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Vocabulary Words

The Lymphatic and Immune Systems

allergist specializes in diagnosing and treating conditions of altered immunologic reactivity such as allergic reactions.
hematologist specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders of the blood and blood-forming tissues.
immunologist is a specialist in the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disorders of the immune system.
oncologist is a specialist in diagnosing and treating malignant disorders such as tumors and cancer.
intercellular fluid also known as INTERSTITIAL FLUID, is plasma that flows out of the capillaries of the circulatory system into the spaces between the cells.
lymph fluid usually referred to simply as lymph, is intercellular fluid as it returns to the venous circulatory system. removes waste product from the cells.
lymph capillaries are microscopic thin-walled tubes located just under the skin, carry lymph fluid from the tissues to the larger lymphatic vessels.
right lymphatic duct empty lymph into veins in the upper thoracic region.
thoracic duct empty lymph into veins in the upper thoracic region.
lacteals are specialized lymph capillaries located in the villi of small intestine.
tonsils are masses of lymphatic tissue that form a protective ring around the nose and upper throat.
cervical lymph nodes are located in the neck.
axillary lymph nodes are located under the arms.
inguinal lymph nodes are located in the inguinal(groin) area of the lower abdomen.
adenoids also known as NASOPHARYNGEAL TONSILS, are located in the nasopharynx.
palatine tonsils are located in the portion of the throat that is visible through the mouth.
lingual tonsils are located at the base of the tongue.
vermiform appendix is lymphatic tissue that hangs from the lower portion of the cecum of the large intestine.
peyer's patches are small bundles of lymphatic tissue located on the walls of the ileum of the small intestine.
spleen a saclike mass of lymphatic tissue located in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen, just inferior(below) the diaphragm and posterior to(behind) the stomach.
hemolytic removes and destroys worn-out red blood cells
thymus is located superior to(above) the heart.
lymphadenitis also known as SWOLLEN GLANDS, is an inflammation of the lymph nodes.
lymphadenopathy is any disease process usually involving enlargement of the lymph nodes.
persistent generalized lymphadenopathy(PGL) is the continued presence of enlarged lymph nodes.
lymphangiogram is a radiographic study of the lymphatic vessels and nodes with the use of a contrast medium to make these structures visible.
lymphangioma is a benign abnormal collection of lymphatic vessels forming a mass.
lymphedema is an abnormal accumulation of lymphatic fluid that causes swelling usually in the arms or legs.
primary lymphedema which is a hereditary disorder, may occur at any time in life. it can affect any of the limbs.
secondary lymphedema is caused by identifiable factors such as the surgical removal or radiation of the lymph nodes in the treatment of cancer. this affect the limb nearest the treatment.
intact skin wraps the body in a physical barrier that prevents invading organisms from entering the body.
respiratory system traps breathed-in foreign matter with nose hairs and the moist mucous membranes that line the respiratory system.
digestive system uses the acids and enzymes produced by the stomach to destroy invaders that are swallowed or consumed with food.
lymphatic system structures and cells are essential components in fighting invaders once they have entered the body.
antigen is any substance such as a virus, bacterium, toxin, or tissue that the body regards as foreign.
antibody(Ab) is a disease-fighting protein created by the immune system in response to the presence of that specific antigen.
antigen-antibody reaction also known as IMMUNE REACTION, involves binding these foreign antigens to antibodies to form antigen-antibody complexes.
lymphocytes are WBCs that specialize so they can attack specific microorganisms. formed in bone marrow as stem cells.
B cell also known as a B lymphocyte, is designed to make only one specific antibody against a specific antigen.
immunoglobulin(Ig) is a synonym for antibody.
plasma cells produce and secrete antibodies coded to match the antigen.
complement is a complex series of proteins that normally circulate in the blood in an inactive form.
T cells also known at T lymphocytes, are small circulating lymphocytes that have traveled to the thymus.
interferon which is produced by the T cells, is a family of proteins released by cells when invaded by a virus.
lymphokines which are produced by the T cells, direct the immune response by signaling between the cells of the immune system.
macrophage which is a type of phagocyte, protects the body by ingesting(eating) invading cells and by interacting with the other cells of the immune system.
phagocyte is a large WBC that can ingest(eat) and destroy substances such as cell debris, dust, pollen, and pathogens.
immunity is the state of being resistant or not susceptible to a specific disease.
natural immunity is passed from mother to fetus befor birth.
acquired immunity is obtained by the development of antibodies during an attack of an infectious disease.
artificial immunity also known as IMMUNIZATION, is immunity that was acquired through vacination.
oppurtunistic infection is a pathogen that normally does not cause disease but is able to cause illness in a weakened host whose resistance has been decreased by a different disorder.
allergy also known as HYPERSESITIVITY, is an overreation by the body to a particular antigen.
allergen is an antigen that is capable of inducing an allergic response.
cellular response also known as a LOCALIZED or DELAYED ALLERGIC RESPONSE, the body does not react the first time it is exposed to the allergen.
systemic reaction also described as ANAPHYLAXIS, is a severe response to a foreign substance such as a drug, food, insect venom, or chemical.
scratch test is a diagnostic test to identify commonly troublesome allergens such as tree pollen and ragweed.
antihistamines are medications administered to block and control allergic reations.
autoimmune disorder is a condition in which the immune system misreads normal antigens and creates antibodies and directs T cells against the body's own tissues.
immunodeficiency disorder is a condition that occurs when one or more parts of the immune system are deficient or missing.
compromised when the immune system is weakened.
congenital immunodeficiency are hereditary.
human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) is a bloodborne pathogen that invades and then progressively impairs or kills cells of the immune system.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS) describes the advanced stages of an HIV infection.
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) is a blood test used to screen for the presence of HIV antibodies.
western blot test is performed to confirm the diagnosis.
immunotherapy is a treatment of disease either by enhancing or repressing the immune response.
synthetic immunoglobulins also known as IMMUNE SERUM, are used as a postexposure preventive measure against certain viruses including rabies and some types of hepatitis.
synthetic interferon is used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and some cancers.
monoclonal antibodies(MAbs) are antibodies produced in the laboratory.
immunosuppression is treatment used to interfere with the ability of the immune system to respond to stimulation by antigens.
immunosuppressant is a drug that prevents or reduces the body's normal reactions to invasion by disease or by foreign tissues.
corticosteroid drug is a hormone-like preparation used primarily as an anti-inflammatory and as an immunosuppressant.
cytotoxic drug kills or damages cells.
antineoplastic blocks the growth of neoplasms and is used to treat cancer.
pathogen is a microorganism that causes a disease.
microorganism is a living organism that is so small it can be seen only with the aid of a microscope.
bacteria are a group of one-celled microscopic organisms.
bacilli are rod-shaped spore-forming bacteria. tetanus and tuberculosis are caused by bacilli.
rickettsia is a small bacterium that lives in lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. ROCKY MOUNTAIN SPOTTED FEVER, which is caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is transmitted to humans by the bite of an infected tick.
spirochetes are spiral-shaped bacteria that have flexible walls and are capable of movement. LYME DISEASE is caused by spirochete.
staphylococci are bacteria that form irregular groups or clusters. BACTERIAL PNEUMONIA is caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
streptococci are bacteria that form a chain. Group A streptococci cause the form of PHARYNGITIS that is commonly known as a STREP THROAT.
fungus is a simple parasitic plant. ASPERGILLOSIS, which is an infection caused by a fungus.
yeast is a type of fungus.
parasite is a plant or animal that lives on or within another living organism at the expense of the organism.
viruses are very small infectious agents that live only by invading cells.
chickenpox also known as VARICELLA(VZN), is an acute highly contagious viral disease that is characterized by fever and pustules.
cytomegalovirus(CMV) is an infection caused by a group of large herpes-type viruses with a wide variety of disease affects.
herpes zoster also known as SHINGLES, is an acute viral infection characterized by painful skin eruptions that follow the underlying rout of the inflamed nerve.
infectious mononucleosis which is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, is characterized by fever, a sore throat, adn enlarged lymph nodes.
measles is an acute, highly contagious viral disease transmitted by respiratory droplets.
mumps is an acute viral disease characterized by the swelling of the parotid glands.
rabies is an acute viral infection that may be transmitted to humans by the blood, tissue, or saliva of an infected animal.
rubella also known as GERMAN MEASLES or 3-DAY MEASLES, is a viral infection characterized by fever and a diffuse, fine, red rash.
antibiotic is a chemical substance capable of inhibiting growth or killing pathogenic microorganisms.
bactericide is a substance that causes the death of bacteria. bactericides include primarily the antibiotic groups of penicilins and cephalosporins.
bacteriostatic is an agent that inhibits, slows, or retards the growth of bacteria. these include primarily the antibiotic groups of tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and erythromycin.
antiviral drug such as acyclovir, is used to treat viral infections or to provide temporary immunity. not effective against viruses.
oncology is the study of the prevention, causes, and treatment of tumors and cancer.
tumor also known as NEOPLASM, is a new and abnormal tissue formation.
angiogenesis through this process the tumor supports its growth by creatingits own blood supply.
antiangiogenesis is a form of treatment being developed that will cut off this blood supply to the tumor.
benign means not recurring, nonmalignant, and with a favorable chance for recovery.
malignant means harmful, tending to spread, becoming progressively worse, and life threatening.
carcinoma in situ(CIS) describes a malignant tumor in its original position that has not yet disturbed or invaded the surround tissues.
invasive malignancy grows and spreads into healthy adjacent tissue.
metastasize is the verb that describes the process by which cancer spreads from one place to another.
metastasis is the new cancer site that results from the spreading process.
staging is the process of classifying tumors with respect to how far the disease has progressed, the potential for its responding to therapy, and the patient's prognosis.
carcinoma(CA) is a malignant tumor that occurs in epithelial tissue.
adenocarcinoma is any one of a large group of carcinomas derved from glandular tissue.
sarcoma is a malignant tumor that arises from connective tissue.
osteosarcoma is a malignant tumor usually involving the upper shaft of long bones, the pelvis, or knee.
myosarcoma is a malignant tumor derived from muscle tissue.
kaposi's sarcoma is an opportunistic infection frequently associated with HIV.
lymphoma is a general term applied to malignancies that develop in the lymphatic system.
hodgkin's disease(HL) also known as HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA(HL), is distinguished by the presence of Reed-Sternberg cells. these are large cancerous lymphocytes that are identified by microscopic examination of a biopsy specimen taken from an enlarged lymph node.
non-Hodgkin's lymphomas(NHL) is used to describe all lymphomas other than HL.
blastoma is a neoplasm composed chiefly or entirely of immature undifferentiated cells.
neuroblastoma is a sarcoma of nervous system orgin.
retinoblastoma is a malignant tumor of childhood arising from cells of the retina of the eye and usually occurring before the third year of life.
invasive ductal carcinoma also known as INFLITRATING DUCTAL CARCINOMA(IDC), starts in the milk duct, breaks through the wall of that duct, and invades fatty breast tissue.
ductal carcinoma in situ(DCIS) is breast cancer at its earliest stage (0) before the cancer has broken through the wall of the duct.
invasive lobular carcinoma also known as INFILTRATING LOBULAR CARCINOMA(ILC), is cancer that starts in the milk glands(lobules), breaks through the wall of the gland, and invades the fatty tissue of the breast.
biopsy is the removal of tissue to confirm a diagnosis.
lumpectomy is the surgical removal of only the cancerous tissue and margin(rim) of normal tissue.
mastectomy is the surgical removal of an entire breast.
modified radical mastectomy is the surgical removal of the entire breast and axillary lymph nodes under the adjacent arm.
male breast cancer can occur in the small amount of breast tissue that is normally present in men.
chemotherapy is the use of chemical agents and drugs in combinations selected to effectively destroy malignant cells and tissues.
radiation therapy is the treatment of cancers through the use of x-rays.
brachytherapy is the use of radioactive materials in contact with, or implanted into, the tissues to be treated.
teletherapy is radiation therapy administered at a distance from the body.
cytotechnologist a clinical laboratory technologist who examines human cell samples under a microscope for signs of cancer.
lymphedema therapist provides decongestive lymphatic therapy, including skin care, manual lymphatic massage, bandaging, exercises, and instruction in self-care to lymphedema patients.
Created by: caprinag1994