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Islamic terms

a list of islamic terms and their definitions. 9th grade.

suras Koran's chapters
Kaaba the shrine in the center of Mecca. before Muhammad took it over and made it an Islamic shrine, it was pagan.
Quraysh council of members of influential families in Mecca, they governed it. it was a group/clan/tribe. they controlled the Kaaba. they were the cause of much conflict for early Islam.
Bedouin pre-Islamic tribal people. they were pagan. they held loyalty to their clan highly.
Asabiyya "clan spirit." the Bedouin principle that means that Bedouins must be loyal to their tribe.
Hijaz mountainous section of northern arabia. contained Mecca and Medina.
Allah before Islam, Allah was the primary deity (in pagan times). Muhammad comes in and says, "no, he's the one TRUE god."
Abu Talib Muhammad's paternal uncle. "reared" him to manhood. Protected him against Quaresh. dies in the Year of Sorrow
Khadija a widow for whom Muhammad worked. He married her. she was influential on his life. he stayed faithful to her until she died. she was a jew. she was Islam's first female convert.
Ali Muhammad's younger cousin/son in law. he is important in Islam's rise. 4th caliph. His son was the one who caused the Sunni-Shi'ite split.
Zayd a slave Muhammad frees. one of the first converts.
Abu Bakr first caliph. important in Islam's rise because he spreads it to the North: Byzantine and Persia. he was close to Muhammad when he was alive. he was gentle, wise, pious, humble. father of A'isha, Muhammad's favorite wife at the time of his death.
Hijra migration of Muslims from Mecca to Medina (then Yathrib) in 622 AD. beginning of Muslim calendar.
Bilal an abyssinian convert; the first crier who summons Muslims to pray. he is important for Islam b/c he's the start of Muezzin (?)
Muezzins crier who summons Muslims to pray at certain hours
pilgrimage travels to worship deities, old pagan custom. in Islam, it is the pilgrimage to the Kaaba that is required of all Muslims for whom it is feasible. must be done once in lifetime.
Caliph successor to the prophet. the four people who succeeded the prophet. Shi'as believe that all four are models for the ideal Muslim
Jabal-Al-Nur "Mountain of light" small mountain outside of Mecca where Muhammad would go to meditate-recieved enlightenment/revelation there.
Koran Muhammad's HOLY HOLY text. each word of the Koran is spoken through Muhammad's lips, as opposed to various prophets (Tanakh, Bible). however, Muslims believe that every word in it, Muhammad recieved directly from Allah.
muhajirun "the immigrants"--Muslims who migrated to Medina to escape religious persecution in Mecca
fatiha the first chapter of the Koran. reveals the essence of the Koran.
paraclete advocate who would come to assist humanity. it's sort of similar to the holy spirit (?)
shahadah the first sentence chanted in the ear of a Muslim infant. It says that there is only one god, Allah, and that Muhammad is the prophet of Allah. it talks about UNITY.
shirk a major sin: associating anything else with divinity except the one Allah. no worshipping idols, or lesser deities, or human rulers.
kufr a major sin: ungratefulness to Allah, unbelief, Atheism.
jinn immaterial beings of fire. there are good and bad jinn. like humans, they are accountable for their deeds on earth. Satan was originally a jinn.
ummah the worldwide Muslim community (today about 1.2 billion).
ansar "the helpers" - Muslims of Medina who welcome and aid the Muslim refugees who fled religious persecution- the welcoming families
sharia "the way" - code of law derived from the koran and from the teachings and example of Muhammad. only applicable to Muslims. it includes no separation btw. church and state.
ulama scholars who interpret the Koran and Sunnah
fatwa the Ulamas interpretation. all Sunnis consider this authoritative/are governed by it.
WHAT IS HAJJ? (blank)
Created by: catikinz