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Lang of Medi Ch 10

Chapter 10

cerebrum thinking, personality, sensations, movements, memory
thalamus relay station ("triage center") for sensory impulses; control of awareness and consciousness
hypothalmus body temperature, sleep, appetite, emotions, control of the pituitary gland
cerebellum coordination of voluntary movements and balance
pons connection of nerves (to the eyes and face)
Medulla oblongata nerve fibers cross over, left to right and right to left; contains centers to regulate heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system.
acetylcholine neurotransmitter chemical released at the ends of nerve cells.
afferent nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord (sensory nerve). Afferent comes from af- (a form of ad-, meaning toward) and -ferent (meaning carrying).
arachnoid membrane middle layer of the three membranes (meninges) that surround the brain and spinal cord.
astrocyte type of glial (neuroglial) cell that transports water and salts from capillaries
autonomic nervous system nerves that control involuntary body functions of muscles, glands, and internal organs.
axon microscopic fiber that carries the nervous impulse along a nerve cell.
blood-brain barrier blood vessels (capillaries) that selectively let certain substances enter the brain tissue and keep other substances out.
brainstem lower portion of the brain that connects the cerebrum with the spinal cord; includes the pons and medulla oblongata.
cauda equina collection of spinal nerves below the end of the spinal cord.
cell body part of a nerve cell that contains the nucleus.
central nervous system (CNS) brain and the spinal cord
cerebellum posterior part of the brain that coordinates muscle movements and maintains balance.
cerebral cortex outer region of the cerebrum, containing sheets of nerve cells; gray matter of the brain.
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulates throughout the brain and spinal cord.
cerebrum largest part of the brain; responsible for voluntary muscular activity, vision, speech, taste, hearing, thought, and memory.
cranial nerves twelve pairs of nerves that carry messages to and from the brain with regard to the head and neck (except the vagus nerve).
dendrite microscopic branching fiber of a nerve cell that is the first part to receive the nervous impulse.
dura mater thick, outermost layer of the meninges surrounding and protecting the brain and spinal cord. (Latin for hard mother)
efferent nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord; motor nerve.
ependymal cell glial cell that lines membranes within the brain and spinal cord and helps from cerebrospinal fluid.
ganglion (plural: ganglia) collection of nerve cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system.
glial cell (neuroglial cell) supportive and connective nerve cell that does not carry nervous impulses. Examples are astrocytes, microglial cells, ependymal cells, and oligodendrocytes.
gyrus (plural; gyri) sheet of nerve cells that produces a rounded ridge on the surface of the cerebral cortix; convolution.
hypothalamus portion of the brain beneath the thalamus; controls sleep, appetite,l body temperature,a nd secretions from the pituitary gland.
medulla oblongata part of the brain just above the spinal cord; controls breating, heartbeat, and the size of blood vessels; nerve fibers cross over here.
meninges three protective membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord.
microglial cell phagocytic glial cell that removes waste products form the central nervous system.
motor nerve carries messages away from the brain and spinal cord to muscles and organs; efferent nerve.
myelin sheath covering of white fatty tissue that surrounds and insulates the axon of a nerve cell. It speeds impulse conduciton along axons.
nerve macroscopic cord-like collection of fibers (axons and dendrites) that carry electrical impulses.
neuron nerve cell that carries impulses throughout the body.
neurotransmitter chemical messenger released at the end of a nerve cell. It stimuloates or inhibits another cell, whicnh can be a nerve cell, muscle cell, or gland cell. Examples are acetylcholine, norepinephrine, dopamine, and serotonin.
oligodendroglial cell glial cell that forms the myelin sheath covering axons. Also called oligodendrocyte.
parasympathetic nerves involuntary, automatic nerves that regulate normal body functions such as heart rate, breathing, and muscles of gastrointestinal tract.
parenchyma essential, distinguishing tissue of any organ or system. The parenchyma of the nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and neurons.
peripheral nervous system nerves outside the brain and spinal cord; cranial, spinal, and autonomic nerves.
pia mater thin, delicate inner membrane of teh meninges.
plexus (plural; plexuses) large, interlacing network of nerves. Ex: lumbosacral, cervical, and brachial plexuses.
pons part of the brain anterior to the cerebellum and between the medulla and the rest of the midbrain. It is a bridge connecting various parts of the brain.
receptor organ that receives a nervous stimulus and passes it on the afferent nerves. The skin, ears, eyes, and taste buds are receptors.
sciatic nerve nerve extending from the base of the spine down the thigh, lower let, and foot.
sensory nerve carries messages toward the brain and spinal cord from the receptor; afferent nerve.
spinal nerves thirty-one pairs of nerves arising from the spinal cord.
stimulus (plural: stimuli) agent of change (light, sound, touch) in the internal or external environment that evokes a response.
stroma connective and supporting tissue of an organ. Glial cells are the stromal tissue of the brain.
sulcus (plural: sulci) depression or groove in the surface of the cerebral cortex; fissure.
sympathetic nerves autonomic nerves that influence bodily functions involuntarily in times of stress.
synapse space through which a nervous impulse travels between nerve cells or between nerve and muscle or glandular cells.
thalamus main relay center of the brain. It conducts impulses between the spinal cord and the cerebrum; incoming sensory messages are relayed thru the it to appropriate centers in the cerebrum.
vagus nerve tenth cranial nerve (cranial nerve X); its branches reach to the larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs, aorta, esophagus, and stomach. Latin = wandering.
ventricles of the brain canals in the brain that contain cerebrospinal fluid.
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebr/o cerebrum
dur/o dura mater
encephal/o brain
gli/o glial cells
lept/o thin, slender
mening/o, meningi/o membranes, meninges
my/o muscle
myel/o spinal cord
neur/o nerve
pont/o pons
radicul/o nerve root (of spinal nerves)
thalam/o thalamus
thec/o sheath (refers to the meninges
vag/o vagus nerve (10th cranial nerve)
alges/o, -algesia excessive sensitivity to pain
-algia pain
caus/o burninig
comat/o deep sleep (coma)
esthesi/o, -esthesia feeling, nervous sensation
kines/o, kinesi/o, -kinesia, -kinesis, -kinetic movement
-lepsy seizure
lex/o word, phrase
-paresis weakness
-phasia speech
-plegia paralysis
-praxia action
-sthenia strength
syncop/o to cut off, cut short
tax/o order, coordination
spina bifida congenital defects in the lumbar spinal column caused by imperfect union of vertebral parts (neural tube defect.
alzheimer disease (AD) brain disorder marked by gradual and progressive mental deterioration (dementia),personality changes, and impairment of daily functioning.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or Lou Gehrig Disease) degenerative disorder of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brainstem.
Huntington disease Hereditary disorder marked by degenerative changes in the cerebrum leading to abrupt involuntary movements and mental deterioration.
multiple sclerosis (MS) Destruction of the myelin sheath on neurons in the CNS and its replacement by plaques of sclerotic (hard) tissue.
myasthenia gravis (MG) autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles.
palsy paralysis (partial or complete loss of motor function)
Parkinson disease (parkinsonism) Degeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia, occuring in later life and leading to tremors, weakness of muscles, and slowness of mevement.
herpes zoster (shingles) viral infection affecting peripheral nerves.
meningitis inflammation of the meninges: leptomeningitis.
HIV encephalopathy brain disease and dementia occuring with AIDS.
absence seizure minor (petit mal) form of seizure, consisting of momentary clouding of consciousness and loss of awareness of surroundings.
aneurysm enlarged, weakened area in an arterial wall, which may rupture, leading to hemorrhage and CVA (stroke).
astrocytoma malignant tumor of astrocytes (glial brain cells).
aura peculiar symptom or sensation occuring before the onset (prodromal) of an attack of migraine or an epileptic seizure.
dementia mantal decline and detoriation.
demyelination destruction of myelin on axons of neurons (as in MS)
dopamine CNS neurotransmitter, deficient in patient with Parkinson disease.
embolus clot of material that travels through the bloodstream and suddenly blocks a vessel
gait manner of walking
ictal event pertaining to a sudden, acute onset, as with the convulstions of an epileptic seizure.
occlusion blockage
palliative relieving symptons but not curing them.
thymectomy removal of the thymus gland ( a lymphocyte-producing gland in the chest); used as a treatment for myasthenia gravis
TIA transient ischemic attack
tic involuntary movement of a small group of muscles, as of the face; characteristic or Toureet syndrome.
tonic-clonic seizure major (grand mal) convulsife seizure marked by sudden loss of consciousness, stiffening of muscles, and twitching and jerking movements.
cerebrospinal fluid analysis samples of CSF are examined.
cerebral angiography xray imaging of the arterial blood vessel in the brain after injection of contrast material.
computed tomography (CT) of the brain xray technique that generates computerized multiple images of the brain and spinal cord.
myelography xray imaging of the spinal canal after injection of contrast medium into the subarachoid space
magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) magnetic field and pulses of radiowave energy create images of the brain and spinal cord.
positron emission tomography (PET) scan radioactive glucose is injected and then detected in the brain to image the metabolic activity of the cells.
doppler ultrasound studies sound waves detect blood flow in the carotid and intracranial arteries.
lumbar puncture (LP) CSF is withdrawn from between two lumbar vertebrae for analysis
stereotactic radiosurgery use of a specialized instrujment to locate and treat targets in the brain.
CSF cerebrospinal fluid
Created by: lauraj5