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Ancient Greece-Mr. B

Ancient Greece - Mr. B - SS -Trimester 1

VocabularyAnswer
Mediterranean The largest sea that seperates Europe and Africa.
Gulf of Corinth Narrow body of water to the west of the Isthmus of Corinth, that separates northern Greece from the Peloponnesus (southern peninsula)
Aegean Sea Sea to the east, between Greece and Asia Minor
Ionian Sea Sea located between southern Greece and Italy to the west.
Adriatic Seas Sea located between northern Greece and Italy to the west.
Mt.Olympus (Olympic Mountains) Highest peak in Greece. Mythical home of the Olympic gods.
Peloponnesus Large peninsula that forms the southern part of Greece
Knossos Ancient capital of the Minoan culture on the Aegean island of Crete
Minoans Advanced seafaring and trading civilization based on the island of Crete in the southern Aegean Sea.
Thera (Santorini) Volcanic island in the Aegean believed by some to have been the site of the legendary lost civilization of Atlantis
Crete Large island located in the southern Aegean Sea, where the Minoan civilization flourished
Trojan War Legendary 10-year war fought between the Greeks, led by King Agamemnon of Sparta, and the city-state of Troy, a rich city-state on the coast of Asia Minor. (Present day Turkey)
Iliad Homer's epic story of the Trojan War
Troy A legendary rich trading city-state which was located in Asia Minor on the coast of present -day Turkey
Heinrich Schliemann German archaeologist who was said to have discovered the ruins of Troy on the coast of Turkey, and the golden "King Priam's Treasure" in 1873, using Homer's Iliad as a guide.
city-state an independent city with its own traditions, government, and laws
democracy a form of government in which the people govern themselves. One person=1 vote. Only Athenian men could vote.
Mycenae a powerful, military Greek city-state known for its Lions' Gate. They conquered the Minoans. The ruins of the city were discovered by German archaeologist Heinrich Schliemann.
Asia Minor A peninsula in western Asia, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea; the site of present-day eastern Turkey.
Hellas Name for Greece in Greek
Hellespont ancient Greek name for the Dardanelles, the narrow strait separating Europe and Asia at the northern tip of the Aegean Sea.
Sea of Marmara Sea located between the Dardanelles Strait and the Bosporus Strait
the Bosporus Strait located at the northern end of the Sea of Marmara and leading to the Black Sea
Black Sea Inland sea in SW Eurasia (present day southern Ukraine and Russia)
Styx River The Styx was the principal river of the underworld, which had to be crossed to pass to the regions of the dead, called Hades (Hell).
Sicily Large island located off the tip of the Italian peninsula. Both the Spartans and the Athenians fought for control of Sicily because of it's strategic location in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea which made it an important location for trade
Syracuse (Siracusa) Located near SE coast of Sicily it is built on an ancient Greek settlement founded by Corinthians in 734 BC. It was the most important city in Magna Graecia (Greater Greece), and for a time rivaled Athens as the most important city of the Greek world
proximity Related to relative location, it is how near or close a thing or place is to another. (ex: Coventry is proximite to West Warwick)
Cultural diffusion The spreading of ideas, language, religion, or products from one culture to another. Direct diffusion of culture occurs when two distinct cultures are very close together (proximity). Occurred through trade, intermarriage, and sometimes warfare.
The Parthenon Famous temple of the goddess Athena located on the Acroplis in Athens. One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World.
Caryatids Famous architectural columns sculpted to look like female figures on the Erechtheum temple located on the Acropolis.
Athens Greek city-state where democracy was founded. Defeated by Sparta in the Peloponnesian Wars. Capital of modern Greece.
Sparta City-state in ancient Greece known for its warrior culture. Defeated Athens in the Peloponnesian War.
Dark Ages of Greece Period between (1200 BC–800 BC)marked by a widespread collapse in population (possibly due to disease) before the rise of the city-states such as Athens. Also called the Homeric Age
"Golden Age" Period from 479b.c.-431b.c. when Athens grew rich and powerful from trade and silver; and made amazing achievements in the arts, literature, philosophy, architecture, and government. Democracy was founded during this period.
Thebes Ancient Greek city-state. Home of the tragic Greek hero Oedipus. Thebes revolted against Macedonian rule and was conquered by Alexander the Great.
xiphos Traditional short bronze Greek sword
Hoplon heavy bronze shield
Hoplites Heavily armored Greek infantry soldiers
Leonidas King who led the 300 Spartans against overwhelming Persian forces at battle of Thermopylae
Xerxes Persian king who tried to invade Greece
Thermopylae Legendary battle where 300 vastly outnumbered Spartans sacrificed themselves holding off invading Persian forces
Marathon Great Athenian victory over the Persians in 490 B.C. The 26 mile race is named for this victory.
Themistocles Athenian admiral who destroyed the Persian navy at the Artemesian Straits and Salamis
Salamis Great Greek naval victory over the Persians
Oracle at Delphi The most important shrine in all of ancient Greece. Built around a sacred spring, Delphi was considered to be the omphalos - the center (literally navel) of the world. The high priestess would go into a trance and make predictions.
King Philip king of Macedonia and father of Alexander
Alexander King of Macedonia, known as "the Great"; he conquered Persia and Egypt and invaded India before his death at age 28. He spread Greek culture or Hellensim.
Gaugamela Famous Greek victory where Alexander the Great destroyed King Darius' much larger Persian army
Darius King of Persian Empire who was defeated by Alexander
Persepolis capital city of ancient Persian Empire
Helen Called the most beautiful woman in the world. She was the wife of Greek king Agamemnon, but ran away with Prince Paris, startting the Trojan War
agora a public market or meeting placein an ancient Greek city
tyranny government ruled by a leader who came to power through force, but initially with the support of the people
oligarchy government ruled by a small, powerful group of people
monarchy government ruled by a king
acropolis a high, rocky hill on or near which early Greeks built their cities; the most famous is in Athens
Parthenon The temple of the Greek goddess Athena located on the Acropolis in Athens; one of the 7 Wonders of the Ancient World
trireme Greek warship with a bronze ram and 3 rows of oarsmen
sirisa 18 -ft. long spear used by the Macedonians in their phalanx
phalanx an ancient Greek and Macedonian rectangular battle formation of hoplites (heavily armed soldiers) presenting long spears from behind a wall of overlapping shields. For centuries, the Macedonian Phalanx was the most feared and efficient military tactic.
Aristotle Greek philosopher who was a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great; he taught logic, science, politics and poetry. He taught the world was made up of 4 elements: earth, wind, water, and fire.
Plato Greek philosopher who wrote about political philosophy in "The Republic"; Student of Socrates and Aristotle's teacher.
Socrates Father of Greek philosophy who taught through questioning.
drama a literary work, such as a play, that tells a story and is performed by actors
comedy style of theater perfected by the Greeks
plague a widespread contagious disease
Pericles Athenian leader and politician during the Golden Age who played a major role in the development of democracy
Alexandria ancient city and center of learning in Hellenic Egypt
Bucephakus Alexander's legendary war horse
Zeus King of the Greek gods; he defeated his father Kronos and the Titans. Zeus lived on Mt. Olympus. God of the sky, lightning, thunder; symbol = lightning bolt
Herodotus Greek writer and historian who traveled throughout the ancient world
Solon Athenian statesman and politician
Hellenism The spread of Greek culture after the death of Alexander the Great
Odyssey The epic written by Homer describing the adventures of Greek hero Odysseus after the Trojan War
Trojan War a 10-yr war described in Homer's epic "The Iliad"
trireme Swift warship designed by the ancient Greeks, which featured 3 rows of oarsmen and a bronze battering ram
democracy a form of government where citizens govern themselves
epic a long poem that tells a story
peninsula a body of land with water on three sides
dory Spartan spear (6'9" long)
helots name given to Spartan slaves
Archimedes Greek inventor and mathematician; invented the formulas for the surface area and volume of a sphere
Aristarchus Greek astronomer who was the first to theorize that the Earth orbited the Sun
Democritus Greek philosopher who developed the radical theory that the universe is made up of atoms.
Eratosthenes Greek scholar who headed the Library of Alexandria; astronomer who calculated the circumference of the Earth
Euclid Mathematician known for his book "The Elements", about geometry
Homer Blind Greek poet who is credited with writing the epics the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey"
Thales Greek philosopher; first recorded Western philosopher
isthmus a narrow body of land with water on two sides that connects two larger bodies of land
playwright a person who writes plays and dramas; also called a dramatist
tribute a payment made by a less powerful state or nation to a more powerful one, usually for protection
tyrant a ruler who takes power with the support of the middle and working class; not necessarily cruel and violent
Aeschylus Playwright considered the father of Greek tragedy
Sophocles the most popular playwright during Greek times
Euripides The last of the great Greek tragedy writers, known for having strong women characters and intelligent slaves.
Aristophanes Known as the father of Greek comedy
Aesop Known for writing fables with both talking animals as well as teaching a moral.
Pindar the greatest of Ancient Greece's lyric poets
Thucydides great Greek historian who was known for the exact science of his research, he wrote about the war between Athens and Sparta.
Hippocrates a scientist; considered the father of medicine
Pythagoras A scientist and philosopher, he came up with the Pythagorean Theorem still used today in much of geometry.
Demosthenes Considered the greatest orator (speech giver) of Greek times.
Hera Goddess and wife of Zeus; patroness of women, marriage, and childbirth
Apollo God of music, poetry, light and medicine; symbol is the lyre
Poseidon God of the sea, earthquakes and horses; symbol is the trident
Artemis Goddess of the hunt, nature, and the moon
Athena Goddess of wisdom, courage and crafts; patron of Athens; symbols are serpent, owl, spear and shield
Hermes Messenger of the gods; god of travel, sports and shepherds; symbols: winged helmet and sandals
Hephaestus God of fire, blacksmiths and volcanoes; symbols = hammer and anvil
Ares God of war and violence; symbols are spear, helmet and boar
Aphrodite Goddess of love and beauty; symbols are swan, apple, mirror and scallop shell
Demeter Goddess of the harvest, grain and fertility; symbols are wheat and tehecornucopia
Hestia Goddess of home, hearth and health; symbols are hearth, kettle and fire
Dionysus God of wine, theater and fertility; symbols are grapvine and drinking goblet
Hades God of the Underworld, death and riches; symbols are scepter and Cerberus, the 3-headed dog that guards the entrance to the Underworld
Heracles (Hercules) Greek demi-god known for his incredible strength
Achilles Greatest warrior of Greek mythology who killed Prince Hector during the Trojan War. He was invincible in battle except for his heel.
Hector Trojan prince who fell in love with Helen and took her back to Troy, launching the Trojan War
Menelaus King of Sparta and Helen's husband
Priam King of Troy
Perseus One of the greatest heroes of Greek mythology; he killed the snake-headed Gorgon, Medusa.
archipelago a chain of islands
the immortals Elite Persian troops
Persian Empire Largest in world history until the Roman Empire, stretching from Asia Minor and Egypt in the west, to India in the east.
Pan Greek god of the wild, hunting and companion of the nymphs. He was depicted as being half human, while having the legs and horns of a goat,
Doric One of the 3 orders or styles of Greek columns; straight and very simple with no ornamentation at the top and no base pedestal
Ionic One of the 3 orders or styles of Greek columns; tall, with a pedestal and scrolled top
Corinthian The fanciest of the 3 orders or styles of Greek columns; featured carved flowers and vines at the top
Thebes Greek city-state conquered by King Philip of Macedonia, and later his son Alexander crushed a rebellion
Dardanelles Strait Modern day name for the Hellespont; narrow body of water connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea
xenophobia fear of outsiders
lyre a small hand-held harp-like musical instrument
ode a poem usually recited to lyre music
Colossus of Rhodes One of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, it was a massive statue of a male figure built around 280 B.C. and erected at the entrance to the harbor of the island of Rhodes; Over 100 feet tall.
Golden Age period of Athens' and ancient Greece's greatest achievements in architecture, science, and the arts
Paris Trojan prince who kidnaps the beautiful Helen, the wife of King Menelaus from Sparta and brings her to Troy starting the Trojan War.
Dark Ages of Greece Period between the collapse of the city-state of Mycenae (around 1100 B.C. ) and 800 B.C when war, famine and disease ravaged Greece.
barbarians wild, uncivilized people; from the Greek word for beard
Delian League an alliance of Greek city-states led by Athens and formed in 478 BCE to liberate eastern Greek cities from Persian rule
blockade to shut off an enemy by land and sea to starve them into submission
maritime trade trade by sea
merchant one who trades goods for profit
assassinate to murder a political leader
Bronze Age the time period when people made tools from an alloy (a mixture of metals) called bronze, a mixture of mainly copper and tin to make weapons and tools.
Prometheus a Titan in Greek mythology, best known as the deity in Greek mythology who was the creator of humanity and its greatest benefactor, who stole fire from Mount Olympus and gave it to humankind.; and was punished by Zeus.
amphora tall, terra cotta pottery jar used to transport wine, water and olive oil.
Sir Arthur Evans British archaeologist who discovered the Minoan culture at Knossos on Crete
labyrinth a vast underground maze built under the place at Knossos in Crete by Daedalus, at the command of King Minos, to house the Minotaur.
pantheon a collection of all the gods of a people, culture or religion
syntagmata massive Macedonian phalanx consisting of 256 men each (16 men across x 16 men deep)
kopis short sword with a heavy, curved edge
Created by: bottleguy