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The Middle East

Unit 9-The Middle East

Ottoman Empire 1918,Ottoman Empire broke up,(known as Turkey). The Name "Turkey" and "Ottoman Empire" were both used. French and British divide the territory into "mandates." Interested in their oil and the Suez Canal.
Ottoman Empire...continued Sykes-Picot Agreement took place in 1918, France & Britain divided up rest of the Ottoman Empire. Many Holy sights in Israel, so they didn't want to disrupt anything. They called Israel an "International Zone" and anyone could go there.
Balfour Declaration, 1917 1917. Declaration from group headed by Arthur Balfour, the UK's foreign secretary. The British promised to give the Jews a homeland in the Palestine. This was the beginning of the Arab-Israel conflict.The Jews dispersed worldwide (the Diaspora).
Israeli War of Independence, 1948 Israeli War of Independence--dispursed Jews loyal to the cause fed information to Israel. Jews won and pushed the Arabs back within a few hours. They were supplied by the US, had the most advanced technology. The war began in 1948 when the UN pulled out.
Israeli War of Independence, 1948...continued The Jews wanted all of their land. Palestinians didn't believe that the Jews should be there at all. Israel didn't want Palestine to be recognized as a separate country. They said that it wouldn't solve anything.
Israeli War of Independence, 1948...continued Israel & Palestine still compete as a separate team during the Olympics. Palestine does not have it's own government, is not part of the UN, and is not recognized on the world stage.
The Suez Crisis, 1956 1955, Egypt and Russia take the same side. 1956, Egypt is supplied with arms from Czechoslovakia, a satellite state of Russia. Gamal Nasser, President of Egypt, threatens Israel.US pulls out of the Aswan Dam project in Egypt.Nasser nationalizes Suez Canal
The Suez Crisis, 1956...continued Israelis attack first under their policies. France and Britain doing whatever they wanted without seeking US approval. Americans angered, force France and Britain to give up power. Balance of power changes; USA now in control.
The Suez Crisis, 1956...continued The UN puts in a peacekeeping force, which is really the first time that they do this. This was Lester B. Pearson’s idea. It was to keep Israel & Egypt from fighting, and help keep the canal neutral.
The Six Days War, 1967 Gamal Nasser expels UN Peacekeeping force from the Canal zone.Egypt starts to close in on Israel by having mass troops on the boarder. Israel doesn’t really have a choice but to fight. Israel goes ahead with their first-strike policy.Within three hours...
The Six Days War, 1967...continued ...they destroy the Egyptian airforce.They take Sinai Pennisula,Golan Heights,and West Bank.The US steps in and stops the attacks in fear of angering other Arab Nations.The whole war only lasts six days.US stops Israel because they destroyed Egypt.
The Yom Kippur War, 1973 Egyptians planned for another attack. This time it would be a surprise and take place on Yom Kippur, a Jewish holiday. Parliament was also in session. USA steps in and gives aid and support to Israel. The borders are unchanged by the war.
The Yom Kippur War, 1973...continued The biggest affect was on the oil. Oil prices raised by 70% (OPEC). This puts the whole world into a state of financial crisis.
Anwar Sadat He replaces Nasser, the leader of Egypt in 1970. 1972, he kicks our Soviet advisor. He planned the Yom Kippur War, in 1973. Turned out to be a good man, and won a Novel Peace prize for asking for peace with Israel in 1977, Camp David Accords.
The Camp David Accords, 1978 Jimmy Carter, US President, hosts a Peace Treaty between Egypt & Israel. They agree to not make war--still hasn’t been broken. They negotiated the refugee problem, and allowed Israel to use the Suez Canal. Israel would get their oil from Egypt.
The Camp David Accords, 1978...continued This would help Egypt’s economy. Other Arab countries are mad, so they expel Egypt from OPEC. This may be looked at as a form of détente.
The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) Made up of 500,000 Palestinian refugees living in South Lebanon. They conduct terrorist attacks on Israel. Israel attacks Lebanon as far as Beirut in 1982. Multinational force sent in to restore order, PLO women are massacred. Children are left behind...
The Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO)...continued ...in Christian Camps. Syria invades in 1987. The PLO withdraws.
The Iran-Iraq War,1980-1988 Shitte revolution in Iran. The Shah was replaced by Ayatollah Khomeini. This concerned Saddam Hussein, the Sunni leader in Iraq. Khomeini was very Anti-American, and so the U.S. supported Iraq. America supported Suddam in the 1980’s. He was their puppet.
The Iran-Iraq War,1980-1988...continued War breaks out from fear that Iran’s revolution would spread to Iraq. This was really a war of religion. Borders are restored in 1988. The UN gets involved and a treaty is signed saying that there were no gains in 1990. There were 1.5 million casualties.
Yasser Arafat He is the leader of the PLO and later becomes the leader of the PLA. He pushes for independence of Palestine. He represents Palestine at many peace accords. He won a Nobel Peace Prize in 1993 for his role in Oslo.
Saddam Hussein He was the Sunni leader in Iraq, chosen by CIA and helped brought to power as a pro-American. He was concerned that there would be an uprising because most people were against his religion. He was very harsh towards people in his own country.
Saddam Hussein...continued The US and Iraq had a very good relationship until Iraq attacks on Kuwait in 1991. He claimed Kuwait in order to start the first Gulf War. He used poisonous gas on the Kurds in the North.
Kuwait and the Gulf War, 1991 August 1990, Iraq invades Kuwait. George Bush Sr. said, “No more Munichs,” and makes Iraq pull out. First time that people watched a war on TV as it was happening. 30 countries joined together to form a coalition against Iraq.This will never happen again.
Kuwait and the Gulf War, 1991...continued Some Arabs countries were part of it. Not as much is shown on TV anymore; it gave away their secrets. US made sure that Israel didn’t join the war, for fear of losing support of the other Arab countries who would never side with Israel.
Kuwait and the Gulf War, 1991...continued It took everything to keep Israel out of the war. Bush didn’t want to invade Iraq or remove Saddam. There was a threat of poisonous gas. Suddam tried to get Israel involved by firing SCUD missiles at them. They also burned the oil in Kuwait.
Created by: drolston