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Vocab Ch 9

The Urinary System

homeostasis A state of equilibrium that produces a constant internal environment throughout the body.
urea Is the major waste product of protein metabolism.
retroperitoneally Means located beind the peritoneum, which is the membrance that lines the abdominal cavity.
renal cortex Is the outer layer of the kidney.
medulla Is the inner layer, and it contains most of the urine-collecting tubules.
nephrons Are the functional units of the kidneys.
glomerulus Is a cluster of capillaries surrounded by a membrane called the Bowman's capsule.
urochrome Is the pigment that gives urine its normal yellow-amber or straw color.
ureters Are narrow tubes, each about 10 to 12 inches long. Each carries urine from a kidney to the urinary bladder.
urinary bladder Is a hollow muscular organ that is a reservoir for urine.
urethra Is the tube extending from the bladder to the outside of the body.
urinary sphincters Total of two, one located at either end of the urethra, control the flow of urine from the bladder into the urethra and out of the urethra through the urethral meatus.
urethral meatus Is the external opening of the urethra. Is located between the clitoris and the opening of the vagina.
female urethra Is approximately 1.5 inches long. In the female, the urethra conveys only urine.
male urethra Is approximately eight inches long, and the urethral meatus is located a the tip of the penis. In the male, the urethra conveys both urine and semen.
urination Also known as MICTURITION/VOIDING, is the normal process of excreting urine.
nephrologist Specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the kidneys.
urologist Specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the urinary system of females and the genitourinary system of males.
renal failure Also known as KIDNEY FAILURE, is the inability of the kidney or kidneys to perform their functions.
anuria Also known as ANURESIS, is the complete suppression(stopping) of urine formation by the kidneys.
uremia Also known as UREMIC POISONING, is a toxic condition caused by excessive amount of urea and other waste products in the bloodstream.
acute renal failure(ARF) Has sudden onset and is characterized gy uremia. May be caused by many factors, including a drop in blood volume or blood pressure due to injury or surgery.
chronic renal failure(CRF) Is progressive disease that may be caused by a variety of conditions. When kidney function is insufficient, dialysis or transplantation is required.
end-stage renal disease(ESRD) Refers to the late stages of chronic renal failure.
nephrotic syndrome Is a general group of kidney diseases.
edema Excessive fluid in the body tissue.
hyperproteinuria Abnormally high concentrations of protein[albumin] in the urine.
hypoproteinemia Abnormally low concentrations of prtein [albumin] in the blood.
hyperlipidemia Abnormally large amount of lipids in the blood.
nephrosis/nephropathy Mean diseases of the kidney, and these terms are used interchangeably with nephrotic system.
diabetic nephropathy Is a result of the damage to the kidney's capillary blood vessels that is caused by long-term diabetes mellitus.
glomerulonephritis Is an inflammation of the kidney involving primarily the glomeruli.
hydronephrosis Is the dialation(enlargement) of the renal pelveis of one or bothe kidneys.
nephrectasis Is the distention of a kidney.
nephritis Is an inflammation of the kidney.
nephroptosis Also known as a FLOATING KIDNEY, is the downward displacement of the kidney.
nephropyosis Is suppuration of the kidney.
pyelitis Is an inflammation of the renal pelvis.
pyelonephritis Is an inflammation of the renal pelvis and the kidney.
renal colic Is an acute pain in the kidney area that is caused by blockage during the passage of a kidney stone.
stone Also known as CALCULUS, is an abnormal mineral deposit.
nephrolithiasis Is a disorder characterized by the presence of stones in the kidney.
hydroureter Is the distention(stretching out) of the ureter with urine that cannot flow because the ureter is blocked.
ureterectasis Is the distention of a ureter.
ureterorrhagia Is the discharge of blood from the ureter.
ureterostenosis Is a stricture of the ureter.
stricture Is an abnormal band of tissue narrowing a body passage.
cystalgia/cystodynia Means pain in the urinary bladder.
cystitis Is an inflammation of the bladder.
interstitial cystitis Is an inflammation within the wall of the bladder.
cystocele Is a hernia of the bladder through the vaginal wall.
cystorrhagia Is bleeding form the bladder.
urinary tract infections(UTI) Infections that occur more frequently in women because of the shortness of the urethra and the proximity of its opening to the vagina and rectum.
vesicovaginal fissure Is an abnormal opening between the bladder and vagina.
reflux Blockage of the urethra can cause urine to back up into the ureters.
epispadias In the male is a congenital abnormality in which the urethral opening is located on the dorsal(upper surface) of the penis. In the female, the urethral opening is in the region of the clitoris.
paraspadias Is a congenital abnormality in males in which the urethral opening in on one side of the penis.
diuresis Is the increased excretion of urine.
dysuria Is difficult or painful urination.
enuresis Is the involuntary discharge of urine.
nocturnal enuresis Also known as BED-WETTING, occurs during sleep.
nocturia Is excessive urination during the night.
oliguria Means scanty urination.
polyuria Means excessive urination.
urinary retention Is the inability to void or empty the bladder.
incontinence Means the inability to control excretory functions.
urinary incontinence Is the inability to control the voiding of urine.
urge incontinence When urination occurs involuntarily as soon as an urgent desire to urinate is felt.
catheterization Is the insertion of a sterile catheter through the urethra and into the urinary bladder.
cystoscopy Which is also known as CYSTO, is the visual examination of the urinary bladder using a cystoscope.
cystoscope Is used for treatment procedures such as the removal of tumors.
intravenous pyelogram Is a radiographic(x-ray) study of the kidneys and ureters in which iodine is injected into a vein as a contrast medium to define these structures more clearly.
KUB Is a radiographic study of the kidneys, ureters, and bladder structures without the use of a contrast medium. Also referred to as a FLAT-PLATE OF THE ABDOMEN.
intravenous urography Is the radiographic visualization of the urinary tract with the use of a contrast medium.
urogram The resulting record.
excretory urography Is so named because it traces the actio of the kidney as it processes and excretes dye injected into the bloodstream.
retrograde urography Is a radiograph of the urinary systme taken after dye has been placed int the urethra through a sterile catheter and caused to flow upward(backward) through the urinary tract.
cystography Is a radiographic examination of the bladder ater instillation of a contrast medium via a urthral catheter.
voiding cystourethrography A diagnostic procedure in which a fluroscope is used to examine the flow of urine from the bladder and through the urethra.
urinalysis Is the examination of urine to determine the presence of abnormal elements.
diuretics Medications administered to increase urine secretion to rid the gody of excess sodium and water.
dialysis Is a procedure to remove wast products form the blood of patients whose kidneys no longer funtion.
hemodialysis Filters waste products from the patients blood.
dialysate A solution made up of water and electrolytes, which removes excess fluids and waste from the blood.
peritoneal dialysis The lining of the peritoneal cavity acts as the filter ot remove waste from the blood.
continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis(CAPD) Provides ongoing dialysis as the patient goes about his daily activities. In this procedure, a dialysate solution is instilled from a plastic container worn under the paitent's clothing.
continuous cycling peritoneal dialysis(CCPD) uses a machine to cycle the dialysate fluid during the night while the patient sleeps.
renal transplantation Also known as a KIDNEY TRANSPLANT, is the grafting of a donor kidney into the body to replace the recipient's failed kidneys.
nephrolysis Is the freeing of a kidney from adhesions.
adhesion Is a band of fibers that holds structures together abnormally.
nephropexy Is the surgical fixation of a floating kidney.
nephroostomy Is the establishment of an opening between the pelvis of the kidney through it cortex to the exterior of the body.
pyeloplasty Is the surgical repair of the renal pelvis.
pyelotomy Is a surgical incision into the renal pelvis.
lithotrispy Also known as EXTRACORPOREAL SHOCKWAVE LITHOTRIPSY(ESWL), is the destruction of a kidney stone with the use of ultrasonic waves traveling through water.
nephrolithotomy Is the surgical removal of a kidney ston through an incision in the kidney.
ureterectomy Is the surgical removal of a ureter.
ureteroplasty Is the surgical repair of a ureter.
ureterorrhaphy Is the suturing of a ureter.
cystectomy Is the surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder.
cystopexy Is the surgical fixation of the bladder to the abdominal wall.
cystorrhaphy Means sutering of the bladder.
lithotomy Is a surgical incision for the removal of a stone, usually from the bladder.
suprapubic catheter Is an indwelling catheter placed into the baldder though a small incision made through the abdominal wall just above the pubic bone.
indwelling Means something that remains inside the body for a prolonged time.
meatotomy Is an incision of the urinary meatus to enlarge the opening.
urethropexy Is the surgical fixation of the urethra usually for the correction of urinary stress incontinence.
urethroplasty Is the surgical repair of the urethra.
urethrostomy Is the surgical creation of a permanent opening between the urethra and the skin.
urethrotomy Is a surgical incision into the urethra for relief of a stricture.
Created by: caprinag1994