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Bio201 - Ch 6 - Bones & Skeletal Orientation - Rio Salado - Marieb/Hoehn

Skeletal Cartilage Made of cartilage tissue - mostly of water.
Cartilage consists primarily of __. Water
__ tissue contains no nerves or blood vessels. Cartilage
__ surrounds cartilage - dense irregular CT. Perichondrium
Perichondrium Wraps around cartilage - nutrients diffuse from here into cartilage.
What limits the thickness of cartilage? Perichondrium
Components of cartilage are __. Chondrocytes encased in lacuna w/in jellylike ground substance & fibers.
Cartilage grows in two ways. Appositional growth & interstitial growth.
Appositional Growth "Growth from outside" - cartilage-forming cells in perichondrium secrete new matrix against exterior.
Interstitial Growth "Growth from inside" - chondrocytes divide & secrete new matrix from within.
Calcified cartilage is not __. Bone
How many bones are in the human skeleton? 206
Axial skeleton is involved in __. Protecting, supporting, or carrying other parts.
Role of appendicular skeleton is __? Locomotion & manipulation of environment.
Bones are classified by shape as __? Long, short, flat & irregular.
Long bones Longer than their width, a shaft & 2 ends - all limb bones.
Which limb bones aren't long bones? Patella (kneecap), wrist, & ankle bones.
Short bones Cube shaped - wrist & ankle
Sesamoid bones Short bone that forms in tendons - patella
Flat bones Thin, flattened & unusually curved - breast bone, scapulae, ribs & skull bones.
Irregular bones Complicated shapes - vertebrae & hip bones.
5 Functions of Bones Support, protection, movement, mineral & growth factor storage, blood cell formation.
Rib cage supports __. Thoracic wall.
Bone is a reservoir for which minerals? Calcium & phosphate.
Mineralized bone matrix stores growth factors like__. Insulin-like growth factors, transforming, bone morphogenic proteins, etc.
Hematopoiesis occurs where? In marrow cavities of certain bones.
Bones are organs because? They are composed of several tissues: osseous, nervous, cartilage, CT, etc.
Bone markings External surfaces w/depressions & openings - indicate stresses created by attachments.
Spongy bone is also called __. Cancellous bone.
The flat pieces in spongy bone are __. Trabeculae
Diaphysis Tubular shaft that forms long axis of bone.
Thick collar of compact bone is? Diaphysis.
Medullary cavity Marrow cavity - contains fat (yellow marrow)
Another name for yellow bone marrow cavity? Medullary cavity
The joint surface of each epiphysis is covered with __? A thin layer of articular (hyaline) cartilage.
Epiphyseal line Remnant of epiphyseal polate - metaphysis.
Epiphyseal plate Disc of hyaline cartilage - grows during childhood to lengthen bone.
Periosteum Covers entire external bone surface - double-layered membrane.
2 layers of periosteum are? Outter fibrous layer & inner osteogenic layer.
Outer layer of periosteum is made of? Dense connective tissue.
Nutrient Foramen Opening in diaphysis that supplies nerve fibers, lymph & blood vessels.
Perforating (Sharpey's) Fibers Secures periosteum to bone w/tufts of collagen fibers into bone matrix.
Where are perforating fibers exceptionally dense? Points of anchoring for tendons & ligaments.
Internal bone surfaces are covered w/delicate CT membrane called __? Endosteum
Endosteum Covers trabeculae of spongy bone & lines canals.
Endosteum contains which 2 cells? Osteoblasts & osteoclasts.
Common design of short, irregular & flat bones? Thin plates of periosteum-covered compact bone outside & endosteum-covered spongy bone inside.
Noncylindrical bones lack __ &__. Shaft & epiphyses.
Which bones contain marrow but no significant marrow cavity? Short irregular & flat bones.
In flat bones, spongy bone is called __? Dipole
Dipole Spongy bone in flat bone of skull - like sandwich.
Red marrow Hematopoietic Tissue
Where is red marrow found? In trabecular cavities of spongy bone of long & dipole of flat bones.
Red marrow cavities Trabecular cavities & dipole
Where is red marrow in infants? Medullary cavity of diaphysis & all areas of spongy bone.
If a person becomes anemic, what can revert to red marrow? Yellow marrow.
Where is blood cell production in adults? Heads of femur & humerus.
4 Major cellt ypes populating bone are? Osteogenic, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes
Osteogenic cells Miotic stem cells - form osteoblasts & other stem cells.
Structural unit of compact bone is __. Osteon/Haversian System
Osteon Elongated hollow cylinder parallel to long axis of bone.
Lamella Matrix tubes
Another name for compact bone is? Lamellar bone
The type of fibers in lamella are? Collagen fibers.
The collagen fibers in adjacent lamella run in __ directions. Opposite.
The design of an osteon is __. "Twister resister"
__ align w/collagen fibers in osteon. Crystals of bone salts.
Running through the core of each osteon is __. Central/Haversian Canal.
Volkmann's Canals Canals that lie at right angles to long axis of bone - blood & nerve supply from periosteum to central canal.
Internal bone cavities are lined with? Endosteum
Where are lacunae found? At junctions of the lamellae.
What connect lacunae to each other & the central canal? Canaliculi
What structures allow bone cells to be well nurished? Canalicui permit wastes & nutrients to be relayed.
Osteocytes act as __ in cases of bone damage. Sensors - for stresses or strains.
Interstitial lamellae Incomplete lamellae - remnants of osteons that have been cut by bone remodeling.
Circumferential lamellae Just deep to periosteum & superficial to endosteum - resists twisting of long bones.
Trabeculae contain: Irregular arranged lamellae & osteocytes interconnected by canaliculi.
Trabeculae do not contain __. Osteons.
Organic components of bone are? Cells & osteoid - collagen fibers & ground substance.
Osteoid 1/3 of bone matrix - ground substance & fibers.
Bone resilience (strength) is attributed to __. Sacrificial bonds that break easily on impact.
Sacrificial bonds are? Between collagen molecules - break & disappate energy to prevent big fracture.
Inorganic bone components Mineral salts - calcium phosphates around collagen fibers.
Harness of bone that allows it to resist compression comes from __. Mineral salt crystals.
Health bone is __ as strong as steel in resisting compression. 1/2
Bone is __ as steel in resisting tension. Completely
Ossification Bone formation
Ossification in adults serves mainly for __. Bone remodeling & repair.
Before week __ embryo skeleton constructed of fibrous membranes & hyaline cartilage. 8
Intramembranous Ossification When bone develops from fibrous membrane.
Membrane bone Bone that develops from fibrous membrane.
Endochondral Ossification Bone development by replacing hyaline cartilage.
Enchondral Bone Bone developed from hyaline cartilage.
__ results in formation of cranial bone. Intramembranous Ossification
__ bones are formed by intramembranous ossification. Flat bones.
Intramembranous ossification hardens membranes that originally came from __. Mesenchymal cells.
4 Steps of Intramembranous Ossification. (1) Ossification cntr, (2) Bone matrix secreted, (3) Woven bone & periosteum form, (4) Bone collar & marrow appears.
Except for clavicles, all bones beneath base of skull form by __ ossification. Endochondral.
When does endochondral ossification begin? In the 2nd month.
Primary ossification center Center of the hyaline cartilage shaft.
5 Steps of Endochondral Ossification. (1) Bone collar around h-cartilage, (2) cavitation, (3) peristeal bud, (4) medullary cavity forms/2nd center in epiphyses, (5) Ossification of epiphyses.
Hypertrophy Enlarge
What month does periosteal bud form? Month 3
Periosteal bud Nutrient artery & vein, lymphatics, nerve fibers, red marrow elements, bone cells.
Ossification __ cartilage formation along the length of the shaft. "Chases"
Short bones have __ ossification center. 1
Long bones have __ ossification centers. 3 - 1 primary & 2 secondary
How does secondary ossification differ from primary? Spongy bone in the interior is retained & no medullary cavity forms in epiphyses.
Long bones lengthen by __ growth during infancy & youth. Interstitial Growth.
Which bones continue to grow through life? Nose & lower jaw.
Longitudial bone growth ends when? Bone of epiphysis & diaphysis fuses - Epiphyseal plate closure.
Adult bone can increase in diameter by __ growth if stressed. Appositional growth.
Epiphyseal plate activity is stimulated by __. Growth Hormone.
__ hormones modulate the activity of growth hormone. Thyroid hormones.
Every week we recycle __ of our bone mass. 5-7%
Spongy bone is replaced every __ years. 3-4 years
Compact bone is replaced every __ years. 10 years
When bone remains in place for a long time they __. Become more brittle.
The most commond disorder of bone homeostais. Fracture.
In adults, where does bone remodeling occur? Surface of periosteum & endosteum.
Osteoid seam An unmineralized band of gauzy-looking bone matrix.
Calcification Front Abrupt transition between osteoid seam & older bone.
Alkaline Phosphate Essential for mineralization - shed by osteoblasts.
Osteoclasts are __ cells. Multinucleated
Osteoclasts arise from same hematopoietic stem cells as __. Macrophages
Lysosomal enzymes Secreted by osteoclasts that digest organic matrix.
Hydrochloric Acid Converts calcium salts into soluble forms.
2 Control loops that regulaate bone remodeling. (1) neg. feed. of Ca homeostatis in blood & (2) gravitational forces.
Calcium is absorbed how? In the intestines under Vitamin D metabolites.
Bone remodeling hormonal mechanism involves the __. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
Calcitonin Produced by parafollicular cells (C Cells) of thyroid - secreted when blood levels of Ca rise.
When blood levels of calcium drop __ is released. PTH - parathyroid hormone.
__ levels stimulate osteoclasts to reabsorb bone. Increased PTH
Osteoid lacks __. Calcium salts
Hypercalcemia Sustained high Ca levels in blood.
What can hypercalcemia lead to? Deposits of Ca salts in vellsels, kidneys & organs.
Which fat-derrived hormone regulates bone density? Leptin
Wolff's Law regarding stresses bone grows/remodels in response to demands placed on it.
A bone's anatomy reflects what? The common stresses it encounters.
Deforming a bone produces an __. Electric current.
4 Observations of Wolff's Law are? (1) long bones thickest midway of diaphysis, (2) Curved bones thickest where they might bend, (3) Trabeculae form trusses along compression lines, (4) Large, bondy projections occur where muscles attach.
A fracture is treated __? Realignment of the broken bone ends.
Hydroxyapatite The salts in bone.
Bone ends secured by pins or wires. Open (internal) reduction.
4 Stages of bone fracture healing. (1) hematoma, (2) fibrocartilaginous callus, (3) Bone callus, (4) Bone remodeling.
Fibrocartilaginous Callus Mass of bone repair tissue that splints bone.
What underlies nearly every skeletal disease? Imbalances between bone deposit & reabsorption.
Osteomalacia Soft bones-osteoid produced by no salts deposited.
Paget's Disease Excessive, haphazzard bone deposit & reabsorption.
If you need more calcium, the __ gland secretes hormone. More = parathyroid
If you need less calicum, the __ secretes hormone. Less = thyroid
A fracture in the shaft of bone would be a break in the __. Diaphysis
Layers of calcification found in bone. Lamella
A __ contains osteocytes, lamellae, & a central canal & is only found in compact bone. Osteon
65% of bone mass is __. Hydroxyapatite
The organic part of bone matrix is __. Osteoid
The trabeculae are oriented __ lines of stress. Towards
Greenstick Fracture In children - bone bends & only 1 side breaks.
Compression Fracture Common in vertebrae & in osteoporosis.
Spiral Fracture Ragged break due to twist forces - common in sports.
Osteogenesis is a process of __ & __. Bone formation & remodeling.
__ Increases osteoclast activity to release more calcium ions. Parathyroid Hormone
Comminuted Fracture Bone fragments into 3+ pieces - common in elderly.
Epiphyseal Fracture Break along epiphyseal plate.
Depressed Fracture Broken bone is pressed inward - skull fracture.
Bone formed is poorly mineralized & soft - deforms during weight-bearing. Osteomalacia.
Abnormal bone formation & reabsorption. Paget's Disease.
In the epiphyseal plate, cartilage grows __. Ephiphysis to diaphysis.
Osteomyelitis is? Inflammation of bone & marrow by pus-forming bacteria due to wound.
Achondroplasia Congenital conditon - defective cartilage & bone growth - dwarfism.
The limbs of a patient with Achondroplasia would be __. Too short.
Osteitis Inflammation of bony tissue.
Osteogenesis Imperfecta "Brittle Bone disease" - not enough collagen.
A round or oval hole through a bone that contains blood vessels &/or nerves. Foramen
Bone pain Ostealgia
Which bone is adapted to withstand stress? Spongy Bone
There is blood-forming marrow in most __ bones of adults. Short.
Interstitial Growth Chondrocytes in lacunae divide & secrete matrix.
Created by: Ladystorm