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Greek Civilization I

Covers the first page of outline notes - VZ

Hellas The Greek name for Greece
Hellenes those who traced their history back to a powerful king, Hellen, a name by which the Greeks became known
Mycenaeans Civilization that dominated Greece and the Aegean after the fall of the Minoans
Dorians northern invaders of southern Greece, ancestors of the Spartans
Hubris Excessive pride
aristoi men who rose to prominence because of increased wealth, based on personal qualities as well
Dark Ages Period of decline after the invasion of Dorians, profound effet on political assumptions of the classical Greeks
Characteristics of Greek gods capricious, superhuman, interfering in human affairs
Main occupation of the aristoi Trade, plunder, piracy
Idea of heroic ideals based on Homeric writings
Iliad Epic recounting the Trojan War
Odyssey Trials & tribulation of Odysseus on his return journey of 20 years
Argos Only one to recognize Odysseus on his return
Polis City and its surrounding area
Phoenicians introduced alphabet and design for trade ships
asty the heart of the city, market place
khora the lands that surrounded the city
synoikismos the process of early polis formation, literaly, the "bringing together of dwellings"
Magna Graecia Roman name" Greater Greece" colonies established in Mediterranean Sea and elsewhere
Panhellenism "all Greeks have a common heritage"
Olympiads Series of games dedicated to the Greek Gods, time of peace, allowed for sense of community, every four years
Hoplite warfare Foot soldiers that protected the aristocrats and the polis
phalanx Tight military formation, rows and columnns, well-coordinated action, short battles
hoplon hoplite shield
symposium social, boys club, used for entertainment and political advances
homosexuality practiced among some Athenian aristocracy - sexual and political mentorship
tyrannos one who seized power outside ordinary practices
demos the people, began receiving more rights through demands of hoplites
Athens Attica city state, first democracy
magistrates city administrators
archons 9 aristracts that held executive power, one year term
Aeropagus Council elected archos, self-sustaining elite group, each archon became member of council after serving 1 year term
Debt slavery used by aristocracy to collect debts
Drako (Draco) first reformer, first harsh codification of laws
draconian adj - extremely harsh
Solon ended up pleasing no one, more rights for demos, eliminated debt slavery, jury trials
Psistratus Gather to the lower classes, coined moned, reduced taxes, nepotism, paradise
Cleisthenes Father of Athenian democracy, changed tribes based on location & loyalty to state, increased council to 500, introduced ostracism
ostracism political exile of a rival, ten year period
Sparta City state on Peloponnesus, military, government - different
dual monarchy 2 kings prevented aristocratic competition, one elected to serve as military leader, the other civil
Apella Council consisting of males ovoer 30, voted yes/no on suggestions of elders
gerousia Council of Elders, those over sixty, with age comes wisdon
Krypteia "secret police", kept eye on helots,
helots Messenian slaves, tied to land, occupied western of the Peloponnesus, conquered by Spartan & enslaved
Spartiates the professional soldiers, the warriors, strict military training
Periokoi those who travel, the class that did trade, etc. for Spartans who were not allowed to travel
Miletus Hellenic city of Ionia, center of pre-Socratic thought, first city to establish colonies
Milesian School phiolosophic thinkers, based on rational thought and materials, cosmos not controlled by capricious god
Thales Father of Philosophy, Four elements, water most important
Anaimander Air most important element
Herodotus Father of History, Wrote History of the Persian Wars
Thucydides Scientific Historian - History of the Peloponnesean Wars
Created by: 1NHSNHS