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PHHS - APHUG Unit 3

PHHS - APHUG: Important vocab for Unit 3 - Cultural Geography

QuestionAnswer
communication through the use of signs, gestures, marks, and articulate vocal sounds language
form of language that an institution advocates for use in public life standard language
regional variants of a standard language dialect
geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs isogloss
society that lacks a written version of their language system preliterate society
broadest classifcation of languages; can be further broken up into sub-families language family
divisions within a language family; can be further subdivided into language groups language sub-family
most specific division into which a language can be placed; make up language sub-families language group
most widely used language family Indo-European
most widely used language within the Indo-European family English
region where one language is used monolingual
region where two languages are used bilingual
region where three or more languages are used multilingual
simplified form of a language that uses key vocabulary and limited grammar pidgin language
a "bridge" language commonly used to allow people to understand each other lingua franca
language origin theory; states that migrants from India spread to Asia Minor, then on to Europe Anatolian Theory
language origin theory; states that migrants from India spread to central Asia, then on to Europe Kurgan Theory
a place name toponym
study of place names toponomy
a language no longer used as the primary language of communication by any culture extinct language
a language formally adopted for use in government and government agencies official language
an experimental "global language" attempted in Europe in the early 1900s Esperanto
architechture style based on geometric, ordered patterns. Popular in the mid to late 1900s modern
architechture style based on curvature, bendy, or wavy shapes. Popular in the late 1900s/2000s contemporary
traditional housing style popular in New England; small, one-story house, evenly sloped roof Cape Cod house
traditional housing style popular in New England; features a small roof in front and a large sloping roof in back Salt Box house
traditional housing style popular in the Mid-Atlantic colonies and in cities; features 2/3 stories, flat roof, usually made of brick, Greek/Roman accents Federalist/Georgian style house
traditional housing style; features sloped roof, 2 fireplaces, made of a variety of materials I-house
religious building; features steeple or bell tower(s) Roman Catholic/Protestant church
religious building; features bulb-style domes Eastern Orthodox church
religious building; features rectangular body, towers, carvings of the heads/faces of deities Hindu temple
religious building; found in northern India/Nepal; a large tower or dome Vajrayna style Buddhist temple (Stupa)
religious building; found in southeast Asia, features small, overlapping roof sections and small curved spike, or spires Theravada style Buddhist temple
religious building; pagoda style with winged roofs Mahayana style Buddhist temple
religious bulding; often features domes and/or minarets mosque
religion that does not have key indentifying features as part of its religious buildings Judaism
the non-traditional heterogenious ideas and practices of urban industrial societies popular culture
the traditional, relatively stable ideas and practices of somewhat isolated groups folk culture
religions that accept everyone, sometimes actively recruit universalizing religions
religions that are based on a cultural group; don't recruit ethnic religions
religions where beliefs don't change; don't mesh well with other religious systems fundamentalist
religions where the beliefs are more flexible; mesh well with other religious systems compromising
key texts of Hinduism Vedas and Upanishads
system of social hierarchy in Hinduism caste system
concept of fulfilling your caste duty dharma
concept that good or bad actions with have positive or negative consequences in the future; found in Hinduism and Buddhism karma
the cycle of rebirth found in Hinduism and Buddhism reincarnation
escape from the cycle of reincarnation in Hinduism moksha
founder of Buddhism Siddhartha Gautama
denominations of Buddhism Vajrayana, Theravada, Mahayana
Two key doctrines of Buddhism Four Noble Truths and Eightfold Path
escape from the cycle of reincarnation in Buddhism nirvana
modern day Jewish state Israel
holy scripture of Judaism Torah
holiest of Jewish holidays Yom Kippur
scattering of Jews worldwide, especially after the Roman destruction of the Jewish temple in 70 C.E. diaspora
key denominations of Judaism orthodox, conservative, and reform
founder of Judaism Abraham
belief in one god monotheism
belife in many gods polytheism
belief that there should be a separate homeland for the Jewish people Zionism
Jewish house of worship synagogue
holiest site in Judaism Western Wall (Wailing Wall)
founder of Christianity Jesus
holy scripture of Christianity Bible (especially the New Testament)
center of Christianity (after the adoption of Christianity by the Roman Empire) Rome
key denominations of Christianity Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Protestant
spread Christianity to gentiles (non-Jews) Paul
Christian house of worship Church
Middle Eastern city; significant to Jews, Christians, and Muslims Jerusalem
head of the Roman Catholic church pope
the three parts of the Christian god Holy Trinity
a person who dies for their beliefs martyr
founder of Islam Muhammad
holiest city in Islam Mecca
two denominations of Islam Sunni and Shi'a (Shiite)
holy scripture of Islam Koran (Qu'ran)
leader of the Muslim faith caliph
individual Muslim community leaders imam
official language of Islam Arabic
key tenents (beliefs) of Islam The Five Pillars
key Muslim city; capital of the Islamic empire for centuries Baghdad
holy month of Islam; Muslims fast from sunup to sundown Ramadan
a population represented by a singular culture nation
a common national heritage ethnicity
physical characteristics of a common genetic heritage race
mestizo person of mixed white and native American ancestry
mulatto person of mixed white and black ancestry
zambo/cafuzo person of mixed black and native American ancestry
creole person of mixed white, black, and native American ancestry
theory that all aspects of culture are determined by geographic factors; founded by Friedrich Ratzel environmental determinism
theory that cultures are partially shaped by geographic factors, as well as other factors; founded by Carl Sauer environmental possibilism
theory of a living space for all ethnic groups, based on where they were best suited to live; established by Friedrich Ratzel lebenstraum
how we describe ourselves to someone in our own culture internal identity
how we describe ourselves to someone from a different culture external identity
where a culture originated, and has(had) its main population center cultural hearth
the cycle of replacement of a culture by new cultures in a single place over time sequent occupance
adopting a new culture while maintaining aspects of your old culture acculturation
complete loss of old culture as person is integrated into a new culture assimilation
2nd largest language family in the world; found in East Asia Sino-Tibetan
Language family found in the Middle East and Northern Africa; Arabic is one of its languages Afro-Asiatic
Language family dominant in Sub-Saharan Africa Niger-Congo
Language family dominant in Turkey, central Asia Altaic
Language family dominant in Northern Russia, Finland, Hungary Uralic
Language family dominant in Southern India Dravidian
Language family dominant in Japan and Korea Japanese-Korean
Language family dominant in Indonesia Malay-Polynesian
Religion dominant in Europe, Australia, and the Americas Christianity
Religion dominant in Northern Africa, the Middle East, and Central Asia Islam
Religion dominant in India and Nepal Hinduism
Religion dominant in East and Southeast Asia Buddhism
Religion dominant in Israel and other small pockets worldwide Judaism
Created by: pdeanna