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MT- Ch 5 Vocab

Medical Terminology Vocabulary Chapter 5

acetabulum cup-shaped depression in the hip bone into which the top of the femur sits
acromion part of the scapula that connects to the clavicle
amphiarthrosis cartilaginous joint having some movement at the union of two bones
ankle hinged area between the lower leg bones and the bones of the foot
articular cartilage cartilage at a joint
articulation point at which two bones join together to allow movement
atlas first cervical vertebra
axis second cervical vertebra
bone hard connective tissue that forms the skeleton of the body
bone head upper, rounded end of a bone
bone phagocyte bone cell that ingests dead bone and bone debris
bursa sac lined with synovial membrane that fills the spaces between tendons and joints
calcaneus heel bone
calcium mineral important in the formation of bone
cancellous bone spongy bone with a latticelike structure
cardiac muscle striated involuntary muscle of the heart
carpus, carpal bone wrist; wrist bone
cartilage flexible connective tissue found in joints, fetal skeleton, and the lining of various parts of the body
cartilaginous disk thick, circular mass of cartilage between the verebrae of the spinal column
cervical vertebrae seven vertebrae of the spinal column located in the neck
clavicle curved bone of the shoulder that joins to the scapula; collar bone
coccyx small bone consisting of four fused vertebrae at the end of the spinal column; tailbone
compact bone hard bone with a tightly woven structure
condyle rounded surface at the end of a bone
crest bony ridge
diaphysis long middle section of a long bone; shaft
diarthroses freely movable joints
disk see cartilaginous disk
dorsal vertebrae thoracic vertebrae
elbow joint between the upper arm and the forearm
endosteum lining of the medullary cavity
epiphyseal plate cartilaginous tissue that is replaced during growth years, but eventually calcifies and disappears when growth stops
ethmoid bone irregular bone of the face attached to the sphenoid bone
ethmoid sinuses sinuses on both sides of the nasal cavities between each eye and the sphenoid sinus
fascia sheet of fibrous tissue that encloses muscles
femur long bone of the thigh
fibula smallest long bone of the lower leg
fissure deep furrow or slit
flat bones thin, flattened bones that cover certain areas, as of the skull
fontanelle soft, membranous section on top of an infant's skull
foramen opening or perforation through a bone
foramen magnum opening in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes
fossa depression, as in a bone
frontal bone large bone of the skull that forms the top of the head and forehead
frontal sinuses sinuses above the eyes
heel back, rounded portion of the foot
humerus long bone of the arm connecting to the scapula on top and the radius and ulna at the bottom
ilium wide portion of the hip bone
insertion point at which a muscle attaches to a movable bone
intervertebral disk see cartilaginous disk
involuntary muscle muscle not movable at will
irregular bones any of a group of bones with a special shape to fit into certain areas of the skeleton, such as the skull
ischium one of three fused bones that form the pelvic girdle
joint place of joining between two or more bones
lacrimal bone thin, flat bone of the face
lamina thin, flat part of either side of the arch of a vertebra
ligament sheet of fibrous tissue connecting and supporting bones; attaches bone to bone
long bone any bone of the extremities with a shaft
lumbar vertebrae five vertebrae of the lower back
malleolus rounded protrusion of the tibia or fibula on either side of the ankle
mandible u-shaped bone of the lower jaw
mandibular bone mandible
marrow connective tissue filling the medullary cavity, often rich in nutrients
mastoid process` protrusion of the temporal bone that sits behind the ear
maxillary bone bone of the upper jaw
maxillary sinus sinus on either side of the nasal cavity below the eyes
medullary cavity soft center cavity in bone that often holds marrow
metacarpal one of five bones of the hand between the wrist and the fingers
metaphysis section of a long bone between the epiphysis and diaphysis
metatarsal bones bones of the foot between the instep (arch) and the toes
muscle contractile tissue that plays a major role in the body movement
musculoskeletal system system of the body including the muscles and skeleton
nasal bones bones that form the bridge of the nose
nasal cavity cavity on either side of the nasal septum
neural canal space through which the spinal cord passes
nucleus pulposus fibrous mass in the center portion of the intervertebral disk
occipital bone bone that forms the lower back portion of the skull
olecranon curved end of the ulna to which tendons of the arm muscles attach; bony prominence of the elbow
origin point at which muscles attach to stationary bone
osseous tissue connective tissue into which calcium salts are deposited
ossification hardening into bone
osteoblast cell that forms bone
osteoclast large cell that reabsorbs and removes osseous tissue
osteocyte bone cell
palatine bone bone that helps form the hard palate and nasal cavity; located behind the maxillary bones
parietal bone flat, curved bone on either side of the upper part of the skull
patella large, sesamoid bone that forms the kneecap
pelvic cavity cup-shaped cavity formed by the large bones of the pelvic girdle; contains female reproductive organs, sigmoid colon, bladder, and rectum
pelvic girdle hip bones
pelvis cup-shaped ring of bone and ligaments at the base of the trunk
periosteum fibrous membrane covering the surface of bone
phalanges long bones of the fingers and toes
phosphorus mineral important to the formation of bone
process bony outgrowth or projection
pubes anteroinferior portion of the hip bone
pubic symphysis joint between the two public bones
radius shorter bone of the forearm
rib one of twenty-four bones that form the chest wall
sacrum next-to-last spinal vertebra made up of five fused bones; vertebra that forms part of the pelvis
scapula large flat bone that forms the shoulder blade
sella turcica bony depression in the sphenoid bone where the pituitary gland is located
sesamoid bone bone formed in a tendon over a joint
shin anterior ridge of the tibia
short bones square-shaped bones with approximately equal dimensions on all sides
sinus hollow cavity, especially either of two cavities on the sides of the nose
skeleton bony framework of the body
smooth muscle fibrous muscle of internal organs that acts involuntarily
sphenoid bone bone that forms the base of the skull
sphenoid sinus sinus above and behind the nose
spinal column column of vertebrae at the posterior of the body, from the neck to the coccyx
spinous process protrusion from the center of the vertebral arch
spongy bone bone with an open latticework filled with connective tissue or marrow
sternum long, flat bone that forms the midline of the anterior of the thorax
striated muscle muscle with a ribbed appearance that is controlled at will
syloid process peg-shaped protrusion from a bone
sulcus groove or furrow in the surface of bone
suture joining of two bone parts with a fibrous membrane
symphysis type of cartilaginous joint uniting two bones
synarthrosis fibrous joint with no movement
synovial fluid fluid that serves to lubricate joints
synovial joint a joint that moves
synovial membrane connective tissue lining the cavity of joints and producing the synovial fluid
tarsus, tarsal bones seven bones of the instep (arch of the foot)
temporal bone large bone forming the base and sides of the skull
temporomandibular joint (TMJ) joint of the lower jaw between the temporal bone and the mandible
tendon fibrous band that connects muscle to bone or other structures
thoracic vertebrae twelve vertebrae of the chest area
thorax part of the trunk between the neck and the chest
tibia larger of the two lower leg bones
transverse process protrusion on either side of the vertebral arch
trochanter bony protrusion at the upper end of the femur
true ribs seven upper ribs of the chest that attach to the sternum
tubercle slight bony elevation to which a ligamnet or muscle may be attahced
tuberosity large elevation in the surface of a bone
ulna larger bone of the forearm
vertebra one of the bony segements of the spinal column
vertebral column spinal column
visceral muscle smooth muscle
vitamin D vitamin important to the formation of bone
voluntary muscle striated muscle
vomer flat bone forming the nasal septum
zygomatic bone bone that forms the cheek
arthrography radiography of a joint
arthroscopy examination with an instrument that explores the interior of a joint
bone scan radiographic or nuclear medicine image of a bone
chiropractor health care professional who works to align the spinal column so as to treat certain ailments
densitometer device that measures bone density using light and x-rays
diskography radiographic image of an intervertebral disk by injection of a contrast medium into the center of the disk
electromyogram a graphic image of muscular action using electrical currents
goniometer instrument that measures angles or range of motion in a joint
myelography radiographic imaging of the spinal cord
orthopedist, orthopedic surgeon physician that examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders of the musculoskeletal system
osteopath physician who combines manipulative treatment with conventional therapeutic measures
podiatrist medical specialist who examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders of the foot
rheumatoid factor test test used to detect rheumatoid arthritis
rheumatologist physician who examines, diagnoses, and treats disorders of the joints and muculoskeletal system
serum calcium test for calcium in the blood
serum creatine phosphokinase enzyme active in muscle contraction; usually phosphokinase is elevated after a myocardial infarction and in the presence of other degenerative muscle diseases
serum phosphorus test for phosphorus in the blood
Tinel's sign "pins and needles" sensation felt when an injured nerve site is tapped
uric acid test test for acid content in urine; elevated levels may indicate gout
ankylosis stiffening of a joint, especially as a result of disease
arthralgia severe joint pain
arthritis any of various conditions involving joint inflammation
atrophy wasting away of tissue, organs, and cells, usually as a result of disease or loss of blood supply
bony necrosis death of portions of bone
bunion an inflamed bursa at the foot joint, between the big toe and the first metatarsal bone
bursitis inflammation of a bursa
calcar spur
carpal tunnel syndrome pain and paresthesia in the hand due to repetitive motion injury of the median nerve
chondromalacia softening of cartilage
closed fracture fracture with no open skin wound
Colles' fracture fracture of the lower end of the radius
comminuted fracture fracture with shattered bones
complex fracture fracture with part of the bone displaced
complicated fracture fracture involving extensive soft tissue injury
compound fracture fracture with an open skin wound; open fracture
compression fracture fracture of one or more vertebrae caused by compressing of the space between the vertebrae
contracture extreme resistance to the stretching of a muscle
crepitation, crepitus noise made by rubbing together of bones
degenerative arthritis arthritis with erosion of the cartilage
dislocation movement of a joint out of its normal position as a result of an injury or sudden, strenuous movement
dystonia abonormal tone in tissues
epiphysitis inflammation of the epiphysis
exostosis abnormal bone growth capped with cartilage
flaccid without tone; relaxed
fracture a break, especially in a bone
gouty arthritis, gout inflammation of the joints, present in gout; usually caused by uric acid crystals
greenstick fracture fracture with twisting or bending of the bone but not breaking; usually occurs in children
hairline fracture fracture with no bone separation or fragmentation
herniated disk protrusion of an intervertebral disk into the neural canal
hypertrophy abnormal increase as in muscle size
hypotonia abnormally reduced muscle tension
impacted fracture fracture in which a fragment from one part of the fracture is driven into the tissue of another part
incomplete fracture fracture that does not go entirely through a bone
kyphosis abnormal posterior spine curvature
leiomyoma benign tumor of smooth muscle
leiomyosarcoma malignant tumor of smooth muscle
lordosis abnormal anterior spine curvature resulting in a sway back
muscular dystrophy progressive degenerative disorder affecting the musculoskeletal system and, later, other organs
myalgia muscle pain
myeloma bone marrow tumor
myodynia muscle pain
myoma benign muscle tumor
myositis inflammation of a muscle
open fracture fracture with an open skin wound; compound fracture
ostealgia bone pain
osteoarthritis arthritis with loss of cartilage
osteodynia bone pain
osteoma benign bone tumor, usually on the skull or mandible
osteomyelitis inflammation of the bone marrow and surrounding bone
osteoporosis degenerative thinning of bone
osteosarcoma malignant tumor of bone
pathological fracture fracture occurring at the site of already damaged bone
phantom limb; phantom pain pain felt in a paralyzed or amputated limb
physical therapy movement therapy to restore use of damaged areas of the body
podagra pain in the big toe, often associated with gout
rhabdomyoma benign tumor in striated muscle
rhabdomyosarcoma malignant tumor in striated muscle
rheumatoid arthritis autoimmune disorder affecting connective tissue
rickets disease of the skeletal system, usually caused by vitamin D deficiency
rigidity stiffness
rigor stiffening
sciatica pain in the lower back, usually radiating down the leg, from a herniated disk or other injury or condition
scoliosis abnormal lateral curvature of the spinal column
sequestrum piece of dead tissue or bone separated from the surrounding area
simple fracture fracture with no open skin wound
spasm sudden, involuntary muscle contraction
spastic tending to have spasms
spina bifida congenital defect with deformity of the spinal column
spinal curvature abnormal curvature of the spine
spondylolisthesis degenerative condition in which one vertebra misaligns with the one below it; slipped disk
spondylolysis degenerative condition of the moving part of a vertebra
sprain injury to a joint without dislocation or fracture. (can involve a ligament). This is worse than a strain and often takes longer to heal than does a fracture and can be more painful
spur bony projection growing out of a bone; calcar
strain injury to a muscle as a result of improper use or overuse
subluxation partial dislocation, as between joint surfaces
talipes calcaneus deformity of the heel resulting from weakened calf muscles
talipes valgus foot deformity characterized by eversion of the foot
talipes varus foot deformity characterized by inversion of the foot
tendinitis, tendonitis inflammation of a tendon
tetany painfully long muscle contraction
tremor abnormal, repetitive muscle contractions
amputation cutting off of a limb or part of a limb
arthrocentesis removal of fluid from a joint with use of a puncture needle
arthrodesis surgical fusion of a joint to stiffen it
arthroplasty surgical replacement or repair of a joint
bone grafting transplantation of bone from one site to another
bunionectomy removal of a bunion
bursectomy removal of a bursa
casting forming of a cast in a mold; placing of fiberglass or plaster over a body part to prevent its movement
external fixation device device applied externally to hold a limb in place
internal fixation device device, such as a pin, inserted in bone to hold it in place
laminectomy removal of part of an intervertebral disk
myoplasty surgical repair of muscle tissue
orthosis, orthotic external appliance used to immobilize or assist the movement of the spine or limbs
osteoclasis breaking of a bone in order to repair or reposition it
osteoplasty surgical replacement or repair of bone
osteotomy cutting of bone
prosthetic device artificial device used as a substitute for a missing or diseased body part
reduction return of a part to its normal position
splinting applying a splint to immobilize a body part
spondylosyndesis fusion of two or more spinal vertebrae
synovectomy removal of part or all of a joint's synovial membrane
tenotomy surgical cutting of a tendon
traction dragging or pulling or straightening of something, as a limb, by attachment of elastic or other devices
analgesic agent that relieves pain
anti-inflammatory (corticosteroid) agent that reduces inflammation
muscle relaxant agent that relieves muscle stiffness
narcotic agent that relieves pain by affecting the body in ways that are similar to opium
nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) agent that reduces inflammation without the use of steroids
Created by: 1301554175