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Gastrointestinal Sy1

Disease s of the Gastrointestinal System

QuestionAnswer
Oral neoplasms (new growth) commonly occur on the? 1. Floor of the oral cavity.
Oral neoplasms (new growth) commonly occur on the? 2. Tongue
Oral neoplasms (new growth) commonly occur on the? 3. Inferior oral labia (lip).
Labial carcinoma is often associated with? pipe and cigar smoking
Carcinomas of the buccae (cheek), tongue, or palate (oral roof) are commonly associated with? chewing tobacco or dipping (snuff)
A premalignant sign of an oral neoplasm is? leukoplakia (white patches that appear on the mucous membranes of the oral cavity).
Dx (diagnosis) of an oral neoplasm is confirmed with a? Bx (biopsy)
Oral neoplasms respond well to? surgery and radiation therapy.
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include? 1. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include? 2. Vomiting
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include? 3. Halitosis (bad breath)
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include? 4. WT (weight) loss.
Signs and symptoms of an esophageal malignancy include? 5. Aphagia (inability to swallow)
Dx (diagnosis) for an esophageal malignancy includes an? UGI (upper gastrointestinal) AKA barium swallow)
The Px (prognosis) for an esophageal is poor because? metastasis (spreads) usually occurs before detection.
Esophagitis is an? inflammation of the esophagus.
Esophagitis is commonly caused by? GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease.
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is commonly caused by an incompetent? cardiac sphincter (lower esophageal sphincter.
The incompetent cardiac sphincter allows stomach contents to? regurgitate (reflux) up the esophagus.
Signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) include? 1.Dyspepsia (indigestion)
Signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) include? 2. Eructation (belching)
Signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) include? 3. Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing.
Signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) include? 4. Halitosis (bad breath)
Signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) include? 5. Hematemesis (vomiting blood).
Signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) include? 6. Thoracodynia (chest pain).
The signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) may be exacerbated (made worse) by? 1. eating
The signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) may be exacerbated (made worse) by? 2. Drinking
The signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) may be exacerbated (made worse) by? 3. bending over
The signs and symptoms of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) may be exacerbated (made worse) by? 4. Lying down
GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) is more common with? obesity and pregnancy.
Dx (diagnosis) of GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) can be confirmed with an? EGD (esophagogastrodenoscopy.
Tx (treatment) for GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) includes? 1. Nonirritating diet (bland)
Tx (treatment) for GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) includes? 2. Antacids (mylanta)
Tx (treatment) for GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease) includes? 3. Antiulcer drugs (Pepcid)
A HH (Hiatal Hernia)is a? protrusion of the stomach through the diaphragm (primary muscle of ventilation).
A HH is AKA a? diaphragmatic hernia.
Signs and symptoms of a HH (hiatal hernia) include? 1. Dyspepsia (indigestion)
Signs and symptoms of a HH (hiatal hernia) include? 2. Postprandial (after meals) dyspepsia (indigestion).
Signs and symptoms of a HH (hiatal hernia) include? 3. SOB (short of breath)
A hiatal hernia may cause the cardiac sphincter to become incompetent causing? GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
Dx (diagnosis) for a HH (hiatal hernia) is confirmed with a? CXR (chest x-ray) and UGI (barium swallow)
Tx (treatment) for a hiatal hernia include? 1. Avoidance of spicy foods, alcohol (ETOH), and caffeine.
Signs and symptoms of a HH (hiatal hernia) include? 2. WT (weight) loss for obese patients.
Signs and symptoms of a HH (hiatal hernia) include? 3. Abdominal supports
Signs and symptoms of a HH (hiatal hernia) include? 4. Hernioplasty (surgical repair of the hernia).
Acute gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach frequently accompanied by? hematemesis (vomiting blood).
Gastritis is usually caused by irritants such as? 1. NSAIDS (nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin (ASA) ibuprofen, and naproxen).
Gastritis is usually caused by irritants such as? 2. Caffeine.
Gastritis is usually caused by irritants such as? 3. Tobacco.
Gastritis is usually caused by irritants such as? 4. Spicy food
Gastritis is usually caused by irritants such as? 5. Alcohol (ETOH).
Gastritis is usually caused by irritants such as? 6. Infection.
Dx (diagnosis) of gastritis is confirmed with a? gastroscopy (viewing the stomach with a lighted instrument) and Bx (biopsy).
Signs and symptoms of gastritis include? 1. LUQ (left upper quadrant) abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of gastritis include? 2. Hematemesis (vomiting blood).
Tx (treatment) for gastritis includes? 1. Removal of irritants.
Tx (treatment) for gastritis includes? 2. Antacids (maalox)
Tx (treatment) for gastritis includes? 3. Antiulcer drugs (zantac).
PUD (peptic ulcer disease) is an ulcer (erosion) of the? stomach and/or duodenum (first section of the small intestine.
The primary symptom of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) is? abdominal pain
This pain is relieved temporarily by? antacids (tums) and food.
Causes of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) include? 1. poorly controlled stress
Causes of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) include? 2. Excessive production of HCl (hydrochloric acids).
Causes of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) include? 3. NSAIDS (nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs) such as ASA (aspirin) ibuprofen, and naproxen.
Causes of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) include? 4. H. pylori (helicobacter pylori).
Tx (treatment) of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) includes? 1. Stress management
Tx (treatment) of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) includes? 2. Reduction of irritants
Tx (treatment) of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) includes? 3. Antiulcer drugs (Nexium)
Tx (treatment) of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) includes? 4. Antacids (gavison)
Tx (treatment) of PUD (peptic ulcer disease) includes? 5. Antibiotic therapy (amoxicillin)
PUD (peptic ulcer disease) is not treated by? drinking milk.
A complication associated with PUD (peptic ulcer disease)is? ulcer perforation (rip or tear) and hemorrhage (rapid flow of blood).
Signs of perforation include? 1. Extreme abdominal pain.
Signs of perforation include? 2. Hematemesis (vomiting blood.
Signs of perforation include? 3. Melena (black, tarry, pungent stools
Dx (diagnosis) PUD (peptic ulcer disease) can be confirmed with a? barium swallow (UGI)
A complication of ulcer perforation is? peritonitis (inflammation of the abdomen).
Ulcer perforation requires? surgery.
Gastroenteritis is an? inflammation of the stomach and small intestine.
Causes of gastroenteritis include? 1. Bacterial infections such as (salmonella, and listeria, escherichia coli (E. coli)
Causes of gastroenteritis include? 2. Chemical toxins
Causes of gastroenteritis include? 3. Lactose intolerance.
Causes of gastroenteritis include? 4. Other food allergies.
A complication associated with PUD (peptic ulcer disease is? ulcer perforation (rip or tear) and hemorrhage (rapid flow of blood)
Signs of perforation include? 1. Extreme abdominal pain.
Signs of perforation include? 2. Hematemesis (vomiting blood)
Signs of perforation include? 3. Melena (black tarry, pungent stools).
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include? 1. Colicky (spasm-like) dysentery (painful small bowel)
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include? 2. N & V (nausea and vomiting).
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include? 3. Pyrexia (fever)
Signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis include? 4. Diarrhea (loose watery stools)
Dx (diagnosis) of gastroenteritis is confirmed with a? stool CX (culture)
Tx (treatment) of gastroenteritis includes? 1. IV (intervenous) hydration.
Tx (treatment) of gastroenteritis includes? 2. Antibiotics (cipro)
Tx (treatment) of gastroenteritis includes? 3. Antimetics (Phaenergan)
Tx (treatment) of gastroenteritis includes? 4. Antidiarrheals( Imodium).
Tx (treatment) of gastroenteritis includes? 5. GI Antispasmodics (Bentyly)
Salmonellosis is food poisoning caused by an enterobacteria called? salmonella.
Salmonellosis can cause gastroenteritis 6 to 48 hours after? ingestion of tainted food.
Dx (diagnosis) of salmonellosis can be confirmed by a? stool CX (culture)
Symptoms of salmonellosis can last up to? 2 weeks.
The primary complication of salmonellosis is? dehydration (hypovolemic shock)
Prevention of salmonellosis includes? 1. Proper refrigeration of foods.
Prevention of salmonellosis includes? 2. Thorough cooking of foods.
Prevention of salmonellosis includes? 3. Prevent cross contamination of food.
Prevention of salmonellosis includes? 4. Proper frequent hand washing.
Gastric malignancies are more common in? men (2 to 1) over age 55.
Signs and symptoms of a gastric malignancy include? 1. Anorexia (loss of appetite)
Signs and symptoms of a gastric malignancy include? 2. Heartburn
Signs and symptoms of a gastric malignancy include? 3. N & V (nausea and vomiting)
Signs and symptoms of a gastric malignancy include? 4. PA (pernicious anemia) B12
Signs and symptoms of a gastric malignancy include? 5. Achlorhydria (no hydrocloric acid (HCl) in the stomach)
Dx (diagnosis) of a gastric malignancy is confirmed with? gastroscopy (viewing the stomach with a lighted instrument) and a Bx (biopsy).
Risk of gastric malignancies increases with? 1. H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori) infection of the stomach.
Risk of gastric malignancies increases with? 2. The consumption of dried, smoked salted, or preserved foods (especially meats), and a diet deficient in fresh fruits and vegetables.
Risk of gastric malignancies increases with? 3. Chronic gastritis (inflammation of the stomach).
Risk of gastric malignancies increases with? 4. Family hx (history) of gastric malignancy.
Tx (treatment) for a gastric malignancy include? 1. Chemotherapy (antineoplastics).
Tx (treatment) for a gastric malignancy include? 2. Radiation therapy.
Tx (treatment) for a gastric malignancy include? 3. Surgery.
Px (prognosis) for a gastric malignancy is good if? detected before metastasis (spread).
Appendicitis is an? inflammation of the appendix.
Signs and symptoms of appendicitis include? 1. N & V (nausea and vomiting).
Signs and symptoms of appendicitis include? 2. Pyrexia (fever)
Signs and symptoms of appendicitis include? 3. Leukocytosis (elevated white count).
Signs and symptoms of appendicitis include? 4. Right inguinal (iliac) rebound tenderness.
Tx (treatment) for appendicitis is an? appendectomy (surgical removal of the appendix).
Complications of the appendicitis include? 1. Gangrene (putrefaction (rot)
Complications of the appendicitis include? 2. Appendorrhexis (rupture of the appendix).
Complications of the appendicitis include? 3. Peritonitis (inflammation of the abdominal cavity.
Malabsorption syndrome is the? inability to absorb fat from the small intestine (small bowel).
The inability to absorb fat causes the stool (feces) to become? 1. Unformed
The inability to absorb fat causes the stool (feces) to become? 2. Fatty
The inability to absorb fat causes the stool (feces) to become? 3. Pale
The inability to absorb fat causes the stool (feces) to become? 4. Pungent (aromatic)
The inability to absorb fat causes the stool (feces) to become? 5. Floaters.
A complications of malabsorption syndrome is? the inability to absorb the fat soluble vitamins A,D,E,K.
Vitamin K deficiency causes? bleeding tendencies.
Tx (treatment) for malabsorption syndrome includes? injectable vitamin A,D,E, and K supplements.
Diverticulitis is an inflammation of? diverticula.
Diverticula are? blister-like pouches or sacs that develop in the large intestine (large bowel).
The primary symptom of diverticulitis is? LLQ (left lower quadrant) cramp-like abdominal pain.
A complication of diverticulitis is? bowel obstruction (ileus) with abscesses (collection of pus)
Dx (diagnosis) of diverticulosis is confirmed with a? BE = barium enema (Lower GI) types radiopaque or contrast.
Tx (treatment) for diverticulitis includes? 1. Antibiotics (Augmentin)
Tx (treatment) for diverticulitis includes? 2. Increase fiber in diet (whole grains,leafy green vegetables and fruit.
Tx (treatment) for diverticulitis includes? 3. Decrease gas forming foods. (legumes, beans and peas and cabbage.
Crohn's Disease (CD) is AKA? RE (regional enteritis).
Crohn's Disease (CD) is a? chronic, idiopathic (possibly autoimmune), IBD (inflammatory bowel disease).
CD (Crohn's Disease) runs in? families.
CD (Crohn's Disease) is usually diagnosed between the ages of? 20 and 40
CD (Crohn's Disease) may be exacerbated (made worse) by? poorly controlled stress.
Signs and symptoms of CD (Crohn's Disease) include? 1. Appendicitis-like pain.
Signs and symptoms of CD (Crohn's Disease) include? 2. Alternating bloody diarrhea and constipation.
Signs and symptoms of CD (Crohn's Disease) include? 3. Melena (black tarry, pungent stools)
Signs and symptoms of CD (Crohn's Disease) include? 4. Anorexia (loss of appetite)
Signs and symptoms of CD (Crohn's Disease) include? 5. N & V (nausea and vomiting).
Signs and symptoms of CD (Crohn's Disease) include? 6. WT (weight) loss
Dx of Crohn's Disease (CD) is confirmed with a? colonoscopy (viewing the colon with a lighted instrument) and Bx (biopsy).
Periods of exacerbation and remission are common with some cases ending in? perforation (rip or tear) or ileus (bowel obstruction).
Tx of Crohn's Disease (CD) includes? 1. Immunosuppressants (Imuran & Humira)
Tx of Crohn's Disease (CD) includes? 2. SAIDS (steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs) prednisone
Tx of Crohn's Disease (CD) includes? 3. Antibiotics (ampicillin).
Tx of Crohn's Disease (CD) includes? 4. Avoiding trigger foods.
UC (ulcerative colitis) is an? idiopathic (possibly autoimmune) IBD (inflammatory bowel disease) usually affecting the colon and rectum).
UC(ulcerative colitis) increases the risk of? colon malignancies.
UC (ulcerative colitis)may be exacerbated by? poorly controlled stress.
UC (ulcerative colitis) runs in? families (10 - 30% )
UC (ulcerative colitis) usually occurs in young adults, especially women, and usually begins between ages? 15 and 20
Signs and symptoms of UC (ulcerative colitis) include? 1. Sudden diarrhea with pus and blood.
Signs and symptoms of UC (ulcerative colitis) include? 2. Cramp like pain in the lower abdomen.
Signs and symptoms of UC (ulcerative colitis) include? 3. Anemia (erythrocytopenia) and/or deficiency of hemoglobin) from chronic blood loss.
Dx (diagnosis) of UC (ulcerative colitis) is confirmed with a? colonoscopy (viewing the colon with a lighted instrument) and BaE (barium enema)
Treatment for UC (ulcerative colitis) includes? 1. Lialda.
Treatment for UC (ulcerative colitis) includes? 2. Stress management.
Treatment for UC (ulcerative colitis) includes? 3. Diet modification (avoiding caffeine, raw vegetables, legumes, whole grains and nuts.)
Treatment for UC (ulcerative colitis) includes? 4. Mild sedation (Librum).
Treatment for UC (ulcerative colitis) includes? 5. Corticosteroids (hydrocortizone).
Treatment for UC (ulcerative colitis) includes? 6. Psychological counseling.
Treatment for UC (ulcerative colitis) includes? 7. Colostomy (artifical opening into the colon).
Most malignancies of the large bowel are found in the? rectum and sigmoid colon.
Dx (diagnosis) of carcinoma of the colon and rectum is made with? 1. DRE (digital rectal examination)
Dx (diagnosis) of carcinoma of the colon and rectum is made with? 2. Sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy (viewing the sigmoid colon or entire colon with a lighted instrument).
Dx (diagnosis) of carcinoma of the colon and rectum is made with? 3. Bx (biopsy)
Colorectal malignancies detected early respond well to? surgical treatment.
Early signs of symptoms of carcinoma of the colon and rectum include? 1. Change in bowel habits.
Early signs of symptoms of carcinoma of the colon and rectum include? 2. Abdominal discomfort
Early signs of symptoms of carcinoma of the colon and rectum include? 3. Occult (hidden) blood in stools or melena (black, tarry, pungent stools.
Early signs of symptoms of carcinoma of the colon and rectum include? 4. Anemia (a deficiency of erythrocytes and hemoglobin).
Early detection of colorectal malignancies can occur with? 1. Regular physical examinations. 2. Regular stool guaiac (hemoccult) tests.
Risk factors for colorectal malignancies include? 1. Long-standing UC (ulcerative colitis.
Risk factors for colorectal malignancies include? 2. Polyps (premalignant lesions or the colon).
Risk factors for colorectal malignancies include? 3. A diet rich in red meat and fat and low in fiber.
Risk factors for colorectal malignancies include? 4. Deficient Ca (calcium)in diet (less then 700 mg/day.
2nd common cause of death from cancer? Lung cancer is number 1.
Deaths for colorectal malignancies can be decreased by 90% if? colonoscopies are routinely performed after age 50 or if there is a previous hx(history) of polyps.
ACS (American Cancer Society) suggests the following at age 50? Colonoscopy every 10 years.
ACS (American Cancer Society) suggests the following at age 50? Sigmoidoscopy every 5 years.
ACS (American Cancer Society) suggests the following at age 50? BaE (barium enema) every 5 years.
ACS (American Cancer Society) suggests the following at age 50? Virtual colonoscopy every 5 years.
ACS (American Cancer Society) suggests the following at age 50? If no access to these tests, Stool guaiac (occult blood test) every year.
A bowel obstruction is AKA? ileus.
An ileus caused by a reduction of peristaltic activity is called a? paralytic ileus.
An ileus (bowel obstruction) caused by the bowel twisting on itself is called a? volvulus (garden hose)
An ileus caused when the intestine telescopes on itself is called? intussusception (a sock turned inside out).
An ileus can also be caused by? adhesions (tissue sticking together)
Signs and symptoms of an ileus include? 1. Severe abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of an ileus include? 2. Distended abdomen.
Signs and symptoms of an ileus include? 3. Vomiting and constipation. (difficult defecation).
Dx (diagnosis) of an ileus (bowel obstruction) is confirmed with an? abdominal CT (computerized tomography).
Tx (treatment) for an ileus usually involves? laparoscopic (lighted instrument to view the abdomen) bowel resection (excision).
IBS stands for? Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) usually affects women between their? late teens and early 40s.
Signs and symptoms of IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) include? 1. sudden diarrhea.
Signs and symptoms of IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) include? 2. Constipation.
Signs and symptoms of IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) include? 3. Abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) include? 4. Flatulence (gas expelled through the anus)
Symptoms of IBS tend to worsen with? poorly controlled stress.
The difference between IBS and other intestinal disorders is that? no lesions are present on examination.
IBS is a disorder of? motility (peristalsis) and intestinal wall muscles spasms) (involuntary muscle contractions).
Tx (treatment) for IBS include? 1. Increasing fiber in diet.
Tx (treatment) for IBS include? 2. Avoiding caffeine, fatty foods, spicy foods, ETOH, citrus, cabbage, and legumes (beans and peas).
Tx (treatment) for IBS include? 3. Stress management.
Tx (treatment) for IBS include? 4. GI antispasmodics (Bentyl)
Tx (treatment) for IBS include? 5. Antidiarrheals (keopectate)
Tx (treatment) for IBS include? 6. Sedatives (Xanax).
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 1. Fatigue.
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 2. Anorexia (loss of appetite).
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 3. RUQ (right upper quadrant) abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 4. Cephalalgia (headache)
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 5. Diarrhea (loose watery stool).
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 6. Darkened urine
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 7. Nausea.
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 8. Pale stools.
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 9. Myalgias (muscle pain).
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 10. Low grade pyrexia (fever).
Signs and symptoms of the HAV (Hepatitis A Virus)include? 11. Jaundice (yellow discoloration to the skin and/or scleara.
Px (prognosis) for the HAV(hepatitis A virus) is good with no permanent? liver damage and a lasting immunity.
A vaccine for Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is now available for? immunization against the HAV (hepatitis A virus).
That HBV (hepatitis B virus) can lead to? Chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Signs and symptoms of the HBV can occur? 2 to 6 months after exposure.
Transmission of HBV is the same as the? HIV (human immunodeficiency virus.
The HIV and HBV are transmitted? 1. Parenterally ( needle sticks and certain body fluids),
The HIV and HBV are transmitted? 2. Sexually.
The HIV and HBV are transmitted? 3. Perinatally (during gestation, parturition, and breast feeding).
Parenteral transmission usually refers to? needle sticks and certain body fluids.
Potentially hazardous body fluids include? a. Blood or anything with blood in it.
Potentially hazardous body fluids include? b. Synovial (joint) fluid.
Potentially hazardous body fluids include? c. Pleural (lung) fluid.
Potentially hazardous body fluids include? d. CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) during a LP (lumbar puncture)
Potentially hazardous body fluids include? e. Peritoneal (abdominal) fluid.
Potentially hazardous body fluids include? f. Amniotic fluid ("water fluid").
Potentially hazardous body fluids include? g. breast milk.
Carriers of the HBV can be? asymptotic (no symptoms)
Damage from the HBV can cause fulminating hepatitis where the patient can suddenly become? comatose and die.
A lasting immunity can be achieved for the HBV by vaccination or? contracting the disease and recovering completely.
Some people will not completely recover from the HBV and will be? carriers of the disease.
Tx (treatment) for the HBV includes? antiviral therapy.
Signs and symptoms of the HCV (hepatitis c virus)are similar to the? HBV (hepatitis B virus.
The HCV is? insidious (slow to appear.
The incubation period may take up to? 20 - 30 years to damage the liver significantly.
70% of the people with the HCV are? asymptomatic (no symptoms).
80% of the people with HCV will develop? cirrhosis (degenerating of liver cells) and/or liver cancer.
The HCV is the #1 reason for a person to need a? liver transplant.
The HCV is transmitted? 1. Parenterally (needles and body fluid) 2. Sexually 3. Perinatally (not found in breast milk.
Everyone should be tested for the HCV (Hepatitis C Virus) who received a blood transfusion before? July 1992
Tx (treatment) for the HCV includes? 1. antiviral therapy 2. Liver transplant.
Cirrhosis is a? chronic degeneration of the liver.
Cirrhosis can be caused by? 1. Alcohol (ETOH) 2. HBV (hepatitis B virus) or HCV (hepatitis C virus) 3. Drugs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, and antihyperlipidemics.
Dx (diagnosis) of cirrhosis is confirmed with a? liver Bx (biopsy)
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 1. Tremors (shakiness)
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 2. Somnolence (excessive sleepiness.
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 3. Mental confusion.
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 4. Gynecomastia (breast development in men.
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 5. loss of chest hair
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 6. Testicular atrophy
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 7. Splenomegaly (enlarged spleen)
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 8. Hepatomegaly (enlarged liver) and "hobnailed liver"
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 9. Dilated abdominal veins.
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 10. Tendency to hemorrhage.
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 11. Pedal (ankles and feet) edema.
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 12. Esophageal varices (swollen veins)
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 13. Jaundice (yellow discoloration of the skin and/or sclera).
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 14. Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen.
Signs and symptoms of advanced cirrhosis include? 15. Hepatic coma (unconscious with no response to stimuli)
Dx (diagnosis) of a cirrhosis is confirmed with? LFTs (liver function test) and liver Bx (biopsy)
LFTs (liver function tests) include? 1. SGOT (AST). 2. SGPT (ALT). 3. Alkaline phosphatase (Alk. Phos. or ALP). 4. LDH (LD) 5. Bilirubin.
Hepatic malignancies are usually secondary tumors that? metastasize (spreads) from the colon,rectum,stomach,pancreas,esophagus,lung, and breast.
Hepatocarcinoma is a primary malignancy commonly associated with? alcohol, HBV, and HCV
Signs and symptoms of a liver malignancy include? weight loss, right upper quadrant abdominal mass, and pain.
Dx of a liver malignancy is confirmed with an? AFP (alphafetoprotein) and liver Bx.
The Px for a liver malignancy is? poor.
Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the? gall bladder.
Cholecystitis is commonly caused by an obstruction due to? cholelithiasis (gall stones) AKA biliary calculi.
The biliary obstruction can lead to? liver damage.
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis includes? 1. Postpartum (after birth)women.
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis includes? 2. Use of BCPs (birth control pills)
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis includes? 3. DM (diabetes mellitus).
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis includes? 4. Cirrhosis (degenerating of liver cells).
Increased incidence of cholelithiasis includes? 5. Pancreatitis (inflammation of the pancreas.
Signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis include? 1.Right rib cage pain radiating to the right shoulder, especially after eating a meal rich in fat.
Signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis include? 2. Chills
Signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis include? 3. Pyrexia (fever)
Signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis include? 4. N + V (nausea and vomiting)
Signs and symptoms of cholelithiasis include? 5. Jaundice (yellowish discoloration of the skin and/or sclera.
Dx of cholelithiasis is confirmed with? 1. GB (gall bladder) ultrasound
Dx of cholelithiasis is confirmed with? 2. HIDA (hepatobiliary Imino Diacetic Acid.
Dx of cholelithiasis is confirmed with? 3. ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangio pancreatography).
Dx of cholelithiasis is confirmed with? 4. EUS (endoscopic ultrasound)
Dx of cholelithiasis is confirmed with? 5. MRC (magnetic resonance cholangiogram.
Tx for cholelithiasis includes.? 1. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (excision of the gall bladder).
Tx for cholelithiasis includes.? 2. Laparoscopic cholelithectomy (excision of gall stones) if stones are present in the common bile duct.
Pancreatitis is an? inflammation of the pancreas.
Pancreatitis is commonly associated with alcoholism in men and? GB (gall bladder) disease in women.
Pancreatitis can cause pancreatic? enzymes to activate prematurely.
These activated pancreatic enzymes will start to? digest (dissolve) the pancreas.
Tx for cholelithiasis includes.? 1. Trypsin.
Tx for cholelithiasis includes.? 2. Chymotrypsin.
Tx for cholelithiasis includes.? 3. Lipase
Tx for cholelithiasis includes.? 4. Amylase.
High levels of these pancreatic enzymes will confirm the diagnosis of pancreatitis especially the enzyme? amylase.
Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis include? 1. Severe abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis include? 2. N+V (nausea and vomiting)
Signs and symptoms of pancreatitis include? 3. Jaundice.
Pancreatitis can result in? death.
Risk factors for pancreatic malignancy include? 1. Male gender.
Risk factors for pancreatic malignancy include? 2. Smoking.
Risk factors for pancreatic malignancy include? 3. High protein and high fat diets.
Risk factors for pancreatic malignancy include? 4. Alcohol (ETOH)
Risk factors for pancreatic malignancy include? 5. DM (diabetes mellitus).
Signs and symptoms of a pancreatic malignancy include? 1. Severe abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of a pancreatic malignancy include? 2. Anorexia (loss of appetite).
Signs and symptoms of a pancreatic malignancy include? 3. WT (weight) loss.
Signs and symptoms of a pancreatic malignancy include? 4. Clay-colored stools.
Signs and symptoms of a pancreatic malignancy include? Jaundice (yellowish discoloration of the skin and/or sclera).
Dx of a pancreatic malignancy is confirmed with a? CT (computerized tomography
Dx of a pancreatic malignancy is confirmed with a? MRI (magnetic resonance imaging
Dx of a pancreatic malignancy is confirmed with a? PET (positron emission tomography.
Dx of a pancreatic malignancy is confirmed with a? Bx (biopsy).
The Px for a pancreatic malignancy is? very poor.
Created by: Penny S