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Intro to Religion

Religion Exam 1

Introduction - The nature of religion (handout) Etymology- (latin-religio) root meaning to tie or bind - focuses on ultimacy; addresses concerns; involes experience; meditates relationship
The essential features of religion (handout) belief in a higher order
Goethe and Muller quote He that knows one, knows none Goethe(languages); Muller(religions)
Ecclesiastical vs. academic study Eccl - pertaining to a sectarrian assembly; study-confessional, kerygmatic, catechetical
Multidisciplinary / comprehensive / objective religion study at an academy /university
Bracketing the acedimic study of religion of personal faith claims
Paul Tillich A theologian that observes that religion deals with matter of ultimate concern.
William James proposed that religion consist of the belief that there is an unseen order, and that our supreme good lies in harmoniously adjusting ourselves thereto.
3 types of definitions of religion Substance- defines truth; Functional- how it works; formal- how appears
Homo-religiosis humans are riligion by nature- to fullfill psychological and socialogical needs.
Theories of the origin of religion TAYLOR, Amimism; FRAZER, Magic; MULLER,Nature-Worship; SCHMIDT, Monotheism; FEUERBACH, Ideal Humanity; MARX, Opiate of the masses; FREUD, Guilty Neurosis
Basic Religions - Features of Basic Religions Animism, Magic, Divination, Taboo, Totem, Sacrifice, Myth, Rituals, Rites of Passage, Ancestor Veneration
Prehistoric burial rituals rites of passage - the sign that a person is passing from one stage of life to another. serve them in their next life
Venus figurines is an umbrella term for a number of prehistoric statues of women sharing common conection with fertility worship.
Primal and Archaic Religious Societies - Primal religion/society BOTTOM
The Agricultural Revolution the move from primal to archaic culture
Cosmological religion cosmo=universe, world - based on the natural world, on the universe as perceived
Cyclical time & annual festivals annual fest. celeb. the new year, chang seasons, seedtime & harvest, equinoxes & solstics, new moons - to recognize cycle of time
The Axial Age - Transcendental / supernatural / anthropological 800-200 BCE - Trans-going beyond the natural or conceivable. Sup-beyond the natural world order. Ant-redifining the human beyond the social role or natural aspect.
Changing views on God and/or ultimate reality are beyond the perceivable universe, the quest to find harmony with the ultimate involves human effort to transcend the natural boundries of this reality in some sense.
Changing views on the human / human soul ongoing story of the development n fulfillinh of the devine purpose.
Blending of transcendental and cosmological ideas of the ultimate
Linear time and sacred history Sac- there exist a purpose or plan that transend the cycle of the natural wrld & human lives. Lin-from start(creation) to present
Hinduism - Pre-Aryan archaic Indus Valley civilizations of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro - 1750 BC
Proto-Shiva, Shiva-Shakti, lingam and yoni fertility gods
Aryans & Vedic religion 1750-1200BC - religion of the Brahmins/ vedas/ Caste system
Vedas oldest sacred books of hinduism
Ancient Vedic gods Indra, Agni, Varuna, Yama, Soma, Dyaus Pitr, Rudra, Vishnu
Ancient Vedic ritual focus proper ways to perform their sacrifies
Upanishadic period Axial age and later
Upanishads (important Axial Age concepts) the nature of god n man, the soul n god, mans role in the wrold n how they relate, the poupose of existance n true salvation
Atman, Brahman, & Atman-Brahman A&B- Monistic philosophy in Upanishads; Atman-the soul; Brahman- The ultimate soul
Monism in Hinduism any philosophical view which holds that there is unity in a given field of inquiry
Samsara the wheel of rebirth
Karma the cycle of birth, life, death, and rebirth
Dharma social responsibility
Moksha breaking free from cycle of life
Maya illusion
Avidya ignorance
Four varnas (castes) & untouchables Brahmnins:preist; Kshatriyas:worriors/rulers; Vaishya:merchant; Shrudas:servants; Untouchables:unclean
Four ashramas (stages of life) Brahmacharya:student; Grihastha:householder; Vanaprastha:hermit; Sannyasin:renunciant
Varnashrama Dharma based on varna and ashrama & fulfilling social responsibilities
Sanatana Dharma Eternal Dharma & seeking liberation of atman
Four yogas / margas Yoga(yoke- discipline); Marga(path); Juana(yoga of knowledge); Karma)yoga of sevice); Bhakti(yoga of devotion); Raja yoga of psycho-physical discipline-aka royal yoga, aka ashtanga=8 limbs
Samadhi entering into a trance in which oneness with brahman and liberation is experienced
Trimurti 3 main gods - brahma:creator; vishnu:preserver; shiva:destroyer, regenerator
Brahma (consort: Sarasvati)
Vishnu (consorts: Lakshmi, Shri)
Shiva (consorts: Shakti, Parvati, Durga, Kali)
Devi also refers to the ultimate devine feminine - represented as many goddess, devis shaktis
Avatars of Vishnu, esp. Krishna & Rama rama-fight for family, Krishna, drive-Great God, god of vishnu and revell diverent path n disciplines. Vishnu- all come by me.
Devotional Hinduism one or moer indian gods: worship all, offer sacrifices, praying, and supporting priest. god will returnin help with the struggled life; BHAKTI-MARGA-"the way of devotion"
Vaishnavas, Shaivas, Shaktas Vaishnavas- worship Vishnu (often as Krishna or Rama); Shaivas- worship Shiva (often using the form of the linga); Shaktas- worship Shakti or Devi, the Divine Mother (as Lakshmi, Durga, Kali, or another Devi form
Great Epics: Bhagavad-gita poem - of indian culture and religion
Mahabharata text about the struggle of two leading families from the beggining of indian history
Bhagavad-Gita about a great battle, it relates the stories of the struggle of notable heroes and gods n contains much of the basic philosophy of the culture.
(about Krishna, Arjuna, & dharmic dilemma) krishna confessed he is incarnation of the god vishnu, and told arjuna he needs to fight in balltle bc he is a kshatriya class, and it is his duty
(origin of Bhakti, Karma, and Jnana Yogas) Jnana — the yoga of knowledge Karma — the yoga of service Bhakti — the yoga of devotion
Ramayana (about Rama) besides krishna, Rama is most beolve avatar of vishnu
Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (origin of Raja/Ashtanga Yoga) the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali Raja — yoga of psycho-physical discipline aka Royal Yoga aka Ashtanga = “8 limbs”
Code of Manu (reaffirms caste system) written as a response to oppisition to the caste system to the janism and buddism
Advaita (monism/non-dualistic) vs. Dvaita (dualistic) Advaita- Non-dualist Nirguna Brahman — God is impersonal; dissolves personhood; No distinction/duality. Dvaita- Dualist; Saguna Brahman — God has personal attributes; retains distinction of persons; Relationship between
Nirguna Brahman vs. Saguna Brahman Nirguna Brahman — God is impersonal Saguna Brahman — God has personal attributes
Hindu holy days Holi, Divali, n Dasehra
Vivekanada ramakrishna's disciple who attended the parliament of religion in chicago in 1893
Mohandes Ghandi inspired by-jesus sermon on the mount, henry david thoreau, and janist teaching of ahimsa
Ahimsa non-injury to life - not to injury life
Buddhism - Buddha / Tathagata / Sakyamuni buddha-enlighened one, tath-he has come and gone, sak-sage of the Sakyas
The Four Passing Sights old man, disease, decaying corpes, and peaceful monk
Bodhi tree worlds oldest living tree
The Middle Way between indulgence & asceticism
The Four Noble Truths The problem: Suffering (Dukkha) The cause: Desire (Tanha) The end: Cessation of suffering/desire (Nirvana) The means: Eight-Fold Path
The Eightfold Path Prajna/Wisdom-Right Belief,Right Aspiration Sila/Morality-Right speech, RightConduct /Action, Right Livelihood Samadhi/Concentration-Right Endeavor/Effort, Right Mindfulness, Right Meditation
The Three Jewels (Three Refuges) I take refuge in the: Buddha I take refuge in the: Dharma I take refuge in the: Sangha
Anatman anatman/anatta – no soul; no self
Nirvana extinguishing (of self; of desire)
Dukkha Suffering
Tanha Desire
Anicca impermanence; transience
Skandhas 5 constituents of the human
Dependent co-arising interconnectedness & interdependence of all; no separate existence
Dharma (as redefined by the Buddha) the truth taught by the Buddha
Karma (as reapplied to Buddhism) law of cause & effect (137, 140, 142-143) (redefined somewhat because Buddhism disavows the caste system and varnashrama dharma, and is anatman
Samadhi (as reapplied in Buddhism) Samadhi is necessarily redefined in Buddhism, because Buddhism is anatman
10 precepts & 5 precepts (need not memorize them) 10 Precepts for monks; 5 for non-monastics (like the ten commandments)
Sangha order of the monks - the vehicle of where the truth comes
Arhat obtained enlightment and detached
Bodhisattva being destain to becoming a buddha
Bodhisattva Vow of Compassion to wait and help
Pagodas service as worship or festival centers, and contain relicd.
Tripitaka / Pali canon three baskets / language
Sanskrit Sutras a shrine/temple
Lotus Sutra huge meterian- everything
Theravada Buddhism The Smaller Vessal - the more conservative- tradition of the elders
Hinayana Buddhism consevative wing of buddhism, only remaining school is theravada
Mahayana Buddhism The greater Vessel - term meaning large vehicle the buddhist movement that added new understandings, absorbed other religious ideas and most trancended culture boundries throughout the world
Vajrayana Buddhism (a form of Mahayana) The “Diamond Vessel” or “Thunderbolt Vessel” Tantric Buddhism
Tibetan Buddhism the most tantic form of buddhism
Tantric Buddhism teach various magic words n spells that help deal with the unknown
Syncretism Theravada - More conservative / sectarian Mahayana - More tolerant & syncretistic2
Bon vajrayana's name in (I think in Japan)
Zen / Ch’an / Dhyana the intuitive that seeks satori, a flash of insight through meditating on koans
Pure Land / Jodo Shu / Jodo Shinshu the buddhism that involves a savior and western paradiseq
Nichiren / Soka Gakkai is a purely japanees phenomenon- great effect on the social and political
Tendai should stand on their own, so instinctive
Bodhidharma the early teaching of the intuitive buddhism in the clue
Mantras / Tantras / Mandalas how to do the rituals/ chants/ no attachments
Koans a chan/zen riddle for contemplation
Amitabha / Amida / Emiduo (Amitofo) the buddha of the pure life
Avalokitesvara / Quan Yin / Kannon indian/tibetan bodhisattva who undergoes a sex change to become the far-estern bodhisattva of compassion, then changed her name
Asoka a king- read writing of buddhism to muslim and it sounded athest. moved them out and they went to s. asia.
Dalai Lama a spiritual and temporal leader
Yellow Hats & Red Hats group left red hat(sexual) and became yellow hat and dalai lama became the leader and syllibus
Maitreya / Miluo (Milofo) indian buddha of the future, becomes fat, laughing chinese buddha
Samadhi / Sammata meditation intense concentration:to attainment of the spiritual state that open the path to enlightenment.
Vipassana meditation insight meditation
Chinese Religion, Confucianism, & Daoism - Shang Dynasty Con-a social answer to the problem of the chaos in society by redirecting traditional vertrues n the idea of social order. Daoism(Taoism)- individual answering, addressing the chous in all human existence n promoting the harmony of each individual.
Chou Dynasty chou clan wanted to rule chinaassert rule based on morality n religion
Warring States period lines dividing china(?)- The great wall of china.
Han Dynasty ruled china for several cent. then began to break down
Filial piety (Hsiao/Xiao) respect and loyalty to family
Ancestrism reverence of ancestors (ancient)
Divination / augury rituals to find hidden knowledge inherent in the universe; predict future; determine auspicious times (ancient)cut open a bird to see the future
I Ching (Book of Changes) was often used for divination
Tian / Heaven Heaven (as a spiritual power, not just a place)
Mandate of Heaven right to rule as the representative of Tian
Shang Ti / Jade Emperor Ruler of Heaven (Later called the Jade Emperor)
Yin and Yang balance of complementary opposites in the universe & nature
Feng shui auspicious locations based on yin-yang bearings
Chi / Qi chi – vital energy; power of the Tao (literally, “breath”)
Tao Te Ching literally, the “Way Power Book”
Lao-Tzu Lao Tzu / Laozi / Master Lao-Founder of Taoism - wrote way power book, about teaching
Tao the Way; the universal force running through all things - inner personal request
Wu wei inactive action; action without effort - complete harmony w/ the Tao- go with the flo
Metaphor of water to describe the Tao & wu wei - always takes the path of least resistance
Chuang-Tzu Chuang Tzu / Zhuangzi / Master Chuang -Later Taoist philosopher who expanded the founder’s vision - wrote a book n named it after himself
Philosophical (early) Taoism (3 dist) in Lao Tzu & Chuang Tzu
Religious Taoism (3 dist) Popular (religious) Taoism – temples, priests, rituals, alchemy
Esoteric Taoism (3 dist) (psycho-physical) Taoism – as in Tai Chi - discipline/energy 9 yoga/martial arts)
Tai Chi gain energy - for the right reasons
Alchemy worked at the stove; began to offer sacrifice to the god of the stove. tsao chun - mercury n gold (eat it)
Confucius / Kung Fu-tzu / Kungfuzi Early Confucian Leaders Confucius / Kung Fu-tzu / Kungfuzi / Great Master Kung - founders- natural flow
Five Chinese Classics Wu Ching Book of History / Shu Ching Book of Poetry / Shih Ching Book of Changes / I Ching Book of Rites / Li Chi Spring and Autumn Annals / Chun Chiu - not by the confucius
Ru / Mandarins aristocratic class; the nobles - confucius
Five Relationships Father to son Elder brother to younger brother Husband to wife Friend to friend (Your text lists “elder to younger” here) Ruler to subject
Rectification of Names fix something, your name, what describes you, be it the right way, define your responsibility
Li propriety; right action; “rite” action - habit
Jen / Ren the virtue of humaneness
Shu reciprocity - do unto others, as you would want them to do unto you
Wen the arts of peace
Jun-zi / Chun-tzu the ideal & noble man; the virtuous gentleman
Ti / Te / De virtuous power (the power to rule, in Confucianism)
Hsiao / Xiao filial piety
Mencius / Meng-Tzu / Mengzi Mencius / Meng Tzu / Mengzi / Master Meng - Successor to Confucius who held that human nature is good but is impeded by an evil social environment
Hsun-Tzu / Xunzi - get better Hsun Tzu / Xunzi / Master Hsun - Successor to Confucius who held that human nature is self-centered and evil, requiring education and training to become good
Analects of Confucius / Lun Yü recorded sayings of Confucius
Book of Mencius Four Books / Ssu Shu - Mencius / Meng Tzu / Mengzi - written by confucius, the analects(lun-yu), great Learner (Ta Hsueh), doctrine of the mean(chung yung, mencius
Legalists 2nd group - followed no specific teacher; its mem were known as legalists or realist; money n time spent on sacrifice
Mohists 3rd group - pacifists; seld-defense n allowed the building of fortifications.
Mao Tse Tung / People’s Republic of China chinese civil war
Chinese religious repression violence-restriction of freedom
humans seek meaning, purpose, order, ultimacy
Theisms - POLYTHEISM many god exsist; may worship more than one
Theisims - HENOTHEISM many gods exist, but the community worships only their god.
Theisms - MONISM there is one ultimate reality
Theisms - PANTHEISM all is god
Theisms - PANENTHEISM all is IN god and god is in all
Theisms - DEISM a form of momtheism; god created but then withdrew from creation
Theisms - AGNOSTICISM one can not know certainly if god does or does not exist
Theisms - PHILOSOPHICAL ATHEISM no god or higher order exist
Theisms - PRACTICAL ATHEISM ones practices are not determine by belief in god.
Primal Religion/Society - are cosmological Nomadic, Hunter-gatherers, tribal groups, Small scale communities, egalitarian society, hunting males; gathering females, collective identity, oral culture, - Animism / ancestrism, nature-based worhip, shamans, totemic bond with animals, oral myths
Archaic Religion/Society - are cosmological Sedentary, domestic agriculture, merging of cultures, lg-scale urbanization, stratified society, diversification of labor, individuation/personal identity, literacy, polytheism/pantheons of gods, temple worship, priests, sacricial systems, written epic
Created by: manava854
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