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secularism religion is less-significant to communities
animism all objects are animate and have souls/feelings/are alive
universalizing religions believed to appeal to universal populus (everyone) due to offering a belief system that benefits all (ex: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism)
ethnic religions you must be born into faith; no converts (ex. Hinduism)
top 5 religions in the world 1) Christianity, 2)Islam, 3) Hinduism, 4) Buddhism, 5) Sikhism
origin/diffusion of Islam diffused fromm Christianity; kings used armies to spread religion along Arabian Penninsula; 1.3 billion followers
Hinduism conglomeration of beliefs characterized by great diversity of gods and goddesses, karma, reincarnation, and a caste system
Judaism monotheistic religion; Zionism; about 5 million Jews in Europe & 5 million in Asia
diaspora the diffusion of Judaism
fastest growing religion in the world Islam
caste system system of layers based on categorizing people by their class
lingua franca a common language adopted between speakers whose native languages are different; used commercially
dialect variants of a standard language based on regional/ethnic lines
mutual intelligibility two people can understand each other when speaking
1993 Top 5 Languages of the World 1) Mandarin, 2) English, 3) Spanish, 4) Hindi, 5) Russian
2004 Top 5 Languages of the World 1) Mandarin, 2) English, 3) Hindi, 4) Spanish, 5) Arabic
2011 Top 5 Languages of the World 1) Mandarin, 2) Spanish & English, 3) Arabic, 4) Hindi, 5) Portugese & Bengali
backward reconstruction traces migration back to "home" to discover the original source of the spoken language
deep reconstruction completely recontructs a former language after backwards reconstruction
Nostratic language the ancient ancestor of Proto-Indo-European language, as well as the Kartvelian languages, Uralic-Altaic landuages, the Dravidian languages of India, and the Afro-Asiatic lanuages of Arabia
language divergence/convergence how languages are created
pidgin language two languages combine structures into a simplified vocabulary
descriptive toponyms Rocky Mountains, Chicago (Stinking Onions)
Associative toponyms Mill River (a mill was on the river), Springfield (a spring was in the field)
Incident Names Battle Creek, Bloody Ridge, Cut and Shoot
Possessive Names Castro Valley, Pittsburg
Commemorative (commemorating someone well-known or in honor of a famous person) St. Louis, San Jacinto, Houston, Seattle (named after Chief Seattle), Austin, Pennsylvania (Penn's woods), Illinois (after the Illini Indians)
Commendatory (praising) Pleasant Valley, Greenland
Manufactured (made up names) Tesnus ('Sunset' spelled backwards), Reklaw ('Walker' spelled backwards), Iraan (Ira and Ann named the town after each other), Truth or Consequences
Mistaken (historic errors in identification or translation) West Indies (not west of the Indies and not Indies)
Shift Names (relocated name or names from settler's homeland; sometimes religious) Athens (Greece and Texas), Palestine (Middle East and Texas), New Mexico (settlers named new home after previous home), Zion, Chapel Hill, Jerusalem
Post-Colonial Toponyms toponyms named after colonial times
Postrevolutionary Toponyms toponyms named after revolutionary times
memorial toponyms Washington, Jacksonville
Commodification toponyms agriculture-based toponyms
weird toponyms Kdajfkldhfgjaghj, NY
Body Part/Bathroom Humor Toponyms Broken Knee, Bended Elbow
Hinduism food laws no cows
Jewish food laws Kosher laws
Islam food laws Halal
Western religions think... linearly, seeking converts
Eastern religions think... cyclically, not seeking converts
barrio neighborhood
largest ethnic minority hispanics
French Language Laws any languages presented must also be presented in French
lingua franca debate whether English will still be the lingua franca in 2100
housing types bungalo, single/double pile, ranch, & irregular mass
religious hearths where religions begin and remain based out of
Noah Webster wrote the first dictionary
basques Non-Indo-European languages
standard language most-spoken language
official language government enforced language
disposal of the dead burial, cremation, & exposure
identifying against using one's natural culture to critique and understand the culture of another (to observe how they are different)
syncretic borrowing beliefs from other religions
orthodox church suppressed in the 20th century; one of three major branches of Christianity; revivial in Soviet areas
Created by: mqm817