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Nervous System 6

Diseases fo the Nervous System

QuestionAnswer
Meningitis is an? acute inflammation of the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater.
The meninges are the? protective membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
Meningitis is an infectious disease that affects? children and young adults.
Meningitis can be caused by a? bacterial or viral infection.
Bacterial meningitis can be? serious and deadly.
Most recover completely from? viral meningitis?
The infecting organism can reach the meninges from the? middle ear, upper respiratory tract, frontal sinuses, or carried in the blood from other infected sites.
Symptoms of meningitis include? 1. Hyperthermia (temperature greater than 104) 2. Chills 3. N + V (nausea and vomiting) 4. Sever cephalalgia (headache) caused by an increased ICP (inter-cranial pressure).
Symptoms of meningitis include continued? 5. Stiff neck 6. Rash 7. Seizures 8. Coma (unconsciousness without response to stimuli).
The hyperthermia can cause? delirium (confusion) convulsions, and coma (unconsciousness without response to stimuli).
Dx (Diagnosis) of meningitis is confirmed with a? LP (lumbar puncture) AKA "spinal tap"
The CSF (cerebral spinal fluid) will contain? protein, leukocytes (white blood cells), and the infecting organism.
Tx (treatment) for meningitis include:? 1. Antibiotic therapy for bacterial infections. 2. Antipyretics (tylenol, motrin) for pyrexia (fever) control. 3. I.V. (intravenous) therapy for dehydration.
Without treatment (Tx), permanent brain damage may occur causing? blindness,deafness,paralysis,mental retardation low IQ (low intelligence quota, hydrocephalus (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain caused by an obstruction of a normal flow of CSF (cerebral spinal fluid), and death.
Meningitis is most commonly caused by? meningococcus or pneumococcus.
Immunizations for meningococcal infections include? Menactra and Menomune.
Immunizations for pneumococcal infections include? pneumovax 23 and Pnu-Immune 23.
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain usually caused by? herpes simplex 1, influenza, rubeola (measles), parotitis (mumps), rubella (German measles), varicella (chicken pox), and arbovirus (West Nile virus).
Signs and symptoms of encephalitis range from mild to severe and may include? 1. Cephalalgia (headache). 2. Pyrexia (fever). 3. Lethargy (mental sluggishness). 4. Personality changes. 5. Seizures. 6. Paralysis.
Risk factors for encephalitis include? 1. Children. 2. Elderly 3. Those who are immunocompromised.
Dx (diagnosis) of encephalitis is confirmed with a? LP (lumbar puncture), AKA "spinal tap".
Treatment of encephalitis includes? 1. Controlling pyrexia (fever) and ICP (intracranial pressure). 2. Maintain fluid and electrolyte balance. 3. Careful monitoring of respiratory and kidney function.
Rabies is an inflammatory disease of the? brain and spinal cord.
Rabies is transmitted through? bites and scratches of rabid animals.
Animals that commonly contract rabies are? 1. Dogs 2. Cats 3. Wolves 4. Raccoons 5. Skunks 6. Foxes 7. Bats 8. Humans.
The onset of symptoms for rabies usually appear? 3 weeks to 3 months after exposure.
Signs and symptoms of rabies include? 1. Pyrexia (fever). 2. Generalized pain. 3. Mental derangement (insanity) 4. Rage. 5. Convulsions. 6. Paralysis. 7. Hydrophobia (fear of water). 8. aphagia (inability to swallow. 9. A production of a profuse sticky frothy saliva.
Once visible symptoms develop, the mortality rate for rabies is almost? 100%.
Treatment (Tx) for rabies includes? 3 subQ antirabies injections over 3 weeks.
Animals infected with rabies exhibit change in temperament such as? 1. Wild animals may act tame. 2. The tameness is followed by a furious stage where the animal bites everything.
In the final stage of rabies there is? foaming at the mouth and death.
Shingles is an acute and chronic sensory neuritis caused by the latency (time between exposure of the the varicella zoster (chicken pox) virus. Shingles is AKA? herpes zoster.
Herpes zoster is the sequela (after math) of? varicella zoster (chicken pox).
Signs and symptoms of shingles include? 1. A painful unilateral (one side) vesicluar (blisters) rash. 2. Pruritus (itching). 3. Scarring (cicatrices).
An outbreak of shingles commonly lasts? 2 - 4 weeks.
Shingles most commonly occurs in people over the age of? 50.
Treatment (Tx) of shingles includes? 1. Antiviral therapy (Zovirax). 2. Narcotic analgesics (Vicodin). 3. Antiprurtics (Caladryl). 4. SAIDS (steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs. {prednisone}.
Is there a cure for Shingles? No.
Activation of the dormant VZV (varicella zoster virus) is associated with? 1. A compromised immune system. 2. Poorly controlled stress.
Reye syndrome (RS) is an encephalopathy (disease condition of the brain) associated with the combination of? children, viral infections, and the use of ASA (aspirin).
RS (Reye Syndrome) can cause an increased)? ICP (intracranial pressure.
Signs and symptoms of Reye Syndrome (RS) include? 1. Persistent vomiting. 2. Personality changes. 3. Lethargy (mental sluggishness). 4. Confusion. 5. Seizures. 6. Coma (unconsciousness without response to stimuli).
Treatment (Tx) of Reye Syndrome (RS)includes? 1. Controlling cerebral swelling. 2. Lower ICP (intracranial pressure) with the use of SAIDS (anti-inflammatory drugs){Decadrone}.
With proper treatment(Tx) the recovery rate for Reye syndrome (RS) is? 85 to 90 percent.
Tetanus is an acute infection of motor neurons caused by? the tetanus bacillus that lives in the intestines of animals and humans.
Tetanus is found in? fecal material.
Tetanus bacilli persist as spores indefinitely (40 plus years) in the? soil.
Wounds most susceptible to tetanus are? ragged lacerated (cut or torn) tissue contaminated with soil.
Tetanus produces a powerful toxin that circulates to the? motor neurons (nerve cells).
Affected motor neurons cause the muscles to become rigid with? painful spasms and convulsions.
The first muscles to be affected by tetanus are located in the jaw, hence the name? "lockjaw".
These muscles cannot relax and the mouth is? tightly closed.
The neck is stiff and there is? dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
If the muscles of ventilation (respiration)are affected? asphyxiation (suffocation) can occur.
Tetanus has a incubation period of? 1 to 3 weeks and the toxin travels slowly.
Treatment (Tx) of tetanus includes? 1. Debridement of the wound. 2. Administration of Td (tetanus and diphtheria booster immunization).
Debridement means? thorough cleansing, removal of necrosed tissue, and removal of (FBs) foreign bodies.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an idiopathic autoimmune, chronic, progressive, degenerative disease of the? CNS (central nervous system).
MS (multiple sclerosis) usually effects adult women between the ages of? 20 to 40.
The most common form of multiple sclerosis (MS)is called? relapsing-remitting (subside-return).
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include? 1. Loss of balance. 2. Ataxia (no coordination. 3. Tingling and numbness in extremities. 4. Shaking Tremor 5. Progressive fatigue and muscular weakness. 6. Dysphasia (difficulty speaking. 7. Euresis (loss of bladder control.
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include continued? 8. Blurred vision and diplopia (double vision). 9. Nystagmus (involuntary rapid movements of the eyeballs. 10. Blindness. 11. cognitive dysfunction (comprehension, memory, judgement, and reasoning). 12. Decreased libido (sex drive).
Signs and symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) include continued? 13. ED (erectile dysfunction). 14. MDD (major depressive disorder).
Treatment (Tx) of multiple sclerosis (MS) includes? Betaseron (interferon) to decrease the severity of symptoms and slow the progression.
The risk factor for multiple sclerosis (MS) increases with a? high fat diet and growing up in a cold climate.
Amotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is AKA? Lou Gehrig's disease.
ALS (Amyotropic lateral sclerosis) is an? idiopathic terminal neurological disease causing a progressive loss of motor neurons.
Symptoms of amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) includes? 1. Atrophy (no development) muscles in arms and legs. 2. Muscular dysfunction of the mouth and throat. 3. Muscular twitching.
Death of amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) usually occurs? 3 to 5 years after onset of symptoms and generally results from pulmonary failure.
Amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS)commonly occurs during the? 50s and 60s.
Amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is slightly more common in? men.
Diagnosis (Dx) of amyotropic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is confirmed with an? EMG (electromyogram).
Parkinson's disease (PD) is an idiopathic (unknown disease) and gradual progressive degeneration of the neurons that control? body movement and coordination.
People afflicted with PD (Parkinson's Disease) produce insufficient amounts of neurotransmitter in the brain called? dopamine.
Parkinson's Disease (PD) is more common in Caucasian men and the average age of onset is? 50
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include? 1. Tremors (pill-rolling). 2. Rigid muscles and myalgia (muscle pain). 3. Loss of reflexes. 4. Mask-like facial expression. 5. Shuffling hurried gait. 6. Bradykinesia (slow movement). 7. Stooped posture.
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include continued? 8. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)choking and drooling. 9. Monotone speech. 10. Incontinence (loss of bladder and/or bowel control. 11. Constipation (difficult defecation). 12. Loss of libido (sex drive). 13. ED (erectile dysfunction).
Signs and symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) include continued? 14. MDD (major depressive disorder).
Treatment (Tx) for Parkinson's Disease (PD) includes? 1. Anti-Parkinson's medication (Sinemet). 2. PT (physical therapy). 3. Tandem bike riding.
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a? progressive degenerative genetic brain disease causing dementia usually after age 60.
Dementia is a? loss of mental skills affecting daily life.
The seven warning signs of AD (Alzheimer's Disease) include? 1. Asking the same question over and over again. 2. Repeating the same story, word for word, again and again.
The seven warning signs of AD (Alzheimer's Disease) include continued? 3. Forgetting how to cook, or how to make repairs, or how to play cards- activities that were previously done with ease and regularity. 4. Losing one's ability to pay bills or balance one's checkbook.
The seven warning signs of AD (Alzheimer's Disease) include continued? 5. Getting lost in familiar surroundings, or misplacing household objects. 6. Neglecting to bathe, or wearing the same cloths over and over again, while insisting that they have taken a bath or that their clothes are still clean.
The seven warning signs of AD (Alzheimer's Disease) include continued? 7. Relying on someone else, such as a spouse, to make decisions or answer questions, they previously would have handled themselves.
When Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes more severe after dusk, it is called? "sundowning".
Alzheimer's disease (AD) can cause? depression, irritability, aggressiveness, and delusions (false beliefs).
Eventually a person with Alzheimer's disease (AD) will need? complete care.
Familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) accounts for? 80 percent of cases.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is usually diagnosed after age 65 and every five years afterwards the incidence? doubles.
The duration of Alzheimer's disease (AD) can be? 2 to 20 years.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) affects more? women (1 in 4) than men (1 in 6).
Increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with? obesity, chronic HTN (hypertension) and DM (diabetes mellitus).
Research suggests Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk is lowered by? regular mental and physical activity and a healthy diet.
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is diagnosed when other conditions are ruled out and with the use of a? PET (positron emission tomography).
A common medication used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) is? Aricept.
Epilepsy is abnormal electrical activity that spreads over the cerebrum and can manifest itself as a? seizure.
Epilepsy can be caused by: 1. Brain damage 2. BT (Brain tumor) 3. ETOH (alcohol) and or drug abuse. 4. Uremia (azotemia). 5. Meningitis or encephalitis. 6. Toxemia (eclampsia). 7. Hyperthermia (body temperature greater than 104). 8. Heredity.
Types of seizures include? 1. Grand mal seizures (convulsions). 2. Petit mal (absence) seizures.
Grand mal seizures are characterized by? a. LOC (loss of consciousness). b. Tongue biting. c. Hyper-salivation. d. Enuresis (loss of bladder control). e. Tonic-clonic movements.
Tonic-clonic movements are? rapid contraction and relaxation of the muscles.
Petit mal (absence) seizures are characterized by? a. Eyelid fluttering, lip smacking, and chewing motions. b. loss of awareness (10 - 30 seconds). c. No memory of seizure.
Petit mal (absence) seizures are more common in? children
A warning sign or symptom of an impending seizure is called an? aura.
Seizures can be followed by a confused and lethargic (mental sluggishness) state of mind lasting 5 - 30 minutes called a? postictal state.
Diagnosis (Dx) of epilepsy is confirmed with an? EEG (electroencephalogram). MRI (magnetic resonance imaging).
A life threatening persistent seizure lasting more than 30 minutes is called? status epileptcus.
Treatment (Tx) for epilepsy includes? antiseizure medications (Dilantin).
Hydrocephalus is an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain caused by an obstruction of the normal flow of? CSF (cerebral spinal fluid).
Hydrocephalus causes the brain to be compressed resulting in? 1. Mental retardation (low intelligence quotient) {IQ} 2. Failure to grow normally. 3. Prominent forehead. 4. Bulging eyes. 5. Frightened expressions. 6. Veins of the scalp are prominent.
Treatment (Tx) for hydrocephalus includes? surgical placement of a shunt (detour) to relieve the ICP (Intracranial pressure).
Spina bifida (SB) is a congenital NTD (neural tube defect) where? one or more vertebrae fail to develop.
Spina bifida (SB) can be accompanied by one or more of the following? a. hydrocephalus (abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain caused by an obstruction in the brain caused by an obstruction of the normal flow of CSF (cerebral spinal fluid). b. cleft lip and/or palate. c. club foot. d. Esotropia (cross eyed).
Four types of spina bifida (SB) include? 1. SBO (spina bifida occulta).
Spina bifida occulta (SBO) can cause? a. Incorrect posture. b. inability to walk. c. incontinence (unable to control bladder or bowel) d. A tuft of hair over the vertebral defect.
This vertebral defect can be corrected by? surgery.
A meningocele is characterized by the? meninges protruding through the opening in the vertebral defect.
A meningocele can be corrected by? surgery.
A meningomyelocele is characterized by the? meninges and spinal cord protruding through the opening in the vertebral defect.
Meningomyelocele can cause? mental retardation (IQ of 70 or lower), failure to develop and paralysis.
A myelocele is characterized by? a disorganized spinal cord that is exposed.
A myelocele is usually? fatal.
Prophylactic (preventive) treatment for spina bifida (SB) includes? three month pregravida folic (folate) supplements of 400 mcg/day.
Rich sources of folic acid (folate) include? broccoli, spinach, asparagus, legumes (beans, and peas), strawberries, oranges, and bananas.
Cerebral palsy (CP) is non-progressive brain damage resulting in mental and/or motor retardation before the age of? three.
Causes of cerebral palsy (CP) include? 1. Gestational rubella (german measles) infection.
Causes of cerebral palsy (CP) include? 2. Drugs and/or alcohol (ETOH) during gestation (pregnancy).
Causes of cerebral palsy (CP) include? 3. Hypoxia (deficient oxygen) in utero.
Causes of cerebral palsy (CP) include? 4. Erythroblastosis fetalis (Rh) incompatibility disease).
Cerebral palsy (CP) can also be? idiopathic (unknown cause).
A cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is aka? "stroke."
A cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is brain damage commonly resulting from? 1. Cerebral aneurysm (weakness in an arterial septum).
A cerebral aneurysm can be detected with? cerebral angiography (process of recording the cerebral arteries.
Cerebral infarction is? an occlusion of an artery.
Risk factors for a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 1. Atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries caused by fatty plaque. 2. Chronic HTN (hypertension). 3. A-fib (atrial fibrillation).
Increased risk of CVA (cerebral vascular accident) has been linked to a deficiency of? vitamin C and folate (folic acid).
Cerebral vascular accidents (CVAs) usually occur after the age of? 55.
Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) risk is? 1 in 5 for women over 55 and 1 and 6 for men over 55.
African-Americans are _________ as likely to have a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) than Caucasians? twice
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 1. Dysphasia (difficulty speaking.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 2. Blurred vision (double vision).
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 3. Ataxia (no coordination).
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 4. Vertigo (sensation of spinning)
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 5. N + V (nausea and vomiting).
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 6. Hemiparesis (partial paralysis of one side of the body.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 7. Hemiplegia (paralysis of one side of the body).
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 8. LOC (loss of consciousness).
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) include? 9. FAST (facial drooping, arm weakness, speech difficulties, time.
Diagnosis (Dx) of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) is confirmed with? CT (computerized tomography).
Treatment (Tx) of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA( includes? 1. Thrombolytic (break up) therapy (Activase) is effective within the first 3 hours of the onset of symptoms for a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) caused by an embolus (floating clot). {clot buster}.
Once the brain tissue necroses (die) it will not? regenerate (heal).
Treatment (Tx) of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA( includes? 2. Anti-hypertensives (Tenormin)
Treatment (Tx) of a cerebral vascular accident (CVA( includes? 3. Anticoagulants (coumadin)
Rehabilitation for a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) entails? teaching non-damaged parts of the brain to perform the duties of the necrosed brain tissue.
A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is aka? "little stroke" or "mini-stroke."
A TIA (transient ischemic attack) is characterized by? ischemic (oxygen starved) brain tissue caused by a reduced flow of blood to the brain.
Causes of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) include? 1. Carotid atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries caused by fatty plaque.
Causes of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) include? 2. Emboli (floating clot)
Signs and symptoms of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) are the same as a cerebral vascular accident (CVA) except? they do not last.
Treatment (Tx) of a transient ischemic attack (TIA) includes? prophylactic (preventive) anticoagulant therapy (aspirin {ASA}, coumadin, Plavix).
A cerebral concussion (CC) is a transient (temporary) brain disorder resulting from a? head trauma.
Signs and symptoms of a cerebral concussion (CC) include? 1. LOC (loss of consciousness). 2. Amnesia about the accident. 3. Nausea. 4. Vertigo (sensation of spinning). 5. Cephalalgia (headache). 6. Perseverating (saying the same thing over and over again).
Treatment (Tx) of a cerebral concussion (CC) includes? NVS (neurological vital signs) {"neuro checks"} performed every 2 hours.
Neurological vital signs (NVS){"neuro checks"} include? 1. LOC (level of consciousness) status and orientation (understanding) of spheres (person, place, and time).
Neurological vital signs (NVS){"neuro checks"} include? 2. PEARRLA (pupils, equal, round, and reactive to light accommodation.
Neurological vital signs (NVS){"neuro checks"} include? 3. Gait check (coordination when walking).
A cerebral contusion refers to a? TBI (traumatic brain injury).
Complications associated with a cerebral contusion include? 1. Intracranial hemorrhages causing increased ICP (intracranial pressure) 2. Coma (unconsciousness without response to stimuli. 3. Permanent brain damage.
Intracranial hemorrhages include? 1. Epidural hemorrhage. 2. Subdural hematoma. 3. Subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Created by: Penny S