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Pearson Chap. 1

Agricultural Density The ratio of the number of farmers to the total amount of arable land.
Arithmetic Density The total number of people divided by the total land area.
Base line An east-west line designated under the Land Ordinance of 1785 to facilitate the surveying and numbering of townships in the United States.
Cartography The science of map making.
Concentration The spread of something over a given area.
Connections Relationships among people and objects despite the barrier of space.
Contagious Diffusion The rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population.
Cultural Ecology Geographic approach that emphasizes human-environment relationships.
Cultural Landscape Fashioning of a natural landscape by a cultural group.
Culture The body of customary beliefs, social forms, and material traits that together constitute a group's distinct tradition.
Density The frequency with which something exists within a given unit of area.
Diffusion The process of spreading a feature of trend from one place to another over time.
Distance Decay The farther away a phenomenon travels from it's origin the less important it becomes.
Distribution The arrangement of something across Earth's surface.
Environmental Determinism An approach to geography that argues that physical science laws could be used to explain and study how the physical environment causes human activities.
Expansion Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from one place to another through a snowballing process.
Formal (Uniform/Homogeneous) An area with one or more shared characteristics.
Functional (Nodal) Region An area organized around a node or focal point. Centered around a specific point or thing.
Geographic Information System (GIS) A computer system that stores, organizes, analyzes, and displays geographic data.
Global Positioning System (GPS) A system that determines the precise location of something on Earth using satellites, tracking stations, and receivers.
Globalization Actions or processes that involve the entire world and result in making something worldwide.
Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) The time in that zone encompassing the prime meridian, or at 0' Longitude.
Hearth The origin of an innovation.
Hierarchical Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend from an important person, or place.
International Date Line An invisible line following 180' longitude that sets the time backwards or forward 24 hours depending on the direction you're heading.
Land Ordinance of 1785 A law that divided the U.S. into a system of townships.
Latitude The numbering system indicated by parallels, or lines running from north to south, to measure the distance (N&S) from the Equator.
Location The position of something on Earth's surface.
Longitude The numbering system that indicates the distance (E&W) from the prime meridian, measured by meridians or lines running from East to West.
Map A flat, 2D representation of Earth and Earth's surface.
Mental Map A representation of an area based on an individuals knowledge of a place. Not accurate.
Meridian An arc drawn on a map running between the North and South poles.
Parallel A circle drawn around the globe parallel to the equator.
Pattern The geometric arrangement of something in a region.
Physiological Density The number of people per unit of arable land.
Place A specific point on Earth, Distinguished by it's characteristics.
Polder Land created by draining water from an area.
Possibilism Theory stating that the environment sets limits on human activities, but humans are capable of adapting and choosing different courses of action.
Prime Meridian The 0' meridian that runs through the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England.
Principal Meridian A north-south line created in the Land Ordinance of 1785 to help survey and number the townships.
Projection The system used to transfer "Earth" onto a flat map.
Region An area distinguishable by it's unique features or trends.
Regional Studies (Cultural Landscape) An approach to geography that focuses on the relationships between social and physical phenomena.
Relocation Diffusion The spread of a feature or trend through human movement.
Remote Sensing The gathering of data through long distance means or by satellite.
Resource A substance in the environment that is useful for people and accessable.
Scale The relationship between the size of something being studied compared to the whole.
Section A 1 by 1 square of land created during the Land Ordinance of 1785; divided townships into 36 sections.
Site The physical character of a place.
Situation The location of a place compared to another.
Space The gap between two objects.
Space-Time Compression The reduction in the amount of time it takes for something to reach a distant place, recently caused by improved technologies and transportations.
Stimulus Diffusion The spread of the underlying principle even though the trend itself doesn't catch on.
Toponym The given name of a place.
Township A 6 by 6 square created by the Land Ordinance of 1785.
Transnational Corporation A company with it's headquarters in one country but with multiple factories elsewhere.
Uneven Development The gap between economic conditions in peripheral and core regions.
Vernacular (Perceptual) Region An area people believe exists as part of their cultural identity.
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