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Lang of Medi Ch 11

Chapter 11

aorta largest artery in the body
arteriole small artery
artery largest type of blood vessel; carries blood away from the heart to all parts of the body. Notice that artery and away begin with an "a".
atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His) specialiazed muscle fibers connecting the atria with the ventricles and transmitting electrical impulses between them. his is pronounced "hiss"
atrioventricular node (AV node) specialized tissue in the wall between the atria. electrical impulses pass from the pacemaker (SA node) throught the AV node and the atrioventricular bundle or bundle of His toward the ventricles.
atrium (plural: atria) one of the two upper chambers of the heart.
capillary smallest blood vessel. Materials pass to and from the bloodstream through the thin capillary walls.
carbon dioxide (CO2) Gas (waste) released by body cells, transported via veins to the heart and then to the lungs for exhalation.
coronary arteries blood vessels that brand from the aorta and carry oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
deoxygenated blood blood that is oxygen-poor.
diastole relaxation phase of the heartbeat. From the Greek diastolek, dialtion.
electrocardiogram Record of the electricity flowing through the heart. The elcgtricity is represented by waves or deflections called P, QRS, or T.
endocardium Inner lining of the heart.
endothelium innermost lining of the heart
endothelium innermost lining of blood vessels
mitral valve valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; bicuspid valve
murmur abnormal swishing sound caused by improper closure of the heart valves.
myocardium muscular, middle layer of the heart.
normal sinus rhythm hearth rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minutes.
oxygen gas that enters the blood thru the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via ateries to all body cells.
pacemaker (sinoatrial node) specialized nervous tissue in the right atrium that begins the heartbeat. An artificial cardiac pacemaker is an electronic appartus implanted in the chest to stimulate heart muscle that is weak and not functioning.
pericardium double-layered membrane surrounding the heart.
pulmonary artery artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs.
pulmonary circulation flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back to the heart.
pulmonary valve valve positioned betyween the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.
pulmonary vein one of two pairs of vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart.
pulse beat of the heart as felt through the walls of the arteries.
septum (plural: septa) partition or wall dividing a cavity; such as between the right and left atria (interatrial septum) and right and left ventricles (interventricular septum).
sinoatrial node (SA node) pacemaker of the heart.
sphygmomanometer instrument to measure blood pressure.
systemic circulation flow of blood from body tissue to the heart and then from the heart back to body tissues.
systole contraction phase of the heartbeat. From the Greek systole, a contracting.
tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and the right ventricle; it has three (tri-) leaflets, or cusps.
valve structure in veins or in the heart that temporarily closes an opening so that blood flows in only one direction.
vein thin-walled vessel that carries blood from body tissues and lungs back to the heart. veins contain valves to prevent backflow of blood.
vena cava (plural: venae cavae) largest vein in the body. the superior and inferior venae cavae return blood to the right atrium of the heart.
ventricle one of the two lower chambers of the heart.
venule small vein.
angi/o vessel
aorto/o aorta
arter/o, arteri/o atery
ather/o yellowish plaque, fatty substance (greek = porridge)
atri/o atrium, upper heart chamber
brachi/o arm
cardi/o heart
cholesterol/o cholestrol (a lipid substance)
coron/o heart
cyan/o blue
myx/o mucus
ox/o oxygen
pericardi/o pericardkum
phleb/o vein
rrhythm/o rhythm
sphgm/o pulse
steth/o chest
thromb/o clot
valvul/o, valv/o valve
vas/o vessel
vascul/o vessel
ven/o, ven/i vein
ventricul/o ventricle, lower heart chamber
bradycardia and heart block (atrioventricular block) failure of proper conduction of impulses from the SA node thru the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle (bundle of His)
arrhythmias abnormal heart rhythms (dysrhythmias)
flutter rapid but regular contractions, usually of the atria.
fibrillation very rapid, random, inefficient, and irregular contractions of the heart (350 beats of more per minute).
coarctation of the aorta (CoA) passageway (ductus arteriosus) between the aorta and the pulmonary artery remains open (paten) after birth.
septal defects small holes in the wall between the atria (atrial septal defects) or the ventricles (ventricular septal defects.)
tetralogy of Fallot congenital malformation involving four (tetra-) distinct heart defects.
coronary artery disease (CAD) disease of the arteries surrounding the heart.
congestive heart failure (CHF) heart is unable to pump its required amount of blood.
endocarditis inflammation of the inner lining of the heart
hypertensive heart disease high blood pressure affecting the heart.
mitral valve proplapse (MVP) improper closure of the mitral valve.
murmur extra heart sound, heart between normal beats.
pericarditis inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart.
rheumatic heart disease heart disease caused by rheumatic fever
aneurysm local widening (dialation) of an arterial wall.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT) blood clot (thrombus) forms in a large vein, usually in a lower limb.
hypertension (HTN) high blood pressure
peripheral arterial disease (PAD) blockage of arteries carrying blood to the legs, arms, kidneys and other organs.
Raynaud disease recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes.
acute coronary syndromes (ACSs) Unstable angina and myocardial infarction (heart attack), which are consequences of plaque rupture in coronary arteries.
angina (pectoris) chest pain resulting from myocardial ischemia. stable angina occurs predictably with exertion; unstable angina is chest pain that occurs more often and with less exertion.
angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACD) inhibitor antihypertensive drug that blocks the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, causing blood vessels to dilate. It prevents heart attacks, CHF, stroke, and death.
auscultation listening for sounds in blood vessels or other body structures, typically using a stethoscope.
beta-blocker drug used to treat angina, hypertension, and arrhythmias. It blocks the action of epinephrine (adrenaline) at receptor sites on cells, slowing the heartbeat and reducing the workload on the heart.
biventricular pacemaker device enabling ventricles to beat together (in synchrony) so that mroe blood is pumped out of the heart.
bruit abnormal blowing or swishing sound heard during auscultation of an artery or organ.
calcium channel blocker drug used to treat angina and hypertension. It dilates blood vessels by blocking the influx of calcium into muscle cells lining vessels.
cardiac arrest sudden, unexpected stoppage of heart action; sudden cardiac death.
cardiac tamponade pressure on the heart caused by fluid in the pericardial space.
claudication pain, tension, and weakness in a leg after walking has begun, but absence of pain at rest
digoxin drub that treats arrhythmias and strengthens the heartbeat.
embolus (plural: emboli) clot of other substance that travels to a distant location and suddently blocks a blood vessel.
infarction area of dead tissue
nitrates drugs used in the treatment of angina. Theyh dilateblood vessels, increasing blood flow and oxygen to myocardial tissue.
nitroglycerin nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina.
occlusion closure of a blood vessel due to to a blockage
palpitations uncomfortable sensations in the chest relatied to cardiac arrhythmias, such as premature ventricular contractions (PVCs).
patent open
pericardial friction rub scraping or grating noise heart on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis.
petechiae small, pinpoint hemorrhages
statins drugs used to lower cholesterol in the bloodsgtream.
thrill vibration felt ofer an area of turmoil in blood flow (as blocked artery).
vegetations clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on diseased heart valves.
BNP test measurement of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in the blood.
cardiac biomarkers chemicals are measure in the blood as evidence of a heart attack
lipid tests (lipid profile) measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides (fats) in a blood sample.
lipoprotein electrophoresis lipoproteins (combinations of fat and protein) are physically separated and measure in a blood sample.
angiography xray imaging of blood vessels after injection of contrast material.
computer tomography angiography (CTA) three dimensional xray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computer tomography (CT) (64 slice CT scanner).
digital subtaction angiography (DSA) video equipment and a computer produce xray images of blood vessels
electron beam computed tomography (EBCT or EBT) electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose early CAD
doppler ultrasound studies sound waves measure blood flow within blood vessels.
echocardiography (ECHO) echoes generated by high-frequency sound waves produce images of the heart.
positron emission tomography (PET) scan images show blood flow and myocardial function following uptake of radioactive glucose.
technetium Tc 99m sestamibi scan Technetium Tc 99m sestamibi injected intravenously is taken up in cardiac tissue, where it is detected by scanning.
thallium 201 scan concentration of radioactive thallium is measured to give infomration about blood supply to the heart muscle.
cardiac MRI images of the heart are produced using radiowave energy in a magnetic field.
cardiac catheterization thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery.
Holter monitoring An ECG device is worn during a 24-hour perior to detecgt cardiac arrhythmias.
catheter ablation brief delivery of radiofrequency or cryosurgery to destroy areas of heart tissue that may be causing arrhythmias.
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Arteries and veins are anastomosed to coronary arteries to detour around blockages.
defibrillation brief discharges of electricity are applied across the chest to stop dysrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation.
enearterecgtomy surgical removal of plaque from the inner layer of an artery.
extracorporeal circulation heart-lung machine diverts blood from the heart and lungs while the heart is repaired.
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) ballon-tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery; stents are put in place.
thrombolytic therapy drugs to dissolve clots are injected into the bloodstream of patiens with coronary thrombosis.
Created by: lauraj5