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BIO201 - CH 7 - Skeleton (axial & appendicular) - Marieb/Hoehn - Rio Salado

Skeleton accounts for __% of bone mass or about __ lbs. 20%, 30 lbs
Axial skeleton has __ bones & __ major regions. 80, 3
The axial skeleton supports __. Head, neck, and trunk.
The axial skeleton protects __. Brain, spinal cord, & organs of thorax.
What is the most complex of bony structures? The Skull
How many bones in the skull? 22
What 2 "bones" form the skull? Cranium & facial bones
Cranium Enclose & protect brain & provide attachment sites for head & neck muscles.
Facial bones - 5 functions (1) Face framework, (2) cavities for sense organs, (3) openings for air & food, (4) secure teeth, (5) achor facial muscles.
Most skull bones are __ bones. Flat
Which skull bone is not flat? Mandible
All bones of adult skull are firmly united by interlocking joints called __. Sutures
All bones of adult skull are firmly united by interlocking joints called __. Saw-toothed or serrated
Name the major skull sutures that connect crainial. Coronal, sagittal, squamous & lambdoid sutures.
The __ bones form the skull's anterior. Facial Bones
Cranium can be divided into a __ & __. Vault & Base
Calvaria Cranium vault - forms superior, lateral & posterior skull & forehead.
Cranial Base "Floor" - forms skull's inferior.
Cranial base is divided into 3 steps/fossae Anterior, middle & posterior fossae.
The brain sits snugly in the __. Cranial Fossae
The brain occupies the __ cavity. Cranial cavity.
Number of cranial nerves. 12 pairs.
Name the 8 cranial bones. 2 parietal, 2 temporal, frontal occipital, sphenoid, & ethmoid.
What is known as the bony "helmet"? The Cranium.
Why is the cranium self-bracing? Curved superior - strong, though thin.
Common name of the frontal squama. Forehead.
What bones lie under the eyebrows? Supraorbital margins
Which bone supports the frontal lobes? Anterior cranial fossa.
Which 2 terms are used interchangeably to indicate the entire group of cranial bones? Cranial vault or calvaria.
Parietal Bones Curved, retangular form most of superior & lateral aspect of skull.
Occiptal Bone Forms most of skull's posterior & base.
What bone forms walls of posterior cranial fossa? Occipital Bone
Where does the brain connect w/spinal cord? Foramen Magnum
The __ lines anchor many neck & back muscles. Nuchal Lines.
What marks the upper limit of the neck? Superior nuchal line.
Each temporal bone has 4 major areas? Squamous, tympanic, mastoid & petrous regions.
Cheekbone Zygomatic Arch
TMJ Temporomandibular Joint
Tympanic Region Surrounds external ear canal.
Where do tongue muscles attach? Styloid process.
Mastoid process is full of __. Air cavities - the mastoid sinuses.
Sphenoid Bone Complex, butterfly-shaped, 3 proccess (greater/lesser wings & pterygoid) - secures brain w/in skull.
What allows crainial nerves that control eye movements to enter orbit? Superior orbital fissure.
Facial nerves pass through __. Foramen rotundum & foramen ovale.
Most deeply situated bone of skull. Ethmoid Bone
Forms the roof of nasal cavities. Cribriform Plates.
Helps secure the brain to cranial cavity. Crista Galli
The Crista Galli Triangular process to which the dura mater attaches & is secured to cranial cavity.
The facial skeleton has __ bones. 14 - maxillae (2), zygomatics (2), nasals (2), lacrimals (2), palatines (2), inferior conchae (2), mandible (1), & vomer (1).
What anchors lower teeth? Mandibular body
Tooth sensation nerves enter through the __. Mandibular foramina.
The upper teeth are carried in their __. Alveolar margins.
What bone is the keystone of the facial skeleton? The maxilla - forms anterior portion of hard palate.
Orbits Bony cavities in which eyes are encased & cushioned by fatty tissue.
Nasal cavity is made of? Bone & hyaline.
Which 5 skull bones contain mucosa-lined, air-filled sinues? Frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid, & paired maxillary bones.
Paranasal sinuses Sinuses that cluster around the nasal cavity.
Which sinuses enhance resonance of voice? Paranasal Sinuses
Hyoid Bone Movable base for tongue - works w/larynx - unique as it is only bone that doesn't articulate w/another bone.
How many bones in vertebrae? 26 irregular bones.
How many major divisions in vetebrae? 5 Major
Name the major divisions of vertebrae? Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum & coccyx.
What trick to use for remembering #'s of vertebrae? Common meal times of 7am, noon, & 5pm.
Scoliosis occurs where? Lateral curvature in thoracic region.
Kyphosis Hunchback - dosally exaggerated thoracic curve.
Lordosis Swayback - accentuated lumbar curvature.
Which region of vertebrae bears the most weight? Lumbar region.
Major supporting ligaments of vertebrae colum are? Anterior & posterior longitudinal ligaments.
Anterior longitiudinal ligamentss Prevents hyperextension of spine (too far back).
Posterior longitudinal ligaments Prevents hyperflexion (too far forward) of spine.
Ligament flavum Stretches as we bend forward, then recoils.
2 Parts of intervertebral disc (1) nuculeus pulposus & (2) anulus fibrosus
Nucleus Pulposus In vertebral disc - rubberball-like & gives discs its elasticity & compressibility.
Anulus Fibrosus Fibrocartilage that collars around nucleus pulposus in intervertebral disc.
What limits the expansion of the nucleus pulposus? Anulus fibrosus
What ruptures in a herniated disc? Rupture of anulus fibrosus.
Percutaneous laser disc decompression Partial vaporization of herniated disc in outpatient setting.
Successive vertebrae are joined where? Both at their bodies and their articulated processes.
The spinal nerves of the spinal cord pass through __. Intervertebral foramina.
3 Movements that can occur between vertebrae are? (1) flexion & extension, (2) lateral flexion & (3) rotation.
There are __ cervical vertebrae. 7
__ is not bifid & is much larger than other cervical vertebrae. C7
C7 The landmark cervical vertebrae for counting.
Which is the vertebra prominens of the cervical vertebrae? C7
Atlas C1-just like atlas that supports the world (skull).
What structural parts of the vertebra are sites of muscle attachment? The spinous & transverse processes.
Axis C2-Has dens or odontoid process that is missing body of atlas.
Dens Pivot for rotation of atlas - missing part of C1 (atlas) that is found in c2.
There are __ thoracic vertebrae. 12
All thoracic vertebrae articulate with the __. Ribs
The thoracic vertebrae __ in size from first to last. Increase
The __ of the thoracic vertebrae receive the heads of the ribs. Demifacets
There are __ lumbar vertebrae. 5
The body of cervical vertebrae are __. Oval shaped.
The body of thoracic vertebrae are __. Heart-shaped
The body of lumbar vertebrae are __. Kidney-shpaed
What prevents rotation of lumbar spine? Orientation of facets - they lock the lumbar vertebrae together & provide stability.
How many fused vertebrae in sacrum? 5
Last sacral vertebrae fails to fuse medially & results in gap/opening. Sacral Hiatus
The bony underpinnings of chest is the __. Thoracic cage or bony thorax.
The __ secure the ribs to the sternum. Costal cartilages.
Bony thorax protects __. Vital organs of the thoracic cavity.
Bony thorax supports __. Shoulder girdles & upper limbs & provides attachment points for neck, back, chest, & shoulder muscles.
The intercostal spaces between ribs are occupied by __ muscles. Intercostal
The sternum is fusion of which 3 bones? Manubrium, body & xiphoid process.
Manubrium Top bone of sternum.
Body of sternum Midportion of sternum
Xiphoid Process End of sternum
3 Anatomical landmarks of sternum. Jugular notch, sternal angle, xiphisternal joint
Jugular notch in line with __. Disc between 2nd & 3rd thoracic vertebrae - where left cartoid artery issues from aorta.
Sternal angle in line with __. Disc between L4&L5 - good to find 2nd rib for specific heart valves.
Xiphisternal joint lies opposite of __. T9
There are __ pairs of ribs. 12
Which ribs are known as vertebrosternal ribs? Rib pairs 1-7 - "The true ribs".
Why are ribs 8-12 called false? They lack actual attachment to the sternum.
Vertebronchodral ribs Ribs 8-10 - joins costal cartilage above it.
Vertebral/Floating ribs Ribs 11 & 12 - no anterior attachment.
Vertebral/Floating ribs Ribs 11 & 12 - no anterior attachment.
Pectoral girdles attach __. Upper limbs to the body trunk.
Pelvic girdle secures the __. Lower limbs.
Pectoral girdle is also known as __. Shoulder girdle.
The pectoral girdle consists of __ & __. Clavicle & scapula
Clavicles Collarbones - anchor muscles & act as braces - has sternal & acromial end.
Scapulae Shoulder blades - dorsal surface of rib cage between ribs 2 & 7.
__ Separates bones form the framework of each upper limb. 30
Which nerve is responsible for "funny bone" sensation? Ulnar nerve
Antebrachium Forearm
Which bone forms elbow joint w/humerus? Ulna
Ulna "Elbow" - makes up elbow w/humerus.
Radius "Rod" - major forearm bone contributing to wrist joint.
When the __ moves, the hand moves also. Radius
Colle's fracture Break in the distal end of the radius. Common when breaking a fall.
Carpus Wrist
Metacarpus Palm
Carpals 8 marble-sized short bones united by ligaments.
Pnumonic to memorize carpals is? Sally Left The Party To Take Cathy Home.
How many metacarpal bones? 5
Which bones are known as knucles? Metacarpal "heads".
Metacarpal 1 Thumb
Each hand contains __ minature bones called phalanges. 14
Each finger has __ phalanges. 3
The thumb has no middle __. Phalanx
The pelvic girdle supports the __ of pelvis. Visceral organs.
The __ girdle is secured to axial skeleton by some of the strongest ligaments in the body. Pelvic
Os Coxae Coxal bone - hip
Bony Pelvis Basin-like structure formed by hip bones, sacrum & coccyx.
3 boundaries of hip bone are: Ilium, ischium & pubis.
ilium "flank"
The weight of body is transmitted from spine to pelvis through __. Sacroiliac joint
Ischium "Hip" - posteroinferior part of hip bone.
When we sit, the weight is born by the __. Ischial tuberosities.
What arch helps differentiate male & female pelves? Pubic arch/subpubic angle.
False pelvis Part of abdomen really - supports abdominal viscera.
True pelvis Forms deep bowl containing pelvic organs.
3 segments of lower limb are? Thigh, leg & foot.
Broken hip involves Neck of the femur break.
The patella is enclosed in which tendon? Quadriceps
The __ articulates w/femur to form knee joint. Medial Tibia
Tibia "Shinbone" - 2nd only to femur for size.
Medial bulge of ankle formed by __. Medial malleolus.
Fibula Doesn't bear weight - muscles attach to
Which bone forms bulge of ankle? Lateral malleolus
Pott's Fracture Occurs at the distal end of fibula, tibia, or both. Common sports injury.
What makes the foot pliable? Segmentation
Number of bones in tarsus. 7
Body weight is carried primarily in the foot by? Talus (ankle) & calcaneus (heel bone).
Name the 3 arches of the foot. Medial, lateral, & transverse.
Primary curvatures Thoracic & sacral curvatures of an infant's spine arches like a 4-legged animal. Convex posteriorly.
Secondary curvatures Of infant - cervical & lumbar. Convex anteriorly.
True "military posture" doesn't develop until __. Adolescence.
Primary curvatures Thoracic & sacral curvatures
Secondary curvatures Cervical & lumbar
True "military posture" doesn't develop until __. Adolescence.
There are __ curvatures to the spine and __ additional regions. 3 curvatures, 2 additional regions
Each of the spine curvations are characterized by its own unique type of __. Vertebrae
Each upper limb has __ bones. 30
The __ curvature becomes prominent when the baby holds up its head independently. Cervical
The __ curvature develops when the baby begins to walk. Lumbar
The __ sinuses are adjacent to middle ear cavity & at higher risk for infection from throat. Mastoid sinuses
All vertebra possess a body, __ & __. Transverse process & vertebral foramen.
Lordosis affects the __ vertebrae. Lumbar
The term "vertebrochondral ribs" refers to ribs that __. Attach to each other before they attach to the sternum.
The formen magnum goes through the __ bone. Occipital bone
The dens __ the axis. Projects from
The tubercule of a rib __ w/transverse process of vertebrae. Articulates
The most common fracture site of the humerous. Surgical neck.
Teh __ bones contain openings that allow tear ducts to pass. Lacrimnal
A temporal bone protrusion riddled w/sinuses is the __ process. Mastoid
Failure of maxillary bones causes __. Cleft palate.
Which cranial bones have coronal shaped sutures? Parietal & frontal
Which cranial bones have lambdoid shaped sutures? Occipital & parietal
Which cranial bones have sagittal shaped sutures? R & L parietal bones
Which cranial bones have squamous shaped sutures? Temporal & parietal
Allows the head to nod "yes"? Atlas
Thickest centrum w/short blunt spinous processes. Lumbar vertebrae
These bones have articular facets for ribs. Thoracic vertebrae
The fingers have 3 of these bones & the thumb only 2. Phalanges
Forearm bone that articulates w/most carpals. Radius
Only the __ vertebrae have transverse foramina. Cervical
The largest foramen in the body is the __. Obrurator foramen.
The smallest short bone in the hand is the __. Pisiform
The styloid process of the __ points to the thumb. Radius
The large fossa on the anterior aspect of the scapula. Subscapular fossa
Most posterior bone of the cranium. Occipital
Created by: Ladystorm