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PHM 315 Ch 7c

Symptomatic and Diagnostic Terms - CV

arteriosclerosis thickening, loss of elasticity, and calcification (hardening) of the arterial walls
artherosclerosis buildup of fatty substances within the walls of the arteries
atheromatous plaque a swollen area within the lining of an artery caused by the buildup of fat (lipids)
thrombus a stationary blood clot
embolus a clot (airm fatm foreign object) carried in the bloodstream that obstructs when it lodges = "a stopper"
stenosis condition of narrowing of a part
constriction compression of a part
occlusion plugging: obstruction or a closing off
ischemia to hold back blood; decreased blood flow to tissue caused by constriction or occlusion of a blood vessel
perfusion deficit a lack of flow through a blood vessel caused by narrowing, occlusion etc
infarct to stuff; a localized area of necrosis (condition of tissue death)caused by ischemia as a result of occlusion of a blood vessel
angina pectoris chest pain caused by a temporary loss of oxygenated blood to heart muscle often caused by narrowing of the coronary arteries (angina = to choke)
aneurysm a widening; bulging of the wall of the heart, the aorta, or an artery caused by congenital defect or acquired weakness
saccular a sac-like bulge on one side
fusiform a spindle-shaped bulge
dissecting a split or tear of the vessel wall
claudication to limp; pain in a pain (especially the calf) while walking that subsides after rest; it is caused by inadequate blood supply
diaphoresis profuse sweating
heart murmur an abnormal sound from the heart produced by defects in the chambers or valves
palpitation subjective experience of pounding, skipping, or racing heartbeats
vegetation to grow; an abnormal growth of tissue around a valve, generally a result of an infection such as bacterial endocarditis
arrhythmia any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
dysrhythmia any of several kinds of irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heartbeat
bradycardia slow heart rate (<60bpm)
fibrillation chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation
flutter extremely rapid but regular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular flutter (250-350 bpm)
heart block an interference with the normal electrical conduction of the heart defined by the location of the block (ex AV block)
premature ventricular contraction (PVC) a ventricular contraction preceeding the normal impulse initiated by the SA node (pacemaker)
tachycardia fast heartrate >100 bpm
arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) a degenerative condition of the arteries characterized by thickening of the inner lining loss of elasticity, and susceptibility to rupture - seen most often in the aged or smokers
bacterial endocarditis a bacterial inflammation that affects the endocardium of the heart valves
cardiac tamponade compression of the heart produced by the accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac as results from pericarditis or trauma, causing rupture of a blood vessel within the heart (tampo = plug)
cardiomyopathy disease of the heart muscle
congenital anomaly of the heart malformation of the heart present at birth
atrial septal defect (ASD) an opening in the septum separating the atria
coarctation of the aorta narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body
patent ductus arteriosus abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta caused by the failure of the fetal ductus arteriosus to close after birth
tetralogy of fallot anomaly that has 4 defects: pulmonary stenosis, ventricular septal defect, malposition of the aorta, right ventricular hypertrophy - causes blood to bypass the pulmonary circulation so that deoxygenated blood goes into the systemic circulation = cyanosis
ventricular septal defect (VSD) opening of the septum separating the ventricles
congestive heart failure (CHF) = Left ventricular failure. left ventricle doesnt pump the enough blood to meet the demands of the body = bottleneck of congestion in the lungs that may extend to veins and cause edema in lower body
cor pulmonale = right ventricular failure. condition of enlargement of the right ventricle as a result of chronic disease within the lungs that causes congestion within the pulmonary circulation and resistance of blood flow to the lungs
coronary artery disease (CAD) affects arteries of the heart, reduces blood flow and delivery of oxygen to the myocardium, most often caused by artherosclerosis
hypertension persistently high blood pressure
essential (primary) hypertension high blood pressure attributed to no single cause but risks include smoking obesity increased salt intake hypercholesterolemia and hereditary
secondary hypertension high blood pressure caused by the effects of another disease ex kidney disease
mitral valve prolapse (MVP) protrusion of one or both cusps of the mitral valve back into the left atrium during ventricular contraction resulting in incomplete closure and backflow of blood
myocardial infarction (MI) heart attack. death of myocardial tissue owing to loss of blood flow (ischemmia) as a result of an occlusion of the coronary artery . usually caused by atherosclerosis. symp: pain chest, upper body, SOB, diaphoresis & nausea
myocarditis inflammation of the myocardium most often caused by viral or bacterial infection
pericarditis inflammation of the pericardium
phlebitis inflammation of a vein
rheumatic heart disease damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever (streptococcal infection)
thrombophlebitis inflammation of vein associated with a clot formation
varicose veins abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in the legs
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) formation of a clot in a deep vein of the body, occuring most often in the femoral and iliac veins
Created by: HugsAndKisses