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Reproductive Cycle

Fundamentals of Body Structures Class

QuestionAnswer
The process by which a single cell duplicates its genetic material is called? mitosis
This replication process (mitosis) gives humans a new body every? 10 years.
The duplicated (mitotic) cells contain? 46 chromosomes.
A special type of cellular division that produces the sex cells (spermatozoa and ova) is called? meiosis.
Meiotic cells (spermatozoa and ova) contain? 23 chromosomes.
The primary sex organs of the male reproductive system are the? paired male gonads AKA testes (testicles).
Oxygenated blood is transported to the testes via the? testicular arteries.
Deoxygenated blood is transported away from the testes via the? testicular veins.
The testes are responsible for producing? 1. Spermatozoa. 2. Testosterone.
Spermatozoa are? male sex cells.
The part of a testicle where spermatogenesis occurs is called the? seminiferous tubules.
Spermatozoa are produced at a rate of about? 300 million/day.
Spermatozoa have three distinct parts called the? 1. The head 2. The midpiece 3. The flagellum (tail).
The head contains the? genetic material.
The midpiece contains the? energy (ATP)for locomotion.
The function of the flagella is to? propel the spermatozoa up the female reproductive tract.
Developing spermatozoa are stored in a comma shaped structure adjacent to each testicle called the? epididymis.
An epididymis is a tube (duct) whose length is approximately? 20 feet long.
It takes the spermatozoa approximately? 20 days to move through it.
The spermatozoa travel from the epididymes to the urethra via the? vasa deferentia AKA seminal ducts AKA ductus deferentes.
Surgical removal of a section from both seminal ducts causing sterility (infertility) is called a? bilateral vasectomy.
This procedure (bilateral vasectomy) will NOT affect the? sex drive (libido) or secondary sexual characteristics.
The seminal ducts, testicular arteries, and testicular veins are surrounded by a protective sheath called the? spermatic cord.
The vessel responsible for the expulsion of the spermatozoa into the urethra is called the? ejaculatory duct.
The liquid portion of the ejaculate is called the? semen AKA seminal fluid.
The average volume of semen per ejaculation is? 2.5 - 6 mL. roughly a teaspoon.
The number of spermatozoa ejaculated can be in excess of? 300 million.
Only thousands reach the? cervix.
Only a few hundred reach the? ovum.
If the number of spermatozoa falls below 20 million, the male is considered? sterile (infertile).
Once ejaculated the spermatozoa can live inside the reproductive tract for approximately? 48 - 72 hours.
Large numbers of spermatozoa are required to fertilize an ovum because? the ovum has a protective membrane that must be broken down by an enzyme secreted from the head of each spermatozoon.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include? 1. Milky in color.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include? 2. Viscous.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include? 3, Sticky because it contains fructose (energy for the spermatozoa).
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include? 4. Alkaline so it can neutralize the acidity of the vaginal secretions and urine.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include? 5. Contains seminalplasmin which has the capability of protecting spermatozoa by destroying certain bacteria found in the vaginal tract and semen.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include? 6. Contains enzymes that activate the spermatozoa after ejaculation.
The characteristics of seminal fluid (semen) include? 7. Contains prostaglandins that promote muscular contractions of the female genital tract.
Semen is produced by the? 1. Prostate
The prostate is a doughnut-shaped gland approximately the size and shape of a? chestnut.
The prostate surrounds the portion the superior portion of the? urethra just inferior to the urinary bladder.
Semen is produced by the? Seminal vesicles.
The seminal vesicles are paired pouch-like structures approximately 2 inches in length located? posterior to and at the base of the urinary bladder in front of the rectum.
Bulbourethral glands AKA? Cowper glands.
The bulbourethral (Cowper)glands are paired glands the size of? peas and are located just inferior to the prostate.
Testosterone is the? male sex hormone.
The part of a testicle that produces testosterone is called the? interstitial cells of Leydig.
Testosterone controls? 1. Development, growth, and maintenance of the male sex organs.
Testosterone controls? 2. Causes descent (usually just before birth) of the testes from the abdominopelvic cavity into the scrotum.
Testosterone controls? 3. Causes the shoulders to broaden and hips to narrow during puberty.
Testosterone controls? 4. Causes protein build up in muscles producing muscular bulk and firmness in their physique.
Testosterone controls? 5. Causes maturation of the spermatozoa.
Testosterone controls? 6. Causes enlargement of the thyroid cartilage (Adam's apple).
Testosterone controls? 7. Causes deepening of voice.
Testosterone controls? 8. Causes aggressive behavior.
Testosterone controls? 9. Causes facial, body, and pubic hair to appear.
Testosterone controls? 10. Stimulates the sexual drive (libido).
An outpouching of loose skin from the abdominal wall which supports and contains the testes is called the? scrotum.
Internally the scrotum is separated into? two sacs by a septum.
Each sac contains a? testis (testicle).
The scrotum lies outside of the body because? spermatozoa and testosterone production require a temperature (-3F) lower than normal body temperature.
Depending on the temperature, the scrotum has the ability to? contract and relax.
The urethra in males is the? vessel that carries urine, sperm, and semen to the outside world.
The length of the male urethra is approximately? 8 inches.
The male urethra is subdivided into three parts? 1. Prostatic urethra which is surrounded by the prostate.
The male urethra is subdivided into three parts? 2. Membranous urethra which runs from the prostatic urethra to the penis.
The male urethra is subdivided into three parts? 3. The spongy or cavernous urethra found inside the penis and terminates, at the male urethral orifice (meatus, os).
The penis is designed to? introduce spermatozoa into the female reproductive tract.
The penis consists of the shaft whose distal end is a slightly enlarged region called the? glans penis.
Covering the glans penis is a section of loose skin called the? prepuce (foreskin).
Internally the penis is composed of? three cylindrical masses of spongy tissue containing blood sinuses.
Sexual stimulation causes the penile arteries to? dilate allowing large quantities of blood to enter the penis.
Expansion of the blood sinuses compress the? penile veins.
These events cause an? erection.
Once sexual stimulation ceases, the penile arteries will? Constrict
The penile veins drain the blood and the? erection is lost.
The inability to achieve or maintain an erection is called? impotence AKA erectile dysfunction (ED).
Impotence (erectile dysfunction) can be caused by? 1. Poorly controlled stress.
Impotence (erectile dysfunction) can be caused by? 2. Trauma to the nerve controlling blood flow to the penis.
Impotence (erectile dysfunction) can be caused by? 3. Diabetes mellitus (DM).
Impotence (erectile dysfunction) can be caused by? 4. Arteriosclerosis of the arteries that supply blood to the penis.
Impotence (erectile dysfunction) can be caused by? 5. Side effects from certain medications such as anti hypertensives and antidepressants.
Viagra, Cialis, and Levitra work by? causing vasodilation of the arteries supplying the penis.
The Primary sex organs of the female reproductive system are the? paired female gonads called the ovaries.
The ovaries are the size of? unshelled almonds.
The ovaries are located in the? superior portion of the pelvic cavity one on each side of the uterus.
The structures that attaches an ovary to the uterus is called the? utero-ovarian ligament.
The ovaries are responsible for? 1. OOgenesis 2.Production of the female sex hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Immature ova are called? oocytes.
Developing ova are referred to as? follicles.
The pituitary gland produces a hormone responsible for maturation of a follicle called? FSH (follicle stimulating hormone).
FSH is released approximately every? 28 days.
The pituitary gland produces a hormone that stimulates ovulation called? LH (luteinizing hormone).
Expulsion of an ovum from the ovary is called? ovulation.
The average female can ovulate approximately? 450 times in a lifetime.
Usually the ovaries alternate? ovulations.
If the ovaries ovulate at the same time and the two ova are fertilized, the result will be? fraternal twins.
If a fertilized ovum splits it's genetic material (DNA) into two separate ova the result will be? identical twins.
The structures that transports ova from the ovaries to the uterus are called? fallopian tubes AKA uterine tubes AKA oviducts.
The finger-like projections of the fallopian tube(s) that catches the expelled ovum is called the? fimbriae.
The ovum will be moved into the through an oviduct by? 1. A waving action of the fimbriae.
The ovum will be moved into the through an oviduct by? 2. Ciliary action.
The ovum will be moved into the through an oviduct by? 3. Peristalsis.
The ovum will be moved into the through an oviduct by? 4. Muscle contractions in the walls of the uterine tubes.
Estrogen released during puberty causes the development of secondary female sexual characteristics such as? 1. Menstruation (menses)
Estrogen released during puberty causes the development of secondary female sexual characteristics such as? 2. Breast development.
Estrogen released during puberty causes the development of secondary female sexual characteristics such as? 3. Pubic, body, and axillary hair.
Estrogen released during puberty causes the development of secondary female sexual characteristics such as? 4. Pelvic bones widen.
Estrogen released during puberty causes the development of secondary female sexual characteristics such as? 5. Fat deposits (adipose tissue) in the skin cause a "soft look".
Union of a sperm with an ovum is called? fertilization (conception).
Development of a fertilized ovum from conception to birth is called? gestation or pregnancy.
The uterus is AKA? The womb.
The uterus is located in the pelvic cavity between the? urinary bladder and the rectum
The uterus is the shape of an? inverted pear.
The uterus should be angled forward in an? anteflexion position.
The uterus is where the fertilized ovum will? 1. implant 2. develop into a fetus 3. be expelled during labor.
The superior portion of the uterus is called the? fundus.
The middle portion of the uterus is called the? corpus (body).
The inferior portion (neck) of the uterus is called the? cervix.
The interior of the body of the uterus is called the? uterine cavity.
The interior of the cervix is called the? cervical canal.
The opening of the cervix into the vagina is called the? external os.
The outermost layer of the uterus is called the? perimetrium (uterine serosa).
The middle (muscle) layer of the uterus is called the? myometrium.
The innermost layer of the uterus is called the? endometrium.
The region between the uterus and rectum (recto uterine pouch) is called the? Douglas' cul-de-sac.
The cyclic sloughing of the endometrium is called? menstruation or menses.
This cycle varies from woman to woman with a range of? 24 - 35 days.
The phases of the menstrual cycle are? 1. Menstrual phase days 1 - 5 2. Pre-ovulatory phase days 1- 13. 3. Ovulatory phase day 14. 4. Post-ovulatory phase days 15 - 28.
The menstrual phase is where the? endometrium is sloughed (discarded).
The pre-ovulatory phase is where the? endometrium lining thickens in preparation for implantation.
The ovulatory phase is where the? ovum is expelled from the ovary.
The post-ovulatory phase is where the? 1. Endometrium continues to thicken and develop in order to receive the fertilized ovum.
The post-ovulatory phase is where the? 2. Endometrium atrophies and will be shed (sloughed) during the menstrual phase.
The hormones responsible for the thickening and development of the endometrium are? estrogen and progesterone.
Most of the BCPs (birth control pills) OCPs (Oral contraceptive pills) are varying dosages of? estrogen and progesterone.
The tissue that will form a connection between the maternal and fetal blood supplies is called the? placenta
A hormone produced produced by the placenta that will support the developing pregnancy is called? HCG (human chorionic gonnadotropin).
HCG can be detected with an? early pregnancy test (EPT).
EPTs (early pregnancy tests) can be performed on a women's? urine or serum.
The placenta also secrets increasing levels of estrogen and progesterone to support the pregnancy and cause? 1. Breast (mammary tissue) development. 2. Milk production (lactogenesis).
The vagina is a tubular structure which is lined with? mucous membranes.
The function of the vagina includes? 1. passageway for menstruation (menses)
The function of the vagina includes? 2. receptacle for the penis, semen, and sperm during intercourse (coitus, copulation).
The function of the vagina includes? 3. Inferior portion of the birth canal.
The connection between the vagina and the cervix is called the? fornix.
The external female genitalia is called the? vulva or pudendum.
The mound of elevated adipose tissue that becomes covered with pubic hair is called the? mons pubis or veneris.
The lips of the vagina orifice (os) are called the? labia majora (outer lips) and labia minora (inner lips).
A small cylindrical mass of erectile tissue with nerves found at the anterior junction of the labia minora is called the? clitoris.
The opening or region within the labia majora and labia minora is called the? vestibule.
Within the vestibule is a thin fold of tissue that partially closes the distal end of the vagina called the? hymen.
Posterior to and on either side of the urethral meatus are mucus secreting glands called the? lesser vestibular glands AKA Skene's glands.
On both sides of the vaginal os are two small mucus producing (lubrication) glands are called the? greater vestibular glands AKA Bartholin's glands.
The region between the vaginal os and the anus is usually referred to as the? perineum.
The perineum is also referred to as the? external urogenital and anal region of both males and females.
Anterior to the pectoralis major and minor muscles of the thorax are modified sweat glands called? mammary glands.
Each mammary gland consists of? 15 - 20 lobes.
In each lobe are smaller compartments called? lobules.
The size and shape of the breasts is determined by the location and amount of? adipose tissue deposited.
Milk producing (lactogenic)cells located in the lobules are called? alveoli.
The milk is stored in the? ampullae AKA lactiferous sinuses.
The milk travels from the alveoli to the lactiferous sinuses through the? lactiferous ducts.
A nipple is AKA? mammary papilla.
The dark pigmented region surrounding the nipple (papilla) is called the? areola.
The process of secreting and ejecting milk is called? lactation.
The hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates the production of milk (lactogenesis) is called? prolactin.
ART stands for? assisted reproductive technologies.
IVF stands for? in vitro fertilization
medications designed to stimulate the ovaries to ovulate? fertility drugs.
Created by: Penny S