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Animal Bites


Cause of rabies Rhabdovirus: genus Lyssavirus
Most common animal that can give rabies in asia Dogs, followed by cats
Total deaths per year of rabies 55,000. 31,000 from southeast asia
what Percentage of rabies victims are children 53%
Mode of rabies transmission saliva, or scratches (but saliva on the claw causes it) aerosol transmission (rare) eating infected animal
preventive measures for rabies avoid the animal, vaccinate all pets (starting at 3 months then yearly)
how long should exotic animals be quarantined? 90 days
incubation period for humans (rabies) up to 7 years, 5-7 years
Most common site for rabies bite or scratch legs, then hands
the closer the site of infection is to the head the shorter the inoculation period (true or false?) true
what phase starts after initial bite, and what symptoms are present? the local latent phase, no symptoms
upon rabies bite what is the best method to cure? inject vaccine 50% on site of infection, the other half intramuscular within 7 days of bite
pathogenesis of rabies after staying in the affected area it will move to the end motor plate, going up the nerves (motor, autonomic and sensory), then to spinal cord, then to hair,then to saliva, lacrimal gland and liver
movement rate of rabies up nerves 100mm per day
duration of rabies incubation period 10-90 days (but can last from 4 days to 7 years) and is asymptomatic
what happens when rabies enters a nerve? it goes to the dorsal root ganglion, then to the spinal cord, then brain stem, then cerebrum thus starting the centrifugal flow to the salivary glands, hair and lacrimal glands
host factors that reduce the incubation period Young age These lower the immune system Immunocompromised or given steroids for medical problems More severe more saliva Severity of the bite Lots of saliva Large inoculum Proximity to the head
duration and description of prodromal period (rabies) lasts 2-10 days and correlates to the virus entering the CNS
symptoms during prodromal period (rabies) behavioral changes, fever, nausea, vomiting
Created by: betahelix