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Urinary System 4

Fundamentals of Body Structure

The functions of the kidney include? 1. Removal of nitrogenous wastes from the blood.
Nitrogenous (N) wastes include? a. urea
Nitrogenous (N) wastes include? b. Uric acid
Nitrogenous (N) wastes include? c. Creatinine
Nitrogenous (N) wastes include? d. Ammonia (NH3)
The functions of the kidney include? Maintaining blood volume and electrolyte (salt) balance.
The electrolytes ("lytes") include? a. Sodium (Na+).
The electrolytes ("lytes") include? b. Potassium (K+).
The electrolytes ("lytes") include? c. Chloride (Cl-).
The electrolytes ("lytes") include? d. Calcium (Ca+).
The electrolytes ("lytes") include? e. Phosphate (PO4-)
The electrolytes ("lytes") include? f. Magnesium (Mg+).
The electrolytes ("lytes") include? g. Sulfate (SO4-)
Remember, where salt goes? water follows
Healthy adults need no more than? 2300 mg of sodium daily.
Maintaining pH balance of the blood acidity vs. alkalinity (base) by the interaction of? carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate (HCO3)
Production of renin which will? regulate blood pressure (BP)
Production of erythropoietin which aids in? erythrocyte (RBC) formation.
Conversion of vitamin D into its active form called? calciferol.
The paired kidneys are located in the? retroperitoneal (flank) region.
The right kidney is slightly lower than the left due to the large area occupied by the? liver.
A kidney is the size of a? fist.
The outer covering of each kidney is called the? renal capsule.
The outermost layer is called the? renal cortex.
The middle layer is called the? renal medulla.
A thin layer of fibrous connective tissue that anchors each kidney to the surrounding structures and the abdominal wall is called? renal fascia.
The tubes (vessels, ducts) that carry urine from the kidneys to the urinary bladder are called? ureters.
Each ureter connects to a kidney at a? renal pelvis.
Each renal pelvis is made up of funnel shaped structures called? calices (calyx).
Kidney cells are called? nephrons.
Each kidney has approximately? 1,000,000 nephrons.
The vessels carrying oxygenated blood to be filtered by the kidneys are called the? right and left renal arteries.
The vessels carrying deoxygenated blood away from the kidneys are called the? right and left renal veins.
Normal urine production is approximately? 56 mL/hour = 2 ounces of urine.
Urine is transported from each renal pelvis to the urinary bladder primarily by? peristalsis.
The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ located? posterior to the pubic symphysis.
The average capacity of the urinary bladder is? 700 - 800 mL.
Stretch receptor in the bladder wall will transmit nerve impulses to the lower portion of the spinal cord when the urine level reaches? 200 - 400 mL.
These impulses initiate the conscious desire to? urinate (micturition)or void (micturate).
The sphincters that control the flow of urine are called the? internal and external urinary (urethral) sphincters.
The inability to control the urinary (urethral) sphincters is called? enuresis and urinary incontinence.
The urethra is the? tube that carries urine from the urinary bladder to the outside world.
The opening of the urethra to the outside world is called the urinary? meatus (orifice or os).
In females the urethra is approximately? 1.5 inches long.
The female urinary meatus is located between the? clitoris and vaginal orifice.
In males the urethra is approximately? 8 inches long.
The male urinary meatus is located at the distal portion of the? glans penis.
In males the urethra carries? 1. Urine. 2. Spermatozoa. 3. Semen
The reproductive and urinary systems are referred to as the? genitourinary (GU) system.
Blood tests commonly used to detect nitrogenous (N) waste include? 1.BUN (blood urea nitrogen). 2. Creatinine clearance (Cc). 3. Cystatin C (Cys C).
IVP stand for? intravenous pyelogram.
An intravenous pyelogram (IVP) is an x-ray of the renal pelves after injection of an? Intravenous (IV) radiopaque dye.
hematuria? a condition of blood in the urine (trauma)
pyuria? a condition of pus in the urine (infection)
bacteriuria? bacteria in the urine
glycosuria? a condition of sugar (glucose) in the urine (DM)
ketonuria? a condition of ketones (acetone) in the urine (fat metabolism)
albuminuria? albumin (blood protein) in the urine.
hemodialysis (HD) artificial removal of toxins from the blood.
CAPD? continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Created by: Penny S