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Chap. 7

Religion

QuestionAnswer
Secularism Ethics and morals not based in religion
Religion "beliefs and practices that attempt to order life in terms of culturally perceived ultimate priorities"
Monotheistic Religions One God
Polytheistic Religions Many gods
Animistic Religions Belief that inanimate objects have spiritual powers
Universalizing Religions Believe themselves to offer universal appropriateness, actively seek converts: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism
Ethnic Religions Born into the faith, passively seek converts: Judaism, Hinduism, Shintoism
Hinduism 3rd Religion; one of the oldest religions; no founder, common theology, or agreement of origin; Mono/Poly - Brahmin and his variations; holy books - Vedas Major points - Karma and Reincarnation
Buddhism Splintered from Hinduism Prince Siddhartha - Buddha (enlightened one) Salvation through: enlightenment and knowledge; elimination of greed, craving and desire; complete honesty; and never hurting another person or animal
Shintoism Buddhism mixed with local Japanese religion; ethnic religion
Taoism Lao-Tsu published Tao-te-ching (Book of the Way); proper form of political rule, and oneness of humanity and nature; Feng Shui - art and science of organizing life spaces; Geomancers - know the desires of the spirits
Confucianism Philosophy of life; lack of supernatural beliefs
Judaism From the Jews - nomadic Semitic tribes in Southwest Asia; only one god
Reform Adjusting Judaism to modern times
Orthodox Retained old precepts
Conservative Middle of the extremes
Diaspora Spatial dispersion of members of any ethnic group
Ashkenazim Jews that went north into Central Europe
Sephardim Jews that went across North Africa and into the Iberian Peninsula
Zionism Jews should not be absorbed into other societies; they should have a homeland
Christianity Jesus; Calender centered around Christ
Eastern Orthodox Church Centered in Constantinople; split from Roman Catholicism
Roman Catholic Church Centered in Rome; Pope is great; controlled much of Europe in the past
Protestant Challenged certain aspects of Roman Catholicism; created new church
Islam Youngest; Muhammad; Allah; two major sects Sunni and Shi'ite
Sunni Majority; supported Ali
Shi'ite Concentrated in Iran
Imams Shi'ite Muslim leaders 'appointed by Allah'; without sin and infallible
Sayyids and Sharifs Descendants of Ali
Shamanism Community following a shaman: religious leader, teacher, healer, visionary
Pilgrimage Act of travel to holy place to perform a ritual
Sacred Sites Places with attached religious meanings Examples: Ka'Ba and Jerusalem
Minarets Towers on Islamic mosques to call people to worship
Genocide
Created by: Emily.Austin