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Vocabulary Words Ch7

The Respiratory System

upper respiratory tract consists of the nose, mouth, pharynx, epiglottis, larynx, and trachea
lower respiratory tract consists of the bronchial tree and lungs
nasal cavity where air enters the body through the nose and passes through
nasal septum is a wall of cartilage that divides the nose into two equal sections
mucous membrane is the specialized form of epithelial tissue that lines the nose and respiratory system
mucus which is secreted by the mucous membranes, helps to moisten, warm, and filter the air as it enters the nose
cilia the thin hairs located just inside the nostrils, filter incoming air to remove debris
olfactory receptors the recptors for the sense of smell, are nerve endings located in the mucous membrane in the upper part of the nasal cavity
sinus is an air-filled cavity within a bone that is lined with mucous membrane
paranasal sinuses are located in the bones of the skull
maxillary sinuses located in the maxillary bones, are the largest of the paranasal sinuses
frontal sinuses are locatd int the frontal bone just above the eyebrows
ethmoid sinuses located in the ethmoid bones, are irregularly shaped air cells that are separated from the orbital(eye) cavity only by a thin layer of bone
sphenoid sinuses located in the sphenoid bone, are close to the optic nerves. an infection here can damage vision
pharynx after passing through the nasal cavity, the air reaches the pharynx, which is commonly known as the THROAT
nasopharynx the first division, is posterior to the nasal cavity and continues downward to behind the mouth
oropharynx the second division, is the portio that is visible when looking into the mouth. is also shared by the respiratory and digestive system
laryngopharynx the third division, continues downward to the openings of the esophagus and trachea.
epiglottis which is a lidlike structure located at the base of the tongue, swings downward and closes off the laryngopharynx so food does not enter the trachea and the lungs
larynx also known as the VOICE BOX, is a triangular chamber located between the pharynx and the trachea
thyroid cartilage is the largest and its prominent projection is commonly known as the ADAM'S APPLE
bronchioles are the smallest branches of the bronchi
alveoli also known as AIR SACS, are the very small grapelike clusters found at the end of each bronchiole
lobe is a division of the lungs
mediastinum also known as INTERPLEURAL SPACE, is located between the lungs
pleura is a multilayered membrane that surrounds each lung with its blood vessels and nerves
parietal pleura is the outer layer of the pleura. it lines the thoracic cavity and forms the sac containing each lung
visceral pleura is the inner layer of pleura. it closely surrounds the lung tissue
pleural space also known as PLEURAL CAVITY, it the airtight space between the folds of the pleural membranes. it contains a watery lubrication fluid that prevents friction when the membranes rub together during respiration
diaphragm is the muscle that separates the thoracic cavity from the abdomen. it is the contraction and relaxation of the muscle that makes breathing possible
breathing is the act of bringing air into and out of the lungs
inhalation also known as INHALING, is the act of taking in air as the diaphragm contracts and pulls downward
exhalation is the act of breathing out
otolaryngologist also known as OTORHINOLARYNGOLOGIST, specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the ears, nose, and throat
pulmonologist is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the lungs and associated tissues
chronic obstructive pulmonary diseas(COPD) is a general term used to describe a group of respiratory conditions characterized by chronic airflow limitations
asthma is a chronic allergic disorder characterized by episodes of severe breathing difficulty, coughing, and wheezing
bronchiectasis is chronic dilation(enlargement) of bronchi or bronchioles resulting from an earlier lung infection that was not cured
emphysema is a progressive loss of lung function due to a decrease in the total number of alveoli, the enlargement of the remaining alveoli, and then the progressive destruction of the their walls
smoker's respiratory syndrome(SRS) is a group of symptoms seen in smokers. these chronic conditions include a cough, wheezing, vocal hoarseness, pharyngitis(sore throat), difficult breathing, and a susceptibility to respiratory infections
allergic rhinitis commonly referred to as an ALLERGY, is an allergic reaction to airborne.
croup is an acute respiratory syndrome in children and infants characterized by obstruction of the larynx, hoarseness, and a barking cough
diphtheria is an acute infectious diseaseof the throat and upper respiratory tract caused by the presence of diphtheria bacteria
epistaxis also known as a NOSEBLEED, is bleeding from the nose, usually caused by an injury, excessive use of blood thinners, or bleeding disorders
influenza also known as FLU, is an acute, highly contagious viral respiratory infection, spread by respiratory droplets, that occurs most commonly during the colder months
pertussis also known as WHOOPING COUGH, is a contafious bacterial infection of the upper respiratory tract that is characterized by a paroxysmal cough
rhinorrhea also known as RUNNING NOSE, is an excessive flow of mucus from the nose
sinusitis is an inflammation of the sinuses
upper respiratory infection(URI) and ACUTE NASOPHARYNGITIS are among the terms used to describe the COMMON COLD
pharyngitis also known as a SORE THROAT, is an inflammation of the pharynx
pharyngorrhagia is bleeding from the pharynx
laryngoplegia is paralysis of the pharynx
laryngospasm is a sudden spasmodic closure of the larynx
aphonia is the loss of the ability to produce normal speech sounds
dysphonia is any voice impairment including hoarseness, weakness, or loss of voice
laryngitis in an inflammation of the larynx
tracheitis is an inflammation of the trachea
tracheorrhagia is bleeding from the trachea
bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial walls
bronchorrhagia is bleeding form the bronchi
bronchorrhea means an excessive discharge of mucus form the bronchi
pleurisy is an inflammation of the visceral and parietal pleura in the thoracic cavity
pleuralgia is pain in the pleura or in the side
pneumothorax is an accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space causing the lung to collapse
pleural effusion is the abnormal escape of fluid into the pleural cavity that prevents the lung from fully expanding
effusion is the escape of fluid from blood or lymphatic vessels into the tissues or a cavity
empyema also known as PYOTHORAX, is an accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity
hemothrax is an accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity
hemoptysis is spitting of blood or blood-stained sputum derived from the lungs or bronchial tubes as a result of a pulmonary or bronchial hemorrhage
acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) is a type of lung failure resulting from many different disorders that cause pulmonary edema
pulmonary edema is an accumulation of fluid in lung tissues
pneumorrhagia is bleeding from the lungs
atelctasis also known as COLLAPSED LUNG, is a condition in which the lung fails to expand because air cannot pass beyond the bronchioles that are blocked by secretions
tuberculosis is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis
multidrug-resistant tuberculosis(MDR-TB) is a dangerous form of tuberculosis because the germs have become resistant to the effect of most TB drugs
pneumonia is an inflammation o fthe lungs in which the air sacs fill with puss and other liquid
exudate which means accumulated fluid in a cavity that has penetrated through vessel walls into the adjoining tissue
bacterial pneumonia which is commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, is the only form of pneumonia that can be prevented through vaccination
viral pneumonia accounts for approximately half of all pneumonias and may be complicated by an invasion of bacteria with all the symptoms of bacerial pneumonia
lobar pneumonia affects one or more lobes of a lung
bronchopneumonia is a form of pneumonia that begins in the bronchioles
double pneumonia involves both lungs
aspiration pneumonia may occur when a foreign substance, such as vomit, is inhaled into the lungs
aspiration means inhaling or drawing a foreign substance, such as food, into the upper repiratory tract. it also means withdrawal by suctio of fluids or gases from a body cavity
mycoplasma pneumonia also known as MYOCOPLASMAL OR WALKING PNEUMONIA, is a milder but longer lasting form of disease caused by the fungus Mycoplasma pneumoniae
pneumocystis carinii pneumonia(PCP) is caused by an infection with the parasite Pneumocystis carinii. PCP is an opportunistic infection that frequently occurs when the immune system is weakened by and HIV infection
pneumoconiosis is an abnormal condition caused by dust in the lungs that usually develops after years of environmental or occupational contact
anthracosis also known as BLACK LUNG DISEASE, is caused by coal dust in the lungs
asbestosis is caused by asbestos particles in the lungs and is found in workers from the shipbuilding and construction trades
byssinosis also known as BROWN LUNG DISEASE, is caused by cotton, flax, or hemp dust in the lungs
silicosis also known as GRINDER'S DISEASE, is caused by silica dust or glass in the lungs
pulmonary fobrosis is the formation of scar tissue that replaces the pulmonary alveolar walls
fibrosis means the abnormal formation of fibrous tissue
idopathic pulmonary fibrosis(IPF) is a type of pulmonary fibrosis for which a cause cannot be identified
cystic fibrosis(CF) is a genetic disorder in which the lungs are clogged with large quantities of abnormally thick mucus
eupnea is easy or normal breathing
tachypnea is an abnormally rapid ratre of respiration usually of more than 20 breaths per minute
bradypnea is an abnormally slow rate of respiration usually of less than 10 breaths per minute
apnea is the absence of spontaneous respiration
sleep apnea syndromes(SAS) are a group of potentially deadly disorders in which breathing repeatedly stops during sleep for long enough periods to cause a measurable decrease in blood oxygen levels
Cheyne-Stokes respiration(CSR) there is a pattern of alternating periods of hyperpnea(rapid breathing), hypopnea(slow breathing), and apnea
dyspnea also known as SHORTNESS OF BREATH, is difficult or labored breathing
hyperpnea is an abnormal increase in the depth and rate of the respiratory movements
hypopnea is shallow or slow respiration
hyperventilation is abnormally rapid deep breathing, resulting in decreased levels of carbon dioxide at the cellular level
anoxia is the absence or almost complete absence of oxygen from inspired gases, arterial blood, or tissues
asphyxia describes the pathologic changes caused by a lack of oxygen in air that is breathed in
asphyxiation also known as SUFFOCATION, is any interruption of breathing resulting in the loss of consciousness or death
cyanosis is a bluish discoloration of the skin caused by a lack of adequate oxygen
hypoxia is the condition of having subnormal oxygen levels in the cells that is less severe than anoxia
respiratory failure is a condition in which the level of oxygen in the blood becomes dangerously low or the level of carbon dioxide becomes dangerously high
sudden infant death syndrome(SIDS) also known as CRIB DEATH, is the sudden and unexplainable death of an apparently healthy infant between the ages of two weeks and one year that typically occurs while the infant is sleeping
respiratory rate(RR) is an important diagnostic sign
pulmonary function tests(PFTS) are a group of tests used to measure the capacity of the lungs to hold air as well as their ability to move air in and out and to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide
phlegm is the thick mucus secreted by the tissues lining the respiratory passages.
sputum when phlegm is ejected through the mouth
bronchoscopy is the visual examination of the bronchi using a bronchoscope
laryngoscopy is the visual examination of the larynx using a laryngoscope
spirometry is a testing method that uses a spirometer to record the volume of air inhaled and exhaled and the length of time each breath takes
tuberculin skin test(TST) which is a screening test to detect tuberculosis, can be performed by Mantoux method or the PPD(purified protein derivative)
chest imaging also known as CHEST X-RAYS, is a valuable tool to show pneumonia, lung tumors, pneumothorax, pleural effusion, tuberculosis, and emphysema
bronchoconstrictor is an agent that narrows the opening of the passages into the lungs
bronchodilator is an agent that expands the opening of the passages into the lungs
septoplasty is the surgical reconstruction of the nasal septum
sinusotomy is a surgical incision into a sinus
functional endoscopic sinus surgery(FSS) is the surgical enlargement of the opening between the nose and sinus that is used to treat chronic sinusitis
pharyngoplasty is the surgical repair of the pharynx
pharyngostomy is the surgical creation of an artifical opening into the pharynx
pharyngotomy is a surgical incision of the pharynx
laryngectomy is the surgical removal of the larynx
endotracheal intubation is the passage of a tube through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish an airway
intubation is the insertion of a tube, usually for the passage of air or fluids
tracheoplasty is the surgical repair of the trachea
tracheorrhaphy means suturing of the trachea
tracheotomy is usually an emergency procedure in which an incision is made into the trachea to gain access to the airway below a blockage
stoma is an opening on a body surface
pneumonectomy is the surgical removal of all or part of a lung
lobectomy is the surgical removal of the lobe of the lung
pleurectomy is the surgical removal of part of the pleura
thoracentesis is the puncture of the chest wall with a needle to obtain fluid from the pleural cavity for diagnostic purposes, to drain pleural effusions, or to reexpand a collapsed lung
thoracotomy is a surgical incision into the wall of the chest
thoracostomy is the surgical creation of an opening into the chest
supplemental oxygen may be administered through a nasal canula or rebreather mask to add more oxygen to the air taken in as a patient breathes
postural drainage is a procedure in which the patient is tilted and propped at different angles to drain secretions from the lungs
ventilator is a machanical device for artificial ventilation of the lungs that is used to replace or supplement the patient's natural breathing function
respirator is a machine used for prolonged artificial respiration
respiratory therapist(RT) treats patients wit heart or lung problems by administering oxygen, gases, or aerosol medications under a physicians orders
respiratory therapy technician(RTT) works under the supervision of an RT to administer respiratory treatment, perform basic diagnostic tests, clean and maintain equipment, and keep records
Created by: caprinag1994