 1. Increased resistance of pulmonary venous drainage 2. Increased resistance to vascular flow 3. Increased resistance to pulmonary artery flow 4. Hypoventilation 5. Miscellaneous:
7 causes of Cardiac Iatrogenic Injury: 1. Heart Catheterization 2. Balloon valvuloplasty 3. Pericardiocentesis 4. Cardiac pacemakers 5. Myocardial biopsy 6. Cardiac surgery 7. CPR
4 Connective Tissue Diseases affecting the heart: 1. Rheumatoid arthritis 2. Vasculitis (Takayasu’s) 3. Scleroderma 4. Marfan’s syndrome
4 Non-pharmacologic therapies for systemic hypertension: 1) Weight loss 2) Exercise 3) Reduction in sodium, cholesterol, alcohol, coffee, & tobacco 4) Stress reduction
Two life-threatening consequences of Cardiac Trauma: 1) Excessive hemorrhage or blood loss 2) Cardiac tamponade
3 iatrogenic injuries from Heart Catheterization: o Perforated coronary arteries o Aortic dissections o Perforation of the cardiac chambers
4 iatrogenic injuries caused by CPR: 1) Laceration of the heart 2) Rupture of the heart 3) RV papillary muscle rupture or dysfunction 4) Laceration or rupture of great vessels
5 iatrogenic injuries resulting from Cardiac surgery: 1) Pericardial effusion/tamponade (most common) 2) Adhesions 3) Extracardial blood clots 4) Compression of RV 5) Pseudoaneurysm (mostly from prosthetic valve placement)
7 Signs & Symptoms of PHTN : 1. Exertional dyspnea 2. Fatigue 3. Dizziness/syncope 4. Chest pain 5. Palpitations 6. Cough/hoarseness 7. Hemoptysis (late in course)
5 Echo Findings – PHTN: 1. Dilated pulmonary artery 2. RV dilatation 3. Paradoxical septal motion 4. Septal hypertrophy 5. RVH
4 effects of PHTN on PV motion: 1. Decreased/absent “a-dip” on M-mode 2. Mid-systolic closure on M-mode 3. Prolonged RV peak-to-peak ejection time intervals 4. Premature PV opening with increased RV end diastolic pressure
7 Complications of SYSTEMIC HTN: 1. Atherosclerotic complications (Angina, MI, acute MI – Most common cause of death for HTN) 2. CHF 3. TIA/CVA 4. Hypertensive renal disease 5. HTN encephalopathy 6. HTN retinopathy 7. AAA/aortic dissection
8 Signs & Symptoms, Systemic HTN: 1. Asymptomatic 2. Headaches 3. Dizziness/blurred vision 4. Palpitations 5. Sweats/pallor 6. Anxiety 7. Dyspnea 8. Chest pain
7 Echo Findings, Systemic HTN: 1. LVH w nrml systolic function – Classic finding 2. LVPO w/ nrml cavity size 3. Reduced LVF– end stage 4. Increased LVEDP → atrial HTN → ↑ resistance to pulmonary venous drainage 5. Aortic root dilatation 6. LAE d/t MR/MAC 7. PE
3 Types of Cardiac Trauma: 1. Non-penetrating/blunt 2. Penetrating 3. Iatrogenic (surgical accident)
Non-penetrating chest trauma (Blunt Trauma) Accounts for___% of all traumatic deaths annually in the u.s. 25%
6 Echo Findings, Blunt Trauma: 1. Increased wall thickness at end-diastole (swelling) 2. Regional wall motion abnormalities 3. Increased echogenicity 4. Chamber enlargement 5. Mural thrombus 6. Pericardial effusion
4 Complications, Blunt Trauma: 1. Pericardial effusion (most common) usually bloody 2. Cardiac Tamponade quick or late onset 3. Long-term complication → constrictive pericarditis 4. Cardiac contusion (bruised myocardium)
4 Systemic Diseases affecting the heart: 1) Diabetes Mellitus 2) Hypothyroidism 3) Hyperthyroidism 4) Parathyroid disease
4 Pharmacologic therapies for systemic HTN: 1) Diuretics (1st drug of choice) 2) Beta blockers 3) ACE inhibitors 4) Calcium channel blockers
3 types of Bioprosthetic valves: 1) Auto-graft 2) Homograft 3) Heterograft
3 types of Mechanical valves: 1) Ball and Cage 2) Tilting Disc 3) Bileaflet Tilting disc.
Created by: lefut