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Frederick Unit 2


Crude Birth Rate (CBR) number of live births per year per 1,000 people
Crude Death Rate (CDR) number of deaths per year per 1,000 people
Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of age, compared with totla live births. Its expressed as the annual number of deaths among infants per 1000 births rather than a percentage. This is important because it tells how developed a country.
Stationary population level when the crude birth rate equals the crude death rate and the natural increase rate approcahes zero.
(Total fertility rate) TFR average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.In the U.S it's below 2.1 in much of Africa it is above 4, if South America is between 2 and 3, in Europe it is below 2.1, in China and Russia it is below 2.1,Middle East above 4
activity (action) space space within which daily activity occurs; commuting, seasonal, nomadism
Agricultural density the number of farmers per unit of area of farmland. May mean a country has inefficient agriculture.
Arithmetic density The total number of people divided by the total land area. This is what most people think of as density; how many people per area of land.
Baby Boom people born in the US between 1946 and 1964; this post-war era allowed for better education, employment, peace and prosperity - increasing higher rates of both marriage and fertility.
Baby Bust period in the US during the 1960s and 1970s when fertility rates dropped as many female baby boomers sought higher levels of education and jobs, marrying later in life.
Boserup person who believes human growth stimulates agricultural intensification (Malthus upside-down)
Carrying capacity This is the population level that can be supported, given the quantity of food, habitat, water and other life infrastructure present. This is important because it tells how many people an area will be able to support.
Catalysts of migration many exist such as economic conditions, political circumstances, armed conflict & civil war, environmental conditions, culture and traditions, technological advances, flow of information (through technology) ...
Census tract area unit that best approximates a neighborhood in size through small county subdivisions
Catalysts of migration migration event in which individuals follow the migratory path of preceding friends or family to an existing community
Child mortality rate annual number of deaths of children under the age of 5, compared with total live births (also calculated as number of deaths per 1,000 births).
Cohort Population of various age categories in an age-sex population pyramids. This is important because this can tell what state this country it is whether in Stage 3 or Stage 5 in the demographic transition model.
Cornucopian theory theory that states Earth has an abundance of resources; can never be used up
Counter migration migration back to an original area in which people had left (e.g., migration increases after natural disasters, yet many eventually return after a time)
Cyclic movement movement that has a closed route and is repeated annually or seasonally
Demographic equation The formula that calculates population change. The formula finds the change in a population. found by doing births minus deaths plus net migration. important because it helps to determine which stage in the demographic transition model a country is in.
Demographic momentum this is the tendency for growing population to continue growing after a fertility decline because of their young age distribution. This is important because once this happens a country moves to a different stage in the demographic transition model.
Demographic regions Cape Verde is in Stage 2 (High Growth), Chile is in Stage 3 (Moderate Growth), and Denmark is in Stage 4 (Low Growth). This is important because it shows how different parts of the world are in different stages of the demographic transition.
Demographic Transition model . Stage 1 is low growth , Stage 2 is High Growth, Stage 3 is Moderate Growth, and Stage 4 is Low Growthand Stage 5 a stage is a possible stage that includes negative population growth.
Demography geographic study of population
Dependency ratio The number of people who are too young or too old to work compared to the number of people in their productive years. This is important because this tells how many people each worker supports
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth's surface (space).
Doubling time The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a constant rate of natural increase. This is important because it can help project countries' population increase over the years and when its population will double. It is a projection
East Asia largest concentration; China, Japan, North and South Korea (>1.5 billion people). Ribbon-like extensions of dense population (clustered near rivers; majority of people are farmers)
Ecumene The proportion of earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement. This is important because it tells how much of the land has been built upon and how much land is left for us to build on.
Emigration when people move out of a country
Eugenic (population policy favor one racial sector over others
Europe third major concentration; Britain to Russia, including Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Belarus, Netherlands, Belgium, parts of France, northern Italy (700 million). Ribbon-like extension deep into Russia
Expansive (population policy) encourage large families and raise the rate of population growth
Exponential growth geometric growth; doubles each population (2, 4, 8, 16, ...)
Forced Migration This happens when people removed from their countries are forced to live in other countries because of war, natural disaster, and government. (Atlantic Slave Trade, Jewish Diaspora)
Friction of Distance based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort, money, and/or energy to overcome. Because of this, partial interactions will tend to take place more often over shorter distances
Generation X people born in the US between 1965 and 1980; will have the burden of supporting the Baby Boom cohort as they head into retirement.
Generation Y people born between 1980 and 2001; also referred to as "Echo Boomers" (many are the offspring of Baby Boomers).
Gravity Model (Ravenstein) Predicts that the optimal location of a service is directly related to the number of people in the area and inversely related to the distance people must travel to access it.
Immigration when people move into a country
Intercontinental Permanent movement from one country to a different country on the same continent.
internal refugees displaced within their own countries
Interregional Permanent movement from one region of the country to another.
Intervening opportunity the presence of a nearer opportunity that greatly diminishes the attractiveness of sites farther away
J-curve This kind of graph is when the projection population show exponential growth. This is important because if the population grows exponential our resource use will go up exponential and so will our use as well as a greater demand for food and more.
Laws of migration 1885; Ernst Ravenstein (studied internal migration in England)
Linear growth arithmetic growth; increases at a constant amount per unit time (1, 2, 3, 4, ...)
Malthus person who believes food production = linear; human reproduction = geometric; despite natural checks (famine, disease) ... will always be overpopulation; thought we may be running out our supplies because of our exponentially growing population
Marx anti-capitalist person; he says lack of food is due to unequal distribution; human growth is not a problem
Maternal mortality rate annual number of deaths of women during childbirth per 1,000 women
Migratory a change in residence intended to be permanent
Mortality There are two useful ways to measure this term. One way is measuring how many children die. The other is to measure how long the children live.
Natural increase births minus deaths in a given population.
Neo-malthusian theory that builds upon Malthus' thoughts on overpopulation. Takes into count two factors that Malthus did not: population growth in LDC's, and outstripping of resources other than food
NIR (excludes migration) CBR-CDR=
North America a far fourth in concentration; east-central US and southeastern Canada (<200 million). Like Europe, much is concentrated in major cities.
Overpopulation relationship between the number of people on Earth, and the availability of resources
Periodic movement movement that involves temporary, recurrent relocation
Physiological density The number of people per unit of area of arable land, which is land suitable for agriculture. This is important because it relates to how much land is being used by how many people.
Population densities the frequency with which something occurs in space is density...
Population distributions the arrangement of a feature in space is distribution. Geographers identify the three main properties as density, concentration, and pattern (Used to describe how things and people are distributed)
Population explosion a sudden increase or burst in the population in either a certain geographical area or worldwide
Population policies programs typically sponsored by governments
Population pyramid population displayed by age and gender on a bar graph
Population structure (composition or distribution): two back-to-back bar graphs, one showing the number of males and one showing females in a particular population in five-year age groups.
Pull factors attractions that draw migrants to a place (pleasant climate, employment, education)
Push factors incentives for people to leave a place (e.g., harsh climate, economic recession, political turmoil)
Rate of natural increase the percentage by which a population grows in a year
Refugees people who leave their homes because they are forced out or enslaved. Most 1) they can carry or transport with them; 2) on foot, by bicycle, wagon, or open boat; and 3) move without the official documents that accompany channeled migration.
Restrictive (population policy) reduce the rate of natural increase
Rural-Urban Permanent movement from suburbs and rural area to the urban city area.
S-curve traces the cyclical movement upwards and then flat in a graph.
South Asia second major concentration; India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka (1.5 billion). Also ribbon (finger)-like extensions of dense population (e.g. Ganges River in India), majority are farmers as well.
Step migration migration to a destination that occurs in stages (e.g., from farm to nearby village and later to town and city)
Sustainability providing the best outcomes for human and natural environments both in the present and for the future
transhumance movement of pastoralists and their livestock between highland and lowland pastures
Underpopulation it is the opposition to overpopulation and refers to a sharp drop or decrease in a region's population
Voluntary migration movement in which people relocate in response to perceived opportunity
Created by: hmmanly
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