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addiction Acquired dependence on a drug.
additive Sum of the action of 2 or more drugs given. In this case, the total strength of the medications is equal to the sum of the strength of each individual drug.
antidote Substance that will neutralize poisons or their side effects.
broad spectrum Ability of a drug to be effective against a wide range of microorganisms.
contraindication Condition in which a particular drug shouldn't be used.
cumulative action Action that occurs in the body when a drug is allowed to accumulate or stay in the body.
drug interaction Occurs when the effect of one drug is altered because it was taken at the same time as another drug.
drug tolerance Decrease in susceptibility to a drug after continued use of the drug.
habituation Development of an emotional dependence on a drug due to repeated use.
iatrogenic Usually an unfavorable response resulting from taking a medication.
idiosyncrasy Unusual or abnormal response to a drug or food.
placebo Inactive, harmless substance used to satisfy a patient's desire for medication. This is also used in research when given to a control group in a study in which another group receives a drug. The effect of the placebo versus the drug is observed.
potentiation Giving a patient a second drug to boost (potentiate) the effect of another drug. The total strength of the drugs is greater than the sum of the strength of the individual drugs.
Prophylaxis Prevention of a disease. For example, an antibiotic can be used to prevent the occurrence of disease.
side effect Response to a drug other than the effect desired. Also called adverse reaction.
tolerance Development of a capacity for withstanding a large amount of a substance, such as foods, drugs, or poison, without any adverse effect. A decrease sensitivity to further doses will develop.
toxicity Extent or degree to which a substance is poisonous
unit dose drug dosage system that provides prepackaged, prelabeled, individual medications ready for immediate use by the patient.
@ at
a with a line over it before
ac before meals
ad lib as desired
ante before
APAP acetaminophen
aq aqueous (water)
ASA aspirin
bid twice a day
c with a line over it with
cap(s) capsules
cc cubic centimeter
d day
d/c, DISC discontinue
DEA Drug Enforcement Agency
dil dilute
disp dispense
dtd give of such dose
DX diagnosis
et and
FDA Federal Drug Administration
gm gram
gr grain
gt drop
gtt drops
hs at bedtime
line with dot over it, over a Roman numeral one one
ID intradermal
line with two dots over it, over a Roman numeral two two
line with three dots over it, over a Roman numeral three three
IM intramuscular
inj injection
IU international unit
IV intravenous
kg kilogram
L liter
mcg microgram
mEq milliequivalent
mg milligram
mL milliliter
noc night
no sub no substitute
non rep do not repeat
NPO nothing by mouth
NS normal saline
od overdose
oint ointment
OTC over the counter
oz ounce
p with a line over it after
pc after meals
PCA patient-controlled administration
PDR Physician’s Desk Reference
per with
po by mouth
prn as needed
pt patient
q every
qam every morning
qd once a day, every day
qh every hour
qhs at bedtime
qid four times a day
qod every other day
qs quantity sufficient
Rx take
s with a line over it without
SC subcutaneous
Sig label as follows/directions
sl under the tongue
sol solution
ss with a line over it one-half
stat at once, immediately
Subc, SubQ subcutaneous
suppos, supp suppository
susp suspension
syr syrup
T, tbsp tablespoon
t, tsp teaspoon
tab tablet
tid Three times a day
TO telephone order
top apply topically
u unit
VO verbal order
wt weight
x times
panic attack Anxiety disorder. Feeling of intense apprehension, terror, or sense of impending danger.
anxiety Anxiety disorder. Feeling of dread in the absence of a clearly identifiable stress trigger.
phobias Anxiety disorder. Irrational fear, such as arachnophobia, or fear of spiders.
obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) Anxiety disorder. Performing repetitive rituals to reduce anxiety.
dementia Cognitive disorder. Progressive confusion and disorientation. Dementia is an organic mental disease.
Alzheimer's disease Cognitive disorder. Organic mental disease prevalent in adults 40-60. Causes apathy, speech disturbances, loss of memory, etc.
mental retardation sub-average intellectual functioning. Diagnosed in childhood.
attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Inattention and impulsive behavior. Diagnosed in childhood.
autism extreme withdrawal. Diagnosed in childhood.
amnesia Dissociative disorder Amnesia is loss of memory.
multiple personality disorder Dissociative disorder. Having two or more distinct personalities.
anorexia nervosa refusal to eat
bulimia binge eating and intentional vomiting
malingering Factitious disorder. Pretending to be ill or injured to gain attention.
kleptomania Impulse control disorder Kleptomania is stealing.
pyromania Impulse control disorder. Setting fires.
explosive disorder Impulse control disorder. Violent rages.
pathological gambling Impulse control disorder. Inability to stop gambling.
major depression Mood disorder. Instability in mood with suicide potential.
mania Mood disorder. Extreme elation
bipolar disorder (BPD) Alternation between periods of deep depression and mania.
paranoid personality disorder exaggerated feelings of persecution
personality disorder Inflexible or maladaptive behavior patterns that affect person's ability to function in society.
narcissistic personality disorder abnormal sense of self-importance.
antisocial personality disorder behaviors that are against legal or social norms.
passive aggressive personality indirect expression of hostility or anger.
Schizophrenia Mental disorders characterized by distortions of reality, such as delusions and hallucinations.
Delusions A false belief held even in the face of contrary evidence
hallucinations perceiving something that isn't there.
impulse control disorder inability to resist an impulse to perform an act that is harmful to self or others.
Dissociative disorder disorder in which severe emotional conflict is so repressed that a split in personality occurs.
sexual disorders disorders including aberrant sexual activity and sexual dysfunction.
pedophilia sexual interest in children
masochism gratification derived from being hurt or abused
voyeurism gratification from observing others engaged in sexual acts
sleeping disorder disorder related to sleeping.
insomnia sleeping disorder. Inability to sleep..
sleepwalking getting up and walking around unaware while sleeping.
somatoform disorder patient has physical symptoms for which no physical disease can be determined.
hypochondria preoccupation with health concerns
conversion reaction anxiety is transformed into physical symptoms such as heart palpitations, paralysis, or blindness.
substance-related disorders overindulgence or dependence on chemical substances including alcohol, illegal drugs, and prescription drugs.
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) Procedure occasionally used for prolonged major depression. This controversial treatment involves placing an electrode on one or both sides of a patient's head & turning a current on briefly to cause a convulsive seizure.
psychopharmacology Study of the effects of drugs on the mind and particularly the use of drugs in treating mental disorders.
antipsychotic drugs Drugs use to treat patients with psychoses and schizophrenia. Thorazine and Haldol are examples.
antidepressant drug Drugs that alter the patient's mood by affecting levels of neurotransmitters in the brain. These drugs are classified as stimulants. MAO inhibitors are an example of a type of antidepressant.
minor tranquilizers Valium, Xanax. Classified as central nervous system depressants and prescribed for anxiety.
lithium Special category of drug used successfully to calm patients who suffer from bipolar disorder.
psychotherapy A method of treating mental disorders by mental rather than chemical physical means.
psychoanalysis Developed by Freud. Method of obtaining a detailed account of past & present emotional & mental experiences from the patient to determine the source of the problem & eliminate effects.
humanistic psychotherapy Therapist doesn't delve into patient's past. Instead, it's believed the patient can learn how to use their own internal resources to deal w/problems. Also called client-centered or nondirective psychotherapy
family and group psychotherapy Often described as solution focused, the therapist places minimal emphasis on patient history & strong emphasis on having the patient state goals and find ways to achieve them.
AD Alzheimer's Disease
ADD Attention deficit disorder
ADHD attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
BPD bipolar disorder
CA chronological age
DSM Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
ECT electroconvulsive therapy
MA mental age
MAO monoamine oxidase
MMPI Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
OCD obsessive-compulsive disorder
SAD seasonal affective disorder
anteroposterior view (AP view) Positioning the patient so that the x-rays pass through the body from the anterior side to the posterior side.
barium (Ba) Soft metallic element from the earth used as a radiopaque X-ray dye.
film Thin sheet of cellulose material coated with a light-sensitive substance that is used in taking photographs. There is a special photographic film that's sensitive to X-rays.
film badge Badge containing film that is sensitive to X-rays. This is worn by all personnel in radiology to measure the amount of X-rays to which they are exposed.
lateral view Positioning of the patient so that the side of the body faces the X-ray machine.
oblique view Positioning of the patient so that the X-rays pass through the body at an angle.
posteroanterior view Positioning of the patient so that the X-rays pass through the body from the posterior side to the anterior side.
radiography Making of X-ray pictures.
radioisotope Radioactive form of an element.
radiologist Physician who uses images to diagnose abnormalities and radiant energy to treat various conditions such as cancer.
radiolucent Structures that allow X-rays to pass through; expose the photographic plate and appear as black areas on the X-ray.
radiopaque Structures that are impenetrable to X-rays, appearing as a light area on the radiograph (X-ray).
roentgen Unit for describing an exposure dose of radiation.
scan Recording on a photographic plate the emission of radioactive waves after a substance has been injected into the body.
shield protective device used to protect against radiation.
tagging Attaching a radioactive material to a chemical, and tracing it as it moves through the body.
uptake Absorption of radioactive material and medicines into an organ or tissue.
X-ray High-energy wave that can penetrate most solid matter and present the image on a photographic film.
computed tomography scan (CT scan) an imaging technique that is able to produce a cross-sectional view of the body. X-ray pictures are taken at multiple angles through the body. A computer then uses all these images to construct a composite cross-section.
Contrast studies radiopaque substance is injected or swallowed. X-rays are then taken that will outline the body structure containing the radiopaque substances. For example, angiograms and myelograms
Doppler ultrasonography use of ultrasound to record the velocity of blood flowing through blood vessels. Used to detect blood clots and blood vessel obstructions
Fluoroscopy X-rays strike a fluorescing screen rather than a photographic plate, causing it to glow. The glowing screen changes from minute to minute, therefore movement, such as the heart beating or the digestive tract moving, can be seen
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) use of electromagnetic energy to produce an image of soft tissues in any plane of the body. When the body is exposed to this magnetic field the nuclei of the body’s atoms emit radio-frequency signals that can be used to create an image
nuclear medicine use of radioactive substances to dx diseases.A radioactive substance known to accumulate in certain body tissues is injected or inhaled. After the substance travels & arrives at the area of interest, radioactivity level is recorded.Commonly called a scan.
Positron emission tomography (PET) image is produced following injection of radioactive glucose.The glucose accumulates in areas of high metabolic activity. so the process highlights areas that are consuming a large quantity of glucose.This may show an active area of the brain or a tumor.
Radiology use of high energy radiation, X-rays, to expose a photographic plate. The image is a black and white picture with radiopaque structures such as bone appearing and radiolucent tissue such as muscles appearing dark.
Ultrasound (US) use of high frequency sound waves to produce an image. Sound waves directed into the body from a transducer will bounce off internal structures & echo back to the transducer. A computer correlates speed of echo w/density of tissue to produce an image.
67Ga radioactive gallium
99mTc radioactive technetium
131I radioactive Iodine
201TI radioactive thallium
133Xe radioactive xenon
Angio angiography
AP anteroposterior
Ba barium
BaE barium enema
CAT computerized axial tomography
Ci curie
CT computerized tomography
CXR chest X-ray
decub lying down
DI diagnostic imaging
DSA digital subtraction angiography
ERCP endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography
Fx fracture
GB gallbladder X-ray
IVC intravenous cholangiogram
IVP intravenous pyelogram
KUB kidneys, ureters, bladder
LAT lateral
LGI lower gastrointestinal series
LL left lateral
mA milliampere
mCI millicurie
MRA magnetic resonance angiography
MRI magnetic resonance imaging
NMR nuclear magnetic resonance
PA posteroanterior
PET positive emission tomography
PTC percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography
R roentgen
Ra radium
rad radiation absorbed dose
RL right lateral
RRT registered radiologic technologist
UGI upper gastrointestinal series
US ultrasound
Activities of daily living (ADL) the activities usually performed in the course of a normal day, such as eating, dressing, and washing
Adaptive equipment modification of equipment or devices to improve the function and independence of a person with a disability
Body mechanics use of good posture and position while performing activities of daily living to prevent injury and stress on body parts
Ergonomics study of human work including how the requirements for performing work and the work environment affect the musculoskeletal and nervous system
Fine motor skills use of precise and coordinated movements in such activities such as writing, buttoning, and cutting
Gait manner of walking
Gross motor skills use of large muscle groups that coordinate body movements such as walking, running, jumping, and balance
Lower extremity (LE) refers to one of the legs
Mobility state of having normal movement of all body parts
Orthotics use of equipment, such as splints and braces, to support a paralyzed muscle, promote a specific motion, or correct musculoskeletal deformities
Physical medicine branch of medicine focused on restoring function. Primarily cares for patients with musculoskeletal and nervous disorders. Physician is a physiatrist
Prosthetics artificial devices, such as limbs and joints, that replace a missing body part
Range of motion (ROM) range of movement of a joint, from maximum flexion through maximum extension. It is measured as degrees of a circle
Rehabilitation process of treatment and exercise that can help a person with a disability attain maximum function and well-being
Upper extremity (UE) refers to one of the arms
Active exercise exercises that a patient performs without assistance
Active range of motion (AROM) range of motion for joints that a patient is able to perform without assistance from someone else
Active-resistive exercises exercises in which the patients work against resistance applied to a muscle such as a weight. Used to increase strength
Cryotherapy using cold for therapeutic purposes
Debridement removal of dead or damaged tissue from a wound. Commonly performed for burn therapy
Electromyogram (EMG) graphic recording of the contraction of a muscle. The result of applying an electrical stimulation to the muscle
Gait training assisting a patient to learn to walk again or how to use an assistive device to walk
Hydrotherapy application of warm water as a therapeutic treatment. Can be done in baths, swimming pools, and whirlpools
Massage kneading or applying pressure by hands to a part of the patient’s body to promote muscle relaxation and reduce tension
Mobilization treatments such as exercise and massage to restore movement to joints and soft tissue
Moist hot packs applying moist warmth to body part to produce the slight dilation of blood vessels in the skin. Causes muscle relaxation in the deeper regions of the body and increases circulation, which aids in healing
Nerve conduction velocity test to determine if nerves have been damaged by recording the rate at which an electrical impulse travels along a nerve. If the nerve is damaged, the velocity will be decreased.
Pain control managing pain through a variety of means, including medications, biofeedback, and mechanical devices
Passive range of motion (PROM) therapist putting a patient’s joints through available range of motion without assistance from the patient
Phonophoresis use of ultrasound waves to introduce medication across the skin and into the subcutaneous tissues
Postural drainage with clapping draining secretions from the bronchi or a lung cavity by having the patient lie so that gravity allows drainage to occur. Clapping is using the hand in a cupped position to perform percussion on the chest. Assists in loosening secretions and mucus
Therapeutic exercise exercise planned and carried out to achieve a specific physical benefit, such as improved range of motion, muscle strength, or cardiovascular function
Thermotherapy applying heat to the body for therapeutic purposes
Traction process of pulling or drawing, usually with a mechanical device. Used in treating orthopedic (bone and joint) problems and injuries
Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) application of an electric current to a peripheral nerve to relieve pain
Ultrasound (US) use of high frequency sound waves to create heat in soft tissues under the skin. It is particularly useful in treating injuries to muscles, tendons, and ligaments, as well as muscle spasms
Whirlpool bath in which there are continuous jets of hot water reaching the body surfaces
ADL Activities of daily living
AAROM active assistance range of motion
AROM active range of motion
EMG Electromyogram
e-stim electrical stimulation
LE lower extremity
OT occupational therapy
PROM passive range of motion
PT physical therapy
ROM range of motion
TENS Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation
UE upper extremity
US ultrasound
analgesic medication to relieve pain
anesthetic medication to produce partial to complete loss of sensation
cauterization using heat, cold, electricity, or chemicals to scar, burn, or cut tissues.
circulating nurse nurse who assists the surgeon & scrub nurse by providing needed materials during the procedure & by handling the surgical specimen. This person does not wear sterile clothing & may enter & leave the operating room during the procedure.
cryosurgery technique of exposing tissue to extreme cold to produce cell injury & destruction. Used in the treatment of malignant tumors or to control pain and bleeding.
day surgery type of outpatient surgery in which the patient is discharged on the same day he/she is admitted. Also called ambulatory surgery.
dissection surgical cutting of parts for separation and study.
draping process of covering the patient with sterile cloths that allow only to operative site to be exposed to the surgeon.
electrocautery use of an electric current to stop bleeding by coagulating blood vessels.
endoscopic surgery use of a lighted instrument to examine the interior of a cavity.
hemostasis stopping the flow of blood using instruments, pressure, and/or medication.
intraoperative period of time during surgery.
laser surgery use of a controlled beam of light for cutting, hemostasis, or tissue destruction.
perioperative period of time that includes before, during, and after a surgical procedure.
postoperative (post-op) period of time immediately following the surgery.
resection to surgically cut out or remove; excision
preoperative (preop, pre-op) period of time preceding surgery.
scrub nurse surgical assistant who hands instruments to the surgeon.
suture material Used to close a wound or incision. Catgut, silk thread, staples are examples. They may or may not be removed when the wound heals, depending on the type of material used.
D&C dilation and curettage
EUA exam under anesthesia
Endo endoscopy
GA general anesthesia
I & D incision and drainage
MUA manipulation under anesthesia
OR operating room
PARR postanesthetic recovery room
preop, pre-op preoperative
prep preparation, prepared
T & A tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy
TAH total abdominal hysterectomy
TURP transurethral resection of the prostate
carcinogen substance or chemical agent that produces or increases the risk of developing cancer. For example, cigarette smoke and insecticides are carcinogens.
carcinoma in situ (CIS) Malignant tumor that has not extended beyond the original site.
encapsulated growth enclosed in a sheath of tissue that prevents tumor cells from invading surrounding tissue.
hyperplasia excessive development of normal cells within an organ.
invasive disease tendency of malignant tumor to spread to immediately surrounding tissue and organs.
metastasis (mets) movement and spread of cancer cells from one part of the body to another. Metastases is plural.
morbidity number representing the sick persons in a particular population.
mortality number representing the deaths in a particular population.
mutation change or transformation from the original.
neoplasm new and abnormal growth or tumor that can be benign or malignant.
oncogenic Cancer causing.
primary site term used to designate where a malignant tumor first appeared.
relapse return of disease symptoms after a period of improvement.
remission period during which symptoms of a disease or disorder leave. Can be temporary.
biopsy excision of a small piece of tissue for microscopic examination to assist in determining a diagnosis.
cytologic testing examination of cells to determine their structure and origin. Pap smears are a form of cytologic testing.
exploratory surgery surgery performed for the purpose of determining if cancer is present or if a known cancer has spread. Biopsies are generally performed.
staging laparotomy surgical procedure in which the abdomen is entered to determine the extent and staging of a tumor.
chemotherapy treating disease by using chemicals that have a toxic effect on the body, especially cancerous tissue.
hormone therapy treatment of cancer with natural hormones or with chemicals that produce hormonelike effects.
immunotherapy strengthening the immune system to attack cancerous cells.
palliative therapy treatment designed to reduce the intensity of painful symptoms, but does not produce a cure.
radiation therapy Exposing tumors and surrounding tissues to X-rays or gamma rays to interfere w/their ability to multiply.
radical surgery extensive surgery to remove as much tissue associated with a tumor as possible.
radioactive implant embedding a radioactive source directly into tissue to provide a highly localized radiation dosage to damage nearby cancerous cells. Also called brachytherapy.
bx biopsy
Ca cancer
chemo chemotherapy
CIS carcinoma in situ
5-FU 5-fluorouracil
GA gallium
mets metastases
MTX methotrexate
prot protocol
st stage
TNM tumor, nodes, metastases
Created by: AltheaMathews