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Clinical Medicine

1. Dull percussion is seen with 2. Hyperresonant percussion is seen with 1. pleural effusion; lung consolidation; atelectasis 2. pneumothorax; obstructive disorders: asthma, emphysema
Duration of: 1. vesicular breath sounds 2. bronchial breath sounds 1. inspiratory longer than expiratory 2. expiratory longer than inspiratory
Pathogenesis of: 1. Early, inspiratory crackles 2. Late, inspiratory crackles 1. due to secretions in proximal airways (e.g., chronic bronchitis) 2. due to reopening of distal airways partially occluded by ↑ interstitial pressure (interstitial fibrosis, lobar pneumonia)
1. Pathogenesis of wheezing 2. What are some causes 1. partial airway obstruction of small airways 2. inflammation, astham, COPD, bronchitis
1. Pathogenesis of ronchi 2. What is stridor 1. obstruction of large airways from secretions 2. a high pitched inspiratory wheeze
What causes an increase in tactile fremitus consolidation (lobar pneumonia)
1. cough with normal x-ray 2. nocturnal cough 1. postnasal drip 2. GERD, CHF, asthma; lying down causes fluid to distribute
1. productive cough 2. What is tachypnea. What are some common causes? 1. chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis, typical bacterial pneumonia 2. rapid, shallow, breathing; restrictive lung disease, pulmonary embolism
Heart sounds: 1. S1 2. S2 3. S3 4. S4 1. closure of mitral/tricuspid 2. closure of aortic/pulmonary 3. ventricular gallop - blood entering volume overloaded LV/RV 4. artial gallop - ↑ resistance to filling (decreased compliance)
When assessing end organ damage in hypertensive patients, which organs would you want to check and which tests would you want to run? 1. kidneys - creatinine/BUN, CBC to check for anemia if EPO is low from kidney failure 2. liver - Chem 7 3. brain - CT 4. eyes - exam, papilledema 5. heart - CXR
Systolic/Diastolic 1. Pre-hypertension 2. Stage 1 hypertension 3. Stage 2 hypertension 1. 120-139/80-89 2. 140-159/90-99 3. >160/>100
In evaluatating hypertension what are the first three steps of the diagnostic workupt? 1. identify risk factors and comorbidities 2. assess identifiable causes 3. assess for end organ damage
1. Which blood type is given to a patient if the ABO and Rh are unknown? 2. What antibodies are check if an acute intravascular hemolytic transfusion is suspected? 1. group O, Rh negative 2. anti-C3d
Created by: amichael87