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A&P I: Brain & Nerve

Brain & Nervous System exam

brain structure: language functions cerebral cortex
brain structure: respiratory control centers medulla oblongata AND pons
brain structure: cardiovascular control centers medulla oblongata
brain structure: body temp control hypothalamus
brain structure: "higher" brain functions cerebral cortex
brain structure: thirst and hunger centers hypothalamus
brain structure: parts of brain stem medulla oblongata, midbrain, pons, reticular formation
brain structure: coordination of skeletal muscle cerebellum
brain structure: gray matter deep within cerebrum, involved with motor reflexes basal ganglia
brain structure: surface gray matter of cerebrum cerebral cortex
brain structure: massive fiber tracts on anterior surface of brain stem pons
brain structure: thinking, learning, memory cerebral cortex
brain structure: voluntary skeletal muscle control cerebral cortex
brain structure: conscious sensation cerebral cortex
brain structure: emotions limbic system
brain structure: sensory relay station thalamus
brain structure: fiber tracts connecting higher brain structures and spinal cord medulla oblongata, midbrain, pons
brain structure: visual and auditory reflexes midbrain
brain structure: maintenance of consciousness and arousal from sleep hypothalamus AND reticular formation
brain structure: "survival" and "drive" behavior, emotional expression hypothalamus AND limbic system
brain structure: primary regulator of endocrine system hypothalamus
brain structure: control of ANS hypothalamus AND medulla oblongata
brain structure: network of neurons in gray matter of brain stem reticular formation
brain structure: digestive system control centers medulla oblongata
regulates glands and involuntary muscles (cardiac and smooth) ANS
also known as the "efferent system" motor system
brain and spinal cord CNS
parts of peripheral nervous system sensory system, enteric system, & motor system
regulates skeletal muscle SNS
also known as "afferent system" sensory system
consists of nerves and ganglia PNS
carries incoming signals from sensory receptors sensory system
carries outgoing signals to effectors motor system
2 divisions of the motor system ANS & SNS
integrates, processes, and coordinates sensory input and motor output CNS
consists of nerve plexuses in wall of digestive tract Enteric NS
receives incoming information and selects appropriate response Integration Control Center
pathway for "incoming" information sensory pathway
"senses" changes in the internal or external environment receptor
carries out corrective response effector
pathway for "outgoing" information motor pathway
neuroglia that are active phagocytes microglia
neuroglia that provide supporting framework for neurons in the CNS astrocytes
neuroglia that form myelin sheaths and neurilemma around PNS neurons oligodendrocytes
neuroglia that line fluid-filled spaces within the brain and spinal cord and form CSF enpendymal cells
neuroglia involved in the formation of the Blood Brain-Barrier astrocytes
collection of neuron cell bodies within the CNS nucleus
collection of neuron cell bodies within the PNS ganglion
bundle of axons within the CNS tract
bundle of axons within the PNS nerve
contains tracts for transmission of impulses from one part of CNS to another white matter
brain and spinal cord nuclei are primarily this tissue type gray matter
fiber tracts are primarily this tissue type white matter
primary site of "integration" in the nervous system gray matter
consists of myelineated axons of neurons white matter
consists of neuron cell bodies and unmyelineated axons gray matter
structure that begins at foramen magnum and continues down to L1 & L2 level vertebrae spinal cord
part of spinal column between C4 & T1 from which nerves to & from the upper limbs arise cervical enlargement
part of spinal column between T9 to T12 from which nerves to & from the lower limbs arise lumbar enlargement
spinal nerve roots that extend past the end of the spinal cord that gather together cauda equina
how many pairs of spinal nerves does the spinal cord have? 31
spinal cord: contains cell bodies of somatic motor neurons anterior horn
spinal cord: contains cell bodies of sensory neurons (unipolar) posterior root ganglion
spinal cord: contains cell bodies of interneurons in ascending sensory tracts posterior horn
spinal cord: contains ascending or descending axons of interneurons column
spinal cord: contains cell bodies of ANS lateral horn
parts of the spinal cord that contain gray matter contain nuclei contain cell bodies of neurons horns
part of the spinal cord that contains white matter that contain tracts that contain axons of neurons column
structures carrying sensory information to the brain ascending tracts
structures carrying motor information from the brain descending tracts
cordlike bundle of axons &/or dendrites & associated connective tissue coursing together outside the CNS with the purpose of conveying impulses nerve
a feedback mechanism to control muscle length by causing contraction stretch
a feedback mechanism to control muscle tension by causing muscle relaxation tendon
reflexive response to pain withdrawal (flexor)
helps maintain balance during reflex withdrawal crossed extensor (a contralateral reflex arc)
contains both sensory and motor axons spinal nerves AKA mixed nerves
are nerves composed of white or gray matter? white matter
where are the dendrites of sensory neurons located? outer surfaces
where are the dendrites of motor neurons located? in the brain or spinal cord
what spinal nerves serve the cervical plexus C1-C5
what spinal nerves serve the brachial plexus C5-T1
what spinal nerves serve the lumbar plexus L1-L4
what spinal nerves serve the sacral plexus L4-S4
constant area(s) of skin providing sensory input to CNS via spinal nerves or V (trigeminal) nerve dermatome
area of the brain: cerebrum, thalamus, hypothalamus forebrain
area of the brain: cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons hindbrain
area of the brain: midbrain midbrain
midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata brain stem
region of brain stem: white & gray matter exhibit a netlike arrangement with sensory (ascending) & motor (descending) functions reticular formation
brain part that 1. maintains consciousness & awakeness 2. regulates posture & muscle tone reticular activating system
white matter forming bulges on anterior aspect of the medulla pyramids
corticospinal tracts that control voluntary movements of limbs & trunk; they crossover from left to right & vice versa pyramids
location of ascending and descending fiber tracts to & from cerebrum cerebral peduncles
nuclei involved in visual reflexes superior colliculi
nuclei involved in auditory pathways & reflexes inferior colliculi
2 nuclei involved in skeletal muscle control substantia nigra & red nuclei
bundles of axons that conduct impulses between the cerebellum & other parts of the brain cerebellar peduncles
CSF filled cavities that protect the brain by acting as shock absorbers ventricles
deep masses of gray matter basal ganglia
separates cerebral hemispheres longitudinal fissure
elevation or bulge of gray matter gyrus
shallow groove in gray matter sulcus
separates the frontal lobe and parietal lobe central sulcus
separates the frontal lobe and temporal lobe lateral sulcus
fiber tracts connecting the 2 cerebral hemispheres corpus callosum
separates the parietal lobe from the occipital lobe parieto-occipital sulcus
thin layer of gray matter on the surface of cerebrum cerebral cortex
cerebral cortex: controls voluntary functions, learned movements, skill & delicate movement primary motor & pre-motor cortex in frontal lobe
cerebral cortex: visual perception, recognition visual cortex in occipital lobe
cerebral cortex: auditory perception, recognition auditory cortex in superior part of temporal lobe
cerebral cortex: touch, pressure, vibration, itch, tickle somatosensory cortex in parietal lobe
cerebral cortex: interprets meaning of speech Wernicke's area in left temporal & parietal lobes
cerebral cortex: articulation of speech Broca's area in frontal lobe
which cerebral hemisphere is dominant in language? left
which cerebral hemisphere controls muscles on left side of body? right
which cerebral hemisphere receives sensory information from the right side of the body? left
which cerebral hemisphere is dominant in tasks involving 3D relationships & recognition of patterns, music & artistic apprecation? right
gray matter, lateral to the thalamus, outside the CNS, made up of several structures of nuclei basal ganglia
at a subconscious level, supresses unwanted movements, creates muscle tone, may initiate & terminate movements basal ganglia
structure in the cerebrum that conducts nerve impulses white matter
axons that conduct nerve impulses between gyri in the same hemisphere association tracts
axons conduct nerve impulses from gyri in one hemisphere to another commissural tracts
axons from cerebrum to lower part of CNS projection tracts (internal capsule)
to what group does corpus collosum belong? commissural tracts
another name for the limbic system the "emotional brain"
brain structure: primary motor area that initiates commands cerebral cortex
brain structure: motor area that coordinates skeletal muscle movements cerebellum
brain structure: vomiting, coughing, sneezing, rhythm of breathing various motor nuclei of the Brainstem
brain structure: voluntary movements of limbs & trunk pyramidal tracts of the Brainstem
brain structure: taste, hearing, equilibrium of inner ears extrapyramidal tracts of the Brainstem
networks of blood capillaries, covered by ependymal cells that produce CSF choroid plexuses
the Rate of CSF Production equals the Rate of CSF absorption
shock absorber, buoyancy for the brain & spinal cord CSF
3 structures that protect the brain and spinal cord vertebrae, meninges, & CSF
meninges that resemble a spider web arachnoid mater
innermost layer of meninges pia mater
tough, outermost layer of meninges dura mater
contains CSF subarachnoid mater
space between the arachnoid and dura mater subdural space
space between the dura and surrounding vertebrae epidural space
lateral ventricles are located within the 2 hemispheres of the cerebrum
the 3rd ventricle is located between the walls of the thalamus
the 4th ventricle is located between the brain stem & cerebellum
fingerlike extensions of the arachnoid mater that project into the dural venous sinuses, especially superior sagittal sinus & reabsorb CSF arachnoid villi
the 4th ventricle is continuous with the subarachnoid space via 3 openings
2 main arteries that supply the brain with blood internal carotid & vertebral
main veins that drain the blood from the brain jugular
tight junctions and astrocytes involved with the process of secreting chemicals to protect and restrict movement of substances to the brain Blood-brain barrior
stroke or brain attack CVA
impaired blood flow to the brain TIA
how many pairs of cranial nerves are there? 12
OOOTTAFVGVAH Old Olympic Over Towering Titans Away Far Very Great Very Awesome Hallelujah!
Created by: MKC



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