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Religionhinduism

QuestionAnswer
brahman the ultimate reality, the eternal, unchanging essence that underlines all things in the universe
dharma religious merit, duty, or correct behavior (1st purusharthra)
sannyasi a hindu who has renouced worldly life
moksha release or liberation from the retributions ordinarily entailed by ones past deeds / becoming pure (4th purusharthra)
kirtan community dancing, singing praises, and chanting to krishna
maya appearance or illusion; the world that comes to us in our experience
rasa transcendental bliss derived from an aesthetic experience associated with a religious painting or performance
atman the essence of brahman that is present in the individual; he innermost self
avatar a reincarnation of vishnu
samsara the cycle of birth-death-rebirth
gopura the entrance of a hindu temple; a gate tower
guru a spiritual teacher deemed to be an expert in religious disciplines and an effective guide for one on a spiritual path
rishi sage or visionary; the name given to the poets of the vedic hymns
yoga/yogi one who practices a path of discipline or seeks union with the devine through hindu teachings
avidya refers to ignorance; not seeing things as they truly are
yajna a vedic sacrifice or offering to a deva performed by a brahmin
bhakti the word used for devotion to and/or a love for a deity or ones guru
puja ritual worship of the image of a god by offering food, flowers, music and prayers
deva sanskrit word for god or deity - "the shining one"
karma means "action" or "the consequences of ones actions" it refers to the moral law of cause and effect that determines the direction of rebirth
mahabharata one of the 2 epics hindus speak of, this epic is the story of 2 groups of cousins going to war for the rulership of india (bharat)
ramayana is one of 2 epics hindus speak about, its the story of lord rama sho has to conquer the demon ravana to restore peace to the world
hanuman is the monkey god, son of the wind god,loyal server of vishnu
sita ramas consort (wife)
jnana yoga the path of knowledge; to join through knowledge
trimurti brahma(the creator) vishnu(the preserver) shiva(the destroyer)- all are brahman(the absolute)
brahmin preist class
brahma the "creative aspect" of the trimurti; created the 4 castes - brahmin(priests), kshatriya(warriors/nobles), vaishya(artisans/buisness people), shudra(laborers/servants)
vishnu the "perspective aspect" of the trimurti
shiva the "destroyer aspect" of the trimurti; he destroys ignorance also the source of the ganjes river ; nataraja shiva "the lord of dance"
saraswati brahmas consort(wife)
paravati shivas consort(wife)
lakshmi vishnus consort(wife)
chaitanya vaishnavite, thought to be a reincarnation of krishna, he chanted the name of krishna and danced in ecstacy, hare krishna mantra
vaishnavism krishna is worshipped as supreme god,its the largest denomination in hinduism
monism monistic world-view The universe has one ultimate Essence;all things are reducible to this one ultimate Essence
rita(rta) the fundamental law of the univers that governs and regulates everything including the devas (ex:gravity) the universe is an interdependent and orderly one; humans, gods, and nature are interdependent parts in a dynamic and orderly universe
shruti means "what is heard" (the vedas)
rig-veda the hymn veda
upanishads philisophical books
aranyakas forest books
yajur-veda the formula veda
bhagavad-gita "the song of the lord" 18 chapters (700 verses) its the 6th book of the mahabarata
arujna 1 of 5 sons of pandu of the pandava clan. born into the kshatriya class, general of the pandava clan
krishna an avatar of vishnu 1 of 10
kama material/sexual pleasure (3rd purushathra)
sama-veda the song veda
nirguna brahman brahman without qualities
surya the sun god
agni the fire god
indra the storm god
veda "sacred knowledge"
athar-veda the spell veda
kama-sutra pleasure "guide book"
saguna brahman brahman with qualities
"the boston brahmins" was a class for the "upper-class" families in boston.such as the writers: henry longfellow, james lowell, and oliver holmes NOT PRIESTS
walt whitman he wrote "leaves of grass" and "passage to india"
natya shastra is the oldest surviving text in the world on "stage crafts" it was revealed by brahma
brahmo samaj the first reform movement founded in 1828 by ram mohan roy. he accepted some western science and social ethics and thought that all religions had the same center and essentially all religions are one.
arya samaj this was the 2nd reform movement established in 1875 unlike the brahmo samaj, which accepted some social ethics and sciences from the western cultures, the arya samaj believed the vedas were the highest source of knowledge and ethics in the world
ram mohan roy was the creator of the brahmo samaj in 1828, he rejected polytheism, samsara infanticide, sati, and child marriages.
sati was practiced by recently widowed women would set themselves on fire at there husbands funeral. its been outlawed
samhita collection
sanskrit a sacred language brought india by indo-europeans and is the official language used in hinduism
polytheism a belief in more than one deity or god
satyagraha loosely translated as "soul force" it was a term formed by mahatmaghandi for his non-violent resistence.
purusharthas refers to a goal or end or aim for human existance. there are 4 in hinduism- dharma,artha,kama,moksha
artha material and/or financial prosperity as well as pursuit of meaning (2nd purushartha)
dayananda saraswati started the arya samaj in 1875. he believed the vedas were the absolute truth and rejected anything post-vedic
ahimsa nonviolent or "not killing"
mohandas k. ghandi aka "mahatmaghandi" pioneer of the satyagraha-(truth force) or a mass movement of civil disobedience without violence. he led india to independence and inspired movements for freedom across the world.
arthur c clarke he made the rama series, there were 4 parts rondevous with rama, rama 2, the garden of rama, rama revealed
maharishi mahesh yogi he came to america in the 60s, and started the practice of "transcendental meditation"
swami satchidananda came to america and started the "integral yoga institute"
ramakrishna he was a guru to vivakananda.
Created by: bethandy
 

 



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