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Nutan's T2

TAMHSC Nutans Pharmaceutics Test II

reactants -dc/dt
products dc/dt
general rate equation -dc/dt=kC^n
zero rate equation Co-Cf=kt
first order ln Cf/Co=kt
second order (1/Cf)-(1/Co)=kt
Arrhenius 1 ln K1 = ln A -Ea/RT
Arrhenius 2 ln K2/K1=Ea/R*(1/T2-1/T1)
Newton's law of flow 1 F'/A=n(dv/dr)
Newton's law of flow 2 n=F/G
Fluidity o=1/n
kinematic viscosity kv=n/p
Mechanism of Degradation Physical, Chemical, Microbiological
Chemical Isomeration, Hydrolysis, Oxidation, Photolysis, Epimerization
Hydrolysis most important cause of drug degradation
Solvolysis cosolvents involved; under hydrolysis
hydrolysis ex. ester, salt, amide, lactone, lactam
factors hydrolysis Temp., pH, Water content
minimize hydrolysis tight containers, ph adj., non water soluble drugs, replace/reduce water content, lyophilization, refridgerate
oxidation +O, -e, -H+ (gaine electronegative radicals, lose electro positive or electron)
autooxidation Complex reaction via free radical mechanism
free radical highly unstable, highly reactive, one/more unpaired electrons
free radical trace amounts heavy metals, peroxides, atmostpheric oxygen
free radical steps intiation, propagation, termination
initiation R-R -> R + R
Propagation R +O2 ->ROO ROO + R-R ->ROOR + R
Termination R + R -> RR or R+ROO ->ROOR
factors affecting oxidation Concentration, Radiation, Temperature, Catalysts, PH
Minimize oxidation antioxidents
antioxidents negative catalysts, prevent via free radicals (oxidized pref.)
Oxidation Aq. examples Sulfites/Sulfates
Oxidation Oil Examples BHA, BHT
Synergists increast activity of antioxidants
Synergists Ex. EDTA derivatives, Citric
photolysis UV, IR, visibile degradation
amber bottle UV protection
Racemization l to d and vice versa
Polymorphism different solubility, dissolution rate, melting point
rate of reaction rate, velocity, speed of reaction over time
law of mass action rate of chemic reaction proportional to product of malar concentration of reactants ^power=molecules
molecularity of reaction total number of moleucles, atoms, or ions reacting in an elementary process
molecularity importance not much
Order of reaction sum of exponents
calculate reaction order hard unless experimentally determined
half life 1/2 gone
shelf life 10% gone
order can be... 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5, etc.
zero order independence reactant concentration
zero order constant rate
units zero order mole/L/time (M/time)
first order reaction rate of drug loss=remaining drug concentration
first order reaction rate not constant
first order units time-1
second order units liter/mole/time (M-1 time -1)
pseudo order apparent order reaction; one more than other to no effect rate
Arrhenius does describe collision theory of effect of temperature on reaction rates
A= arrhenium factor or freq. factor
Ea energy of activation
R cal/degree/mol
Ea cal/mol
A time-1
AST increase rate of chemical degredation or physical change-exaggerated storage conditions
stress testing under more severe conditions that AST
stress testing tests meter-dosed inhalers, creams, emulsions, regrigerated aqueous liquid products
interface boundary between 2 or more hertogeneous systems
liquid surface liquid-gas
solid surface solid-gas
surface tension force/unit length, parallel to surface
surface tension units dynes/cm or Newton/meter
surface free energy excess of potential energy in surface molecules
f force applied
L length of film
surface tension B surface free energy change/unit area increase
surface tension C work required to create new interface
Surface free energey erg (dye-cm) or Joule (Newton-Meter)
1 Newton 10^5 dynes
1 Joule 10^7 ergs
adsorption added molecules partitioned to interface (positive)
negative adsorption materials are partitioned in favor of bulk
surface active agents/surfactants amphiphilic; reduce interfacial energy
adsorbent adsorb other molecules
adsorbate item adsorbed
physical adsorption van der waals, reversible (desorption)
chemisorption irreverisible, chemical bonds
Rhelogy study of flows of liquids; deformation of solids; viscosity of powders, fluids, semisolids
viscosity resistence to flow in fluids (heterogeneous solutions-no describe)
newtonion flow system follows newtonian flow
non-newtonian flow system does not follow newtonian flow
shearing stress F`/A=F
Rate of Shear n(dv/dr)=G
viscous unitys g/cm/sec or poise
poise shearing force required to produce velocity 1 cm/second
fluidity reciprocal of viscosity
kinematic viscosity stroke
newtonian systems constant viscosity, regardless of shear rate applied
newtonian systems ex. simple solutions
plastic flow aka bingham bodies
plastic flow yield value
plastic flow ex. flocculated concetrated suspensions
pseudoplastic flow no yield, flow incresases, visc decresases with increasing rate of shear
shear thinning system decreased viscousness, increase rate of shear
pseudoplastic ex. polymer dispersions and unknown flocculated suspensions
Dilatant flow no yield value, shear thickening system,
shear thickening system as viscous increases, so does rate of shear, flow decreases
dilatant flow ex. deflocullated particals and high conc. suspension
thixotropy plastic/pseudoplastic; back up liquid
antithixotropy (negative thixotropy) down more viscous
water soluble form drugs can not pass through lipid membranes
lipid-water partition coefficient nonpolar (membrane)/aq. buffer (plasma) ph_7.4
inc. polarity, inc. ionization, decrease P.C
dec. polarity dec. ionization, increase P.C
sub/buccal good rapid absorption, drug stavility, avoid first pass
sub/buccal bad incovenient, small doses, unpleasent taste of some drugs
oral good convenient, systemic absorption, economical
oral bad variable absorption, slow onset, innefficient, irritation (Gastric mucosa-N/V), destruction, too slow for ER, unpleasant tate, no unconciuos, first pass via portal vien
rectal-good & bad unconcious, N/V, no first pass, easy terminate, absorption variable, lax.
IV 100% bioavailable, precise, pain free, large doses, (higher concent. attarined rapidly, embolism, difficult to withdraw)
IM rapid for aq., slow for oil (depot therapy), pain, 5mL max
SC slow, limited by blood flow, vasoconstrict slow, 2mL max
inhalation gaseous, volitale, rapid access
topical dermal local, transermal, no first pass,
choice ROA disease (local, systemic, rapid, slow), age, physico-chemical characterisitics (solubility, stablity), Pharmacokinetics (KADME)
solution good compliance, bioavailability, enteral, nursing home patients, administration, less dose variation, avoid irritation
solution bad measure dose, least stable, preservation required, poor soluble, light sensitive, bulky, not easy transportable, expensive to make
purified water <0.001% residue
purified water methods distillation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis
alcohol USP 94.9%-96 v/v; alcohol and water soluble; >15% antimicrobial, toxic effects in children
diluted alcohol USP mix equal water and alcohol; 3% shrinkage
rubbing alcohol 70%v/v, ehtyl alcohol, denaturant, color, perfume, oils, stabilizers, rubefacient, soothing rub, germicide, skin cleanser, vehicle
isopropyl alchol 70% v/v, NO denatureant, rubefacient, soothing rub, vehicle, disinfect skin (no germicide)
Glycerin USP sweet syrup, miscible liquid and alcohol, high viscous, drug slowly dissolve, preservative, stabilizer
Polyhydric alcohols Propylen Glycol (w/ water and alcohol), viscous liquid, fixed oil vegetiable origins
acid preservatives methyl paraben, propyl paraben
sucrose low mw carbs, colorless, highly soluble, increase viscous, pleasent texture, ph 4-8, with sorbitol, glycerin, polyols (prevent recystalize/caplock)
liquid glucose viscous liquid, dextrose, dextrings, maltose, partial hydrolysis of starch
liquid glucose is aka corn syrup, glucose syrup, starch syrup
saccharin sodium and calcium salts, supplement sugars and polyols or alone
sacchrin 250-500X sweet but bitter aftertaste, stable over wide PH,
aspartame 200X sweet than sucrose, no aftertaste, nutritive value
viscous enhancer improve palatability, modify pourability
viscous enhance ex. sucrose providone, cellulose
flavors menthol, chloroform, MSG
MSG enhance flavors, reduce metallic tase, bitter taste, aftertaste, no pediatrics
Menthol, chloroform desensitize taste bud
oral solution mild volume depletion, Na, K, Cl, citrate, dextrose
oral solution examples pedialyte, ricelyte, rehydrate
oral colonic lavage PEG
PEG osmotic agent
balanced electrolye concentration no net change of electrolytes or water
oral colonic lavage example colyte, trilye, golytely
mg citrate saline cathartic
na citrate systemic alkalinizer
mouthwashes/gargles antiseptice, analgesics, deodorant, astringents
mouthwash ex. listerine, peridex, isodine
syrups 85% sugar, fully preserved, vehicle, sweetening agent,
elixiers hydroalcoholic, Glycerine propylene glycol (adj. solvents), less sweet and viscous than syrups, pref. over syrup manu., heat and light protect
tinctures alcholic and hyrdoalcoholic from VEGETABLE materials, 15-80% alcohol, self-preserving, light resitant, air-tight containers
aromatic waters aq. solution, sat. volatile or aromatic compounds, "oils"
spirits alcoholic, hydroalcoholic solution, oral and topic, camphor spirit
burows solution AQ, aluminim acetate, wet dressing, dermatologil, tablets and packets
peroxide AQ, 2.5-3.5%; local inti-infective, solution degrades light and heat
Chlorhexidine gluconate AQ, 4% solution, skin wound and general skin cleanser, pre-op skin prep; broad spectrum antiseptic
Betadine solution AQ; providine-iodine, ioding with PVP, 10% available iodine, surgical scrub, non-irritating antiseptic solution
compound benzoin tincture NAQ, 10%benzoin, skin protecant, inhalent, vehicle for podophyllum delivery, tight light resistant containers
liniments NAQ, alcoholic, oligenous olution, counterirritant, rubefacient, oil=massage; tight container
collodions NAQ; 4% pyroxylin; 3:1 ether:alcohol; flammible, occlusive protective coating on skin; protec light and temp., well closed
Flexible collodion topical, 2% camphor, 3% castor oil, camphor-waterproof, castor oil-flexible
salicyclic acid colloidion topical, 10% salicyclic acid; keratolytic, white petroleum to protect
Created by: Alexia4