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The Muslim Empires

The Muslim Empires of the Middle Ages Study Guide

Term means political and religious successor to Muhammad? Caliph
Who was the first Caliph? Abu Bakr
Which caliph authorized an official version of the Qur'an? Uthman
Which caliph was chosen because he was Muhammad's cousin and blood relative? Ali
Which caliph let conquered people keep their land and privately practice their religon as long as they paid a tax? Umar
Which caliphs were assassinated? Umar, Uthman, Ali
Which caliph extended Muslim control out of the Arabian Peninsula and into Egypt, Iraq, and Iran? Uthman
Who was the final caliph that knew Muhammad personally and was killed by rival Muslim groups? Ali
Muslim group that supported Caliph Ali and only blood relatives of Muhammad as caliphs? Shia->Ali
Muslim group that supported the Umayyad Dynasty and any future Muslims as caliphs? Sunni->Umayyad Clan
System of government with departments and agencies that carry out the work of the government? Bureaucracy
Term for Umayyad governors that ruled conquered land? Emirs
3 ways Umayyad Caliph Abd al Malik unified his Umayyad Empire? common coinage, Arabic language, emirs, bureaucracy, Hajj Pilgrimage
How did the Umayyad fall from power? abused powers, became too greedy, fell to the Abbasid at the "deadly dinner"
What was the name of the clan that took over the Empire? Abbasid
How did the Abbasid Empire caliphs hold on to their power? standing army
Abbasid Empire policy where the conquered people were given government jobs and leadership? inclusion
Capital of the Abbasid Empire? Baghdad
Abbasid advancement in the art of fine handwriting? calligraphy
Abbasid man who spread the Arabic numbering system and is the creator of Algebra? Al-Khwarizmi
Name 4 advancements in art and learning during the Abbasid Empire? calligraphy, papermaking, Arabic numbering system, Islamic calendar, House of Wisdom, Algebra
What were some of the causes of the downfall of the Abbasid Empire? did not protect trade routes, trade declined, raised taxes, upset citizens, revolts, and invasions
What group captured and burned Baghdad ending the Abbasid Empire? The Mongols
Who escaped the "deadly dinner" and fled to Spain? Caliph Abd-al Rahman
What caliph turned Cordoba into a thriving cultural center? Caliph Abd-al Rahman III
What made Cordoba the most advanced city in Europe during the Middle Ages? paved and lighted streets, 450,000 people, 70 libraries with 500,000 books, 900 public baths, colleges, law schools
Cordoba man who did some of the first experiments with flight? Ibbas Ibn Farnas
Cordoba Jewish scholar who was a doctor, writer and one of the most brilliant men of his time? Moses Maimonides
Cordoba man who wrote a textbook on surgery? Al Zahrawi
What were some items that were traded on Cordoba? prayer carpets, ivory boxes, figs, cotton, paper, bananas
Term for the Christians' attempt to regain Spain from the Muslims? Reconquest
Names of the Christian King and Queen who drove the Muslims out of Spain? King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
Where did most of the Muslims from the Al-Andulas Empire go after they were driven out in 1492? North Africa (Morocco)
Created by: pludwig