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(Chapter 15)

Nervous System

encephal/o brain
encephalitis inflammation of the brain
encephalsclerosis abnormal condition of hardening of the brain
echoencephalography (echoEG) the process of recording the brain using sound waves
electroencephalogram (EEG) a record of the electrical activity of the brain
electroencephalograph the machine that records the electrical activity of the brain
electroencephalography the process of reocrding the electrical activity of the brain
cerebr/o cerebrum (the largest part of the brain)
The cerebrum contains: memories, hopes, dreams, wishes, fantasies, imagination, desires, and indivduality
cerebral thrombosis abnormal condition of a thrombus (clot) in the cerebrum
cerebral infarction occlusion of an artery in the cerebrum
cerebral cortex the outer portion of the cerebrum
cerebral angiography process of recording the vessels of the cerebrum
cerebral medulla the middle or inner portion of the cerebrum
cerebral aneurysm a weakness in an arterial septum of the cerebrum
cerebral concussion traumatic brain injury (TBI) where the neurological deficits last less than 24 hours
cerebral contusion traumatic brain injury (TBI) where the neurological deficits last more than 24 hours
craniocerebral pertaining to the cranium and the cerebrum
lobotomy surgical incision of a lobe
lobectomy surgical removal of a lobe
hemisphere half a sphere (brain)
ventricles chambers in the brain
cerebell/o cerebellum
cerebellum located at posterior portion of the brain, responsible for balance and equilibrium
cerebellar pertaining to the cerebellum
cerebellitis inflammation of the cerebellum
tax/o coordination
ataxia no coordination
brain stem made up of the pons, medulla oblongata, midbrain
brainstem is responsible for: ventilation, blood pressure, heart rate
myel/o spinal cord
polio myelitis inflammation of the spinal cord caused by the polio virus
myelogram a record of the spinal cord
lumbar puncture (LP) surgical puncture to aspirate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AKA spinal tap
mening/o meninges
meninges protective tissue surrounding the brain and spinal cord, made up of dura matter, arachnoid membrane and pia matter
meningitis inflammation of the meninges
meningoma tumor/mass of the meninges
meningcele herniation of a meninx
meningomyelocele herniation of the spinal cord thru the meninges
subdural space space under the dura matter
subarachnoid space space under the arachnoid
subdermal hematoma a blood mass in a subdural space
neurtomy surgical incision of a nerve
neurectomy surgical excision of a nerve
neuroplasty surgical repair of a nerve
neurorrahapy suturing a nerve
neuralgia a condition of nerve pain
neurosis (neurotic) abnormal condition of the nerves
polyneuritis inflammation of many nerves
neurasthenia a condition of nerve weakness
neuroma tumor/mass in a nerve
neuron nerve cell, sensory neurons allow you to feel, taste, smell, hear, and see. motor neurons allow you to move
central nervous system (CNS) made up of brain and spinal cord
periphal nervous system (PNS) made up of all the nerves except the brain and spinal cord
PNS the neurons of the PNS have the ability to regenerate if damaged
sciatica inflammation of the sciatic nerve (leg)
shingles (herpes zoster) viral disease affecting the PNS causing pain and vesicles on the skin. only occurs in people who have been infected with the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) AKA chickenpox
vesicles blisters
autonomic nervous system (ANS) the ANS is involuntary; has two branches: parasympathetic nervous system, sympathetic nervous system
parasymphathetic nervous system controls: normal heart rate (HR), eupnea, peripheral vasodilation (normal pink skin color), bronchoconstriction, pupillary constriction (normal visual field), digestion, reproduction
sympathetic nervous system "fight or flight" controls: tachycardia (to increase blood flow in the tissuses), tachypnea, pallor (due to vasoconstriction of the peripheral bld vessels to shunt body), bronchodialition, pupillary dilation, no digestive or reproductive function
shunt redirect, divert, detour
esthesi/o feeling or nervous sensation
anesthesia (anesthetic) a condition of no feeling or nervous sensation
hyperesthesia (hyperesthesic) a condition of excessive nervous sensitivity to stimuli
psych/o mind
ment/o mind
psychology the study of the mind
psychogenic pertaining to originating in the mind
psychologist a specialist in the study of the mind
psychosis (psychotic) abnormal condition of the mind
psychopathy (psychopathic) diseased condition of the mind
psychosomatic pertaining to mind over body
mental pertaining to the mind
pleg/o a condition of paralysis AKA palsy
monoplegia (monoplegic) a condition of paralysis of one limb
quadriplegia a condition of paralysis of the four extemities (spinal cord injury {SCI})
paraplegia condition of paralysis of the lower trunk and both legs (SCI)
hemi- half
hemiplegia condition of paralysis of the right or left side of the body (brain damage)
-paresis partial paralysis (you can feel it, but not move it or vice-versa)
monoparesis partial paralysis of one limb
interictal pertaining to between seizures
convulsion sudden rapid involuntary contraction and relaxation of group muscles (seizure)
epilesy associated with seizures
tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal) refers to the rapid contraction and relaxation of a group muscles associated with seizures
aura a warning of an impending seizure
-iatry treatment (Tx)
psychiatry treatment of the mind
kines/o movement
bradykinesia slow movement
hyperkinesia excessive movement
crani/o cranium (skull)
intracranial hemorrage pertaining to a rapid flow of blood within the cranium (skull)
alges/o pain
non-narcotic anagesic pertaning to no pain with use of an over the counter (OTC) medication
cephal/o head
-algia pain
cephaalgia a condition of head pain AKA headache
conscious awake, alert, and aware
semi-conscious partialy awake, alert, or aware
LOC levels of consciousness: alert (awake and aware), lethargy (mental sluggishness), stupor (very groggy), unconscious ( unaware, respones to stimuli), coma (comatose, unconscious no response to stimuli)
GCS glascow coma scale - standardized system to assess neurologica impairment
cerebrospina otorrhea cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining from the ears
papilledema edema and inflammation of the optic nerve indicative of increase intracrania pressure (ICP)
cognitive pertaining to the mental processes of comprehension, judgement, memory and reasoning
MCI mild cognitive impairment
disorientation a state of mental confusion to person, place, or time AKA the three spheres
inchoherent unable to express one's thoughts in an intelligible manner
OBS organic brain syndrome, a mental decline (dementia + senility)
vertigo dizziness, whirling sensation
syncope (syncopal episode) fainting
gait stable or unstable manner/syle of walking
NVS neurological vital signs, periodic assessment of a persons neurological status AKA neuro checks
NVS include: ALERT + oriented x 3 (spheres) which is the highest level of consciousness with a clear understanding of person, place, and time, PERRLA, which stands for pupils equal and round, react to light and accommodation, GAIT and reflex assessment
CAT computerized axial tomography - process of recording using x-ray picture slices and a computer
MRI magnetic resonance imaging, a diagnostic imaging technique using magnetics to obtain an image
PET positron emission tomography - x-ray picture slices of the brain after an IV injecion of a radiopaque dye
AD alzheimer's disease or right ear
ADHD attention defict hyperactivity disorder
MVA motor vehicle accident
CVA cerebral vascular accident AKA stroke
TIA transient ischemic attack AKA mini stroke, little stroke
MS multiple sclerosis or morphine sulfate
TBI traumatic brain injury
CP cerebral palsy
TENS transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation which is used to stimulate healing and for treatment of chronic pain (back)
EMG electromyogram
LOC level of consciousness or loss of consciousness
Created by: RBarnes86