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Diseases of Musculos

Musculoskeletal System Disease processes class

QuestionAnswer
Osteomyelitis is an? inflammation of bone and bone marrow.
A common cause of osteomyelitis is? staph (staphylococcus) aureus.
Osteomyelitis is a common complication of an? open FX (fracture) AKA compound FX (fracture)
Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include? 1. Pain
Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include? 2. Chills
Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include? 3. Pyrexia (fever)
Signs and symptoms of osteomyelitis include? 4. Leukocytosis (elevated white count).
A complication of osteomyelitis is bone necrosis called? sequestrum.
This infection responds well to? antibiotics.
Tuberculosis (TB) is primarily a disease of the? lungs.
Pulmonary TB (tuberculosis) left untreated can spread to the? bones.
Pott's disease is TB that affects the? vertebral column of children.
Pott's disease can lead to? vertebral deformities and paralysis.
The vertebral deformities may require? surgical correction.
TB (tuberculosis) responds well to? antibiotics (INH).
Rickets is a disease affecting? infants and young children.
Rickets is caused by a deficiency of? Ca (calcium) and/or vitamin D.
The bones of the child with rickets are? soft and tend to bend causing deformities ("bow legged") or ("knock kneed").
The child's muscles are flaccid because? muscles need Ca (calcium) for proper muscle contraction.
Teething may be delayed and there is a characteristic? pot belly.
Rickets is associated with? malabsorption syndrome (inability to absorb fat soluble vitamins).
The most common prophylaxis (preventative) and Tx (treatment) for rickets is? sunlight (10/minutes/day) and the RDA (recommended daily allowance of Ca (calcium) with vitamin D.
Osteomalacia (OM)is a softening and decalcification of the bones in? adults
The bones particularly affected by OM (osteomalacia) include the? vertebral column, pelvis, and legs.
The bones tent to? bend, deform, and FX (fracture) easily.
OM (osteomalacia) is associated with? malabsortion syndrome (inability to absorb fat soluble vitamins).
The most common prophylaxis (preventative) Tx (treatment) for OM (osteomalacia) is? sunlight (10 minutes/day)and the RDA (recommended daily allowance) of a Ca (calcium) with vitamin D.
Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with? breast cancer, colon cancer, prostate cancer, MS (multiple sclerosis) and OP (osteoporosis) Heart disease, DM (diabetes mellitus) and HTN (hypertension)
Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica (OFC)usually results from hyperparathyroidism which causes? bond decalcification.
Signs and symptoms of OFC (osteitis fibrosa cystica)include? nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), bone deformities, and spontaneous FXs (fractures)
Tx (treatment) of OFC (osteitis fibrosa cystica) includes? removal of parathyroid tumor or parathyroidectomy.
Osteoporosis (OP) is a? loss of thinning of BMD (bone mineral density) AKA osteopenia (deficiency of the bone).
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 1. Female gender (80%)
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 2. Family hx (history)
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 3. Deficient vitamin D and/or Ca (calcium) in the diet.
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 4. Sedentary lifestyle (disuse of atrophy)
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 5. Smoking
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 6. Thin or small frame.
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 7. 1 - 2 ETOH (alcoholic) drinks/day doubles risk.
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 8. Excessive caffeine consumption.
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 9. Being Caucasian or Asian.
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 10. Estrogen level reduction associated with menopause.
Risk factors for OP (osteoporosis) include? 11. Prolonged used of SAIDs (steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs), Al (aluminum) antacids, diuretics, tetracycline antibiotics, and antiseizure medications.
Degree of OP (osteoporosis) risk also depends on amount of BMD (bone mineral density) acquired between ages? 25 - 35
Signs and symptoms of OP (osteoporosis)include? 1. A predisposition of FXs (fractures) especially the wrists, pelvis, and vertebrae. (compression fractures.)
Signs and symptoms of OP (osteoporosis)include? 2. Kyphosis (hunchback)
Signs and symptoms of OP (osteoporosis)include? 3. Loss of HT (height).
Dx (diagnosis) of OP (osteoporosis) depends on? patient hx (history), bone densitometry, and DEXA (dual energy X-ray absorpitometry).
Tx (treatment) of OP (osteoporosis) includes? 1. Sunlight and 500mg x 3 of Ca (calcium) with vitamin D. DO NOT EXCEED 2500 mg/ day.
Tx (treatment) of OP (osteoporosis) includes? 2. Regular exercise daily.
Tx (treatment) of OP (osteoporosis) includes? 3. ERT (estrogen replacement) AKA HRT (hormone replacement therapy for postmenopausal women.
Tx (treatment) of OP (osteoporosis) includes? 4. The use of calcitonin (Mialcalin) in extreme cases.
Bone density tests are recommended for the following? 1. Type I DM (diabetes mellitus)
Bone density tests are recommended for the following? 2. Liver or kidney disease.
Bone density tests are recommended for the following? 3. Menopause.
Bone density tests are recommended for the following? 4. Over age 50.
Paget's disease is AKA? osteitis deformans.
Paget's disease is an idiopathic (unknown disease) possibly genetic overproduction of? abnormal bone tissue.
Signs and symptoms of Paget's disease includes? 1. Osteomalacia (softening of the bones).
Signs and symptoms of Paget's disease includes? 2. Easy FXs (fractures)
Signs and symptoms of Paget's disease includes? 3. Deformities of the legs.
Signs and symptoms of Paget's disease includes? 4. Abnormal curvatures in the vertebral column (scoliosis)
A complication of Paget's disease is? osteogenic sarcoma (primary bone malignancy).
The most common benign bone tumor is an? osteoma.
An osteoma can can be? asymptomatic (no symptom)
If pain, decreased mobility, or swelling occurs? surgery is performed to remove the tumor.
A primary bone malignancy is called an? osteogenic sarcoma (OS)
OS (osteogenic sarcoma) is more common in? young adults (18 - 35 years).
A common sign of OS (osteogenic sarcoma) is easy? FXs (fractures).
Tx (treatment) of OS (osteogenic sarcoma) includes. 1. Chemotherapy (antineoplastics) 2. Surgical removal of tumor (possible amputation of the affected limb).
Most commonly, malignant bone tumors are secondary tumors that have? metastasized from another site.
These secondary bone tumors cause? easy FXs (knees) and extreme pain.
The Px (prognosis) for a secondary bone malignancy is? poor. this is the most painful of all the cancers.
Arthritis is an? inflammation of a joint (s).
Warning symptoms include? pain, swelling, and stiffness of the joints especially upon waking.
Joints commonly affected by arthritis include? lumbar vertebrae, hips, knees and fingers.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered? autoimmune and genetic.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the most serious form of the arthritis and can cause? contractures (flexion and fixation of joints).
Signs and symptoms of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) include? pain, swelling, erythema (redness), warmth, and stiffness of the joints especially on waking.
RA (rheumatoid arthritis) is systemic so it can affect? all of the joints.
RA (rheumatoid arthritis) can cause scar tissue to fuse the ends of the bones causing? immobility (crippling)
RA (rheumatoid arthritis) can cause enlargement of the joints called? rheumatoid nodules.
Tx (treatment) of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) includes? 1. ROM (range of motion) exercises.
Tx (treatment) of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) includes? 2. Rest.
Tx (treatment) of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) includes? 3. NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs {Celebrex}
Tx (treatment) of RA (rheumatoid arthritis) includes? 4. Enbrel, Orencia, Humira & Simponi (immunosuppressants).
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and can accompany? aging.
OA (Osteoarthritis) commonly affects joints in the? fingers, neck, low back, knees, and hips.
Other causes of OA (osteoarthritis) include? 1. Chronic irritation or injury.
Other causes of OA (osteoarthritis) include? 2. Heredity.
Other causes of OA (osteoarthritis) include? 3. Obesity (knee and hip).
The primary symptoms of OA (osteoarthritis) are? pain and stiffness of the joint (s).
OA (osteoarthritis) can cause DJD (degenerative joint disease) causing irregular bone deposits called? spurs.
There is no cure of OA (osteoarthritis) but treatment includes? 1. ROM (range of motion) exercises.
There is no cure of OA (osteoarthritis) but treatment includes? 2. Rest.
There is no cure of OA (osteoarthritis) but treatment includes? 3. Heat therapy.
There is no cure of OA (osteoarthritis) but treatment includes? 4. Vitamins D, C, E, and beta carotene.
There is no cure of OA (osteoarthritis) but treatment includes? 5. Green tea.
There is no cure of OA (osteoarthritis) but treatment includes? 6. SAIDS (steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) {cortisone} NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) {ibuprofen}.
There is no cure of OA (osteoarthritis) but treatment includes? 7. THR (total hip replacement) TKR (total knee replacement).
"Gout arthritis" usually affects the feet (great toes) and is caused by hyperuricemia (blood condition of excessive of uric acid) causing deposits of uric crystals in the? joints and kidneys.
The onset of gout is usually sudden and frequently affects men over the age of? 40
Complications of gout include? 1. Joint deformities. 2. kidney damage.
Tx (treatment)of gout includes? 1. Refrain from consuming meat, seafood, and beer. 2. Anti-gout medication (uloric)
Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is caused by compression of the? median nerve in the wrist.
CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) is more common in women and usually strikes around ages? 35 - 40.
Signs and symptoms of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) include? numbness and tingling in the hand progressing to pain that can radiate up the arm to the shoulder (especially at night).
CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) is a RSI? repetitive strain injury.
CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome usually develops when a? wrist is kept in a flexed position for extended periods to perform repetitive tasks.
High risk groups for CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) include? 1. Computer users.
High risk groups for CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) include? 2. Beauticians.
High risk groups for CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) include? 3. Dentists.
High risk groups for CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) include? 4. Piano players.
Dx (diagnosis) of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) is confirmed with? 1. A hx (history) of repetitive hand movements with a flexed wrist.
Dx (diagnosis) of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) is confirmed with? 2. EMG (electromyography).
Tx (treatment) of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) includes? 1. Proper wrist alignment.
Tx (treatment) of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) includes? 2. Avoidance of repetitive movements.
Tx (treatment) of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) includes? 3. Braces and splints.
Tx (treatment) of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) includes? 4. NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs)
Tx (treatment) of CTS (carpal tunnel syndrome) includes? 5. Surgery.
Other RSI (repetitive strain injuries ) include? 1. Guitar Hero Wrist. AKA guitar arthritis.
Other RSI (repetitive strain injuries ) include? 2. iPod Finger
Other RSI (repetitive strain injuries ) include? 3. Nintenditis.
Other RSI (repetitive strain injuries ) include? 4. Cell Phone Elbow.
A herniated intrevertebral disk (HID) is AKA A? slipped or ruptured or bulging disk.
A HID (herniated intrevertebral disk) occurs more frequently in the? lower lumbar region of the back and is many times caused by poor body mechanics.
The primary complication of HID (herniated intervertebral disk) is? pressure exerted on a spinal cord and/or spinal nerve(s) causing weakness, tingling, numbness, and extreme pain.
A common spinal nerve affected by a HID (herniated intervertebral disk) is the sciatic nerve causing? sciatica (irritation of a sciatic nerve)
Tx (treatment) of a HID (herniated intervertebral disk) includes? 1.Bed rest on a firm mattress.
Tx (treatment) of a HID (herniated intervertebral disk) includes? 2. Muscle relaxants (skelaxin)
Tx (treatment) of a HID (herniated intervertebral disk) includes? 3. Narcotic analgesics (percodan)
Tx (treatment) of a HID (herniated intervertebral disk) includes? 4. Heat application.
Tx (treatment) of a HID (herniated intervertebral disk) includes? 5. Trx (traction)
Tx (treatment) of a HID (herniated intervertebral disk) includes? 6. TENS (trancutaneous electrical nerve stimulation).
Tx (treatment) of a HID (herniated intervertebral disk) includes? 7. Surgery (diskectomy and vertebral fusion).
Muscular dystrophy (MD) is a hereditary disease of which there are several forms causing? muscle degeneration which totally disables the individual.
The most common and serious form of MD is called? Duchenne.
MD (muscular dystrophy) can appear at any age but generally starts appearing at age? 3 to 5.
Most individuals with MD (muscular dystrophy) do no live to? adulthood.
Death is caused by the effect of MD on the heart and respiratory muscles? heart and respiratory muscles.
Dx (diagnosis) of MD (muscular dystrophy) is confirmed by an? EMG (electromyography) and muscle Bx (biopsy).
Tx (treatment) of MD (muscular dystrophy) includes? PT (physical therapy) OT (occupational therapy) and osteopedic assistance devices (braces, crutches, and wheel chairs.
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an? idiopathic (unknown) autoimmune neuromuscular disorder.
MG (Myasthenia gravis) occurs more often in? women.
MG (myasthenia gravis) is caused by a defect in the? transmission of nerve impulses to the muscles.
MG (myasthenia gravis) has been linked to? abnormal antibodies produced by the thymus.
Muscles commonly involved in MG (myasthenia gravis) include? 1. eye movement. 2. eyelid movement. 3. Facial expressions. 4. Chewing 5. Talking 6. Swallowing.
Tx (treatment) for MG (myasthenia gravis) includes. 1. Thymectomy (excision of the thymus). 2. Immunosuppressants (prednisone).
A hernia is a? protrusion of tissue through the muscular wall that contains it.
A HH (hiatal hernia) is a? protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm (diaphragmatic hernia).
An UH (umbilical hernia) is a? protrusion of the intestine through the umbilicus.
An IH (inguinal hernia) usually refers to a? protrusion of the small intestine into the scrotum.
A strangulated (incarcerated) hernia can cause? ischemia (starvation of oxygen) and/or necrosis (death) to the tissue it surrounds.
Tx (treatment) of a hernia includes? 1. Abdominal supports (truss). 2. Hernioplasty (surgical repair of a hernia).
An acute contagious skin disease caused by staph (staphylococci)+ strep (streptococci) especially in children is? impetigo.
Impetigo is characterized by? 1. Erythema (redness) 2. Oozing vesicles (fluid filled papules) 3.Pustules (pus filled papules) with a honey colored crust.
Tx (treatment) of impetigo includes? 1. Wash with soap and water. 2. Keep lesions dry (astringent - Caladryl). 3. Topical antibiotics (Neosporin).
Lyme disease is a bacterial disease transmitted by the bite of a? deer tick.
Signs and symptoms of Lyme Disease usually occur 3 - 30 days after exposure and include? 1. "Bulls eye rash" (Target)
Signs and symptoms of Lyme Disease usually occur 3 - 30 days after exposure and include? 2. Flu like signs and symptoms.
The symptoms include for Lyme Disease are? a. Malaise (feeling of being unwell).
The symptoms include for Lyme Disease are? b. Cephalalgia (headache).
The symptoms include for Lyme Disease are? c. Chills.
The symptoms include for Lyme Disease are? d. Pyrexia (fever).
The symptoms include for Lyme Disease are? e. Arthralgias (joint pain)
The symptoms include for Lyme Disease are? f. Mylagias (muscle pain).
The symptoms include for Lyme Disease are? g. Lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes).
Tx (treatment) for Lyme disease includes? antibotics (Vibramycin, Amoxil).
Untreated Lyme disease can cause permanent damage to the? heart, joints, and nervous system.
HSV I (Herpes Simplex Virus I (HSV I) causes herpetic stomatitis AKA? " cold sores" or "fever blisters"
Herpetic stomatitis is usually found near the? oral labiae (lips)
The HSVI (herpes simples virsus) can be dormant in the body for months but frequently becomes active when a person is under? stress or when their immune system is weakened.
Treatment (Tx) of the herpes simples virus I (HSVI) includes? antiviral drugs (Abreva).
Tinea refers to? fungal infections.
Tinea corporis is AKA? ringworm.
Tinea corporis causes? red ringed shaped pruritic (itchy) lesions.
Tinea pedis is AKA? athlete's foot.
Tinea pedis frequently attacks the skin between the toes causing? fissures (cracks or grooves), pruritus (itching), and pain.
Tinea cruris is AKA? jock itch.
Tinea cruris causes? red ring-like areas with vesicles (fluid filled papules).
Areas of the body susceptible to tinea are usually? warm, dark, and mosit environments.
Tx (treatment) of tinea includes? 1. keeping susceptible areas dry. 2. Topical anti-fungal medications. (Tinactin,Desnex).
Pediculosis is AKA? lice
Pediculosis (lice) can infest the? head, pubic area (crabs), and the body.
Head lice are common among children and are transmitted by direct contact or fomites such as? combs, scarves. hats, and bed linen.
The primary symptom of pediculosis (lice) is? pruritus (itching).
Pediculosis (lice) are difficult to see but their white eggs (nits) can be located at the? hair shaft.
Treatment (Tx) of pediculosis (lice) includes? 1. Medicated shampoos (RID).
Treatment (Tx) of pediculosis (lice) includes? 2. Use a fine toothed comb.
Treatment (Tx) of pediculosis (lice) includes? 3. Washing clothes in hot water (greater than 131 degrees)and machine drying.
Treatment (Tx) of pediculosis (lice) includes? 4. leave the house for 55 hours to allow the lice to die.
Some studies show that lice are becoming? resistant to the medicated shampoos.
Scabies is a contagious skin infestation caused by the? "itch mite".
Signs and symptoms of scabies include? vesicles (fluid filled papules). pustules (puss filled papules). and intense pruritus (itching).
Scabies are usually transmitted by? skin to skin contact.
Treatment (Tx) of scabies include? 1. Scrubbing with medicated soaps and shampoos (Elimite) in hot baths. 2. Washing clothes in hot water (greater than 131 degrees) and machine drying.
Allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) is a noncontagious inflammation of the skin caused by an? allergic response
Common allergies include? 1. Plants such as poison ivy or oak 2. Chemicals found in clothing dyes, soaps, and perfumes. 3. Metal such as nickel found in costume jewelry etc.
Signs and symptoms of ACD (allergic contact dermatitis) include? 1. Erythema (redness) 2. Vesicales (fluid filled papules). 3. Pruritus (itching).
Treatment (Tx) of ACD (allergic contact Dermatitis) includes? 1. Removal of the allergies. 2. Topical anti-inflammatories. 3. Antihistamines (Benadryl). 4. Antipruritic medications (Caladryl).
Atopic Dermatitis is AKA? eczema.
Eczema is an idiopathic (unknown disease) skin disorder causing? erythematous (red), dry and crusted patches on the skin.
AD (atopic dermatitis) usually affects those with? allergies and asthma.
Eczema outbreaks will disappear in half of all children effected by? adolescence.
Tx (treatment) of atopic dermatitis (AD) includes the use of? SAIDS (steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs).
A nevus is AKA? a mole.
A nevus (mole) is a benign skin lesion that can become? malignant.
Signs and symptoms that indicate a possible change of a nevus (mole) to a malignant lesion include? 1. Change in the size or shape. 2. Pruritus (itching). 3. Soreness. 4. Discharge 5. Darkening of the nevus.
The ABCDE's of moles include? Asymmetry or one half does not match the other half.
The ABCDE's of moles include? Border or edges are ragged, blurred, or irregular.
The ABCDE's of moles include? Color is not the same throughout.
The ABCDE's of moles include? Diameter is larger than the eraser of a pencil.
The ABCDE's of moles include? Elevated or raised from the skin.
Tx (treatment)of a suspect nevus (mole) involves? surgical removal or cryosurgery.
Basil cell carcinoma (BCC)is the most common skin cancer that is? slow growing and usually non-metastasizing.
BCC (basil cell carcinoma) usually develops on the face or neck of light skinned men (2 to 1) who are? over exposed to UV (ultra-violet) light (sun or tanning beds).
Tx (treatment) of basil cell carcinoma (BCC) involves? 1. Surgical removal of the tumor. 2. Radiation therapy 3. Chemotherapy (antineoplastics).
Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC) is a more serious skin lesion because it? metastasizes through the lymph vessels.
SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) usually develops on the face, ears, neck, lips, and back of hands of light skinned men (3 to one) who are? over exposed to UV (ultra violet) light (sun and/or tanning beds).
Tx (treatment) of SCC (squamous cell carcinoma) involves? 1. surgical removal of the tumor. 2. radiation therapy. 3. chemotherapy (antineoplastics).
Malignant (metastatic) melanoma (MM) is the most serious form of skin cancer because it? metastasizes early.
MM (malignant metastatic melanoma) can develop from a nevus (mole) and is associated with? over exposure to UV (ultra violet) light (sun and or tanning beds) in Caucasians (10 to 1).
Tx (treatment) of malignant metastatic melanoma (MM) involves? surgical removal of the tumor and surrounding lymph nodes.
The (Px) for MM (malignant metastatic melanoma) depends on the? degree of metastasis.
Tanning beds emit _____ - ______ more UVA rays than the sun? 50 to 75%
To protect your skin from UVA + UVB, sunscreen should contain? mexoryl or avobenzone
Acne vulgaris (AV) is caused by a clogging of the? sebaceous (oil producing) glands.
Characteristics of AV (acne vulgaris) include? 1. Comedones (whiteheads and blackheads) 2. Pustules (pus filled papules) indicate inflammatory acne.
Tx (treatment) of AV (acne vulgaris) includes? 1. Benzoyl peroxide. 2. Stridex. 3. Keeping the hands away from the face. 4. Gentle cleaning of the skin twice a day.
Rosacea is an idiopathic cyclic progressive inflammatory skin disease that causes? facial erythema (redness) edema (swelling) papules (raised lesions) pustules (puss filled papules) and pain.
Tx (treatment) of rosacea includes? 1. Avoidance of triggers (sunlight, stress, wind, temperature, extreme, skin care products. 2. Topical vitamin A (reinol) 3. Oracea.
Psoariasis is an idiopathic (unknown disease) autoimmune chronic (persistent) skin disease with a hereditary basis of which there is no? cure.
The psoriasis lesions are? erythematous (red) patches with white or silvery scales.
The psoriasis lesions primarily form on the? elbows and knees by the trunk, arms, legs, and scalp can be affected.
Psoriasis can be exacerbated (made worse) by? 1. Stress 2. Changes in climate 3. NSAIDS (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. 4. Injuries to the skin 5. Infections.
Tx (treatment) of psoriasis includes controlling lesions with? 1. Coal-tar medications (Tegrin, Denoex). 2. SAIDS (steriodal anti-inflammatory drugs. 3. UV (ultra-violet) light therapy
Created by: Penny S