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med mic test 3 2011

medical micro for test 3

Why can you crack a peanut shell with your teeth without carcking the nut? Teeth are proprioceptive
Ameleoblasts lay down? What about odontoblasts? Ameleoblasts=enamel, you do not make more if this. Odontoblasts=dentin, this you can make and it's why your pulp cavity gets smaller as you age
What is exposed when your gums recede and is more prone to cavities? cementum
Where do the muscles of the tongue insert? on themselves, multidirectional
Some cells of the tongue? Which have tastebuds? Filiform (flamelike), Foliate(longitudinal folds), Fungiform (hands w fingers), circumvalate (large/circular). the last 3 have tastebuds
What gland are analagous to Bowman's glands in that they "wash" away tastants? VonEbners's glands at the base of foliate papillae
What is in Waldeyer's ring? tonsils. pharyngeal tonsils aka adenoids. Palatine tonsils are usually the ones removed
What are the generic layers of the gut tube? inner to outer. EPI---lamina propria---muscularis mucosa---submucosa---circular muscularis externa---longitudinal muscularis externa---serosa/adventitia
2 functions of the mucosa? extraction of nutrients and protection form pathogens
What's the difference between adventitia and serosa? Adventitia is loose CT used to anchor. Serosa is a thin layer if simple squamous that secretes a serous lubricating fluid to keep bowels mobile and prevent irritation and adhesion
How is the gut tube innervated? Meissner's = submucosal plexus. Auerbach's = myenteric plexus Sympathetic decreases activity. Parasympathetic increases, "rest and digest"
What are the parts of the stomach and what secretions/cells would you find? Cardiac-mucous from goblet cells. Fundus-digestive from parietal and cheif cells Body-digestive " " Pyloris-mucous from goblets again so bolus can move to duodenum through pyloric sphincter
What does heliobacter pylori cause? What is another cause? Ulcers, the bacteria can survuve the acidic environment of the stomach. Long term use of NSAID's can also cause peptic ulcers.
What happens to the pH as you go from stomach to small intestine? pH increases as bile and other digestive enzymes form the pancreas are added
What disease can cause nutritional malabsorption because of blunt shortened villi that have been overrun with lymphocytes? Celiac's- it is an immune response to a protein in gluten.
What is the function of enterocytes? Absorption
A cell found at the base of intestinal glands that contains lysosomes and antimicrobial enzymes are? Paneth cells. paneth cells and enteroendocrine cells migrate down the gland. goblet cells and enterocytes migrate up the glands.
What cells of the small intestines have "taste buds" enteroendocrine cells. relesase hormones depending on what is inside the intestines.
What cells of the duodenum secrete mucous and bicarbonate? Brunner's glands
Pernicious anemia is caused by deficient B12 absorption that resulults in low RBC count. What cells in the GI tract are affecting this? Parietal cells, they secrete IF which is what allows for B12 absorption.
The main function of the large intestine is? recover H2O and elctrolytes from bolus. Contains mostly goblet cells to produce mucous and help bolus, aka the turd, move along.
What is the current thought on the function of the appendix? replenish intestinal flora post diarrheal diseases, (or post antibiotic).
Why are obstruction and blood in stool a big red flag? no lymphatic system in the lamina propria of colon so colorecatal cancers can get really big before metastasizing
An outward balooning of the lumen of the colon is called a? diverticula. Masses growing into the lumen are called polyps
Congenital megacolon is another name for? Hirschsprung's, you already know what that is.
The parotid gland is located just anterior to the ear. What is predominantly excreted by them? Serous saliva from acinar clusters
The gland at the base of the tongue that secretes mostly mucous? Sublingual
The Submandibular secretes? both serous and mucous. has serous demilunes (so does sublingual)
What signals the myoepithelial cells to "squeeze and dump" saliva? parasympathetic signals (rest and digest)
A large percent of saliva released by serous acinar cells is made of proteins, where did they come from. (the answer is not ribosomes) they were stored in zymogen granules
Why woudl a dentist recomend pulling your teeth prior to radiation treatment? radiation causes a lack of salivary gland function, which means no lysosomes so you get lots of bacteria that will quickly destroy your teeth.
What does the portal triad consist of? portal vein, hepatic artery, and bile duct (lymphatic vessels too)
The liver gets both oxygenated blood and deoxygenated blood. What does it get more if and how does it get there? Liver gets more (75%) deoxygenated blood, delivered from hepatic portal veins. The point is hepatocytes get crappy blood.
The 3 models of Liver structure all focus on different thing. Classic Lobule highlight s bloodflow. The Portal Triangle highlights bile drainage. What is the one we ough to know? Liver Acinus, it highlights metabolism and pathology. Zone 1 gets best blood BUT 1st to die from toxins or bile duct occlusion. Zone 3 gets least oxy blood SO 1st to die from ischemia or heart failure.
Drugs and toxins affect what zone of the Liver acinus model first? Zone 1
What disease can you still treat with bloodletting without being sued for malpractice? Hemochromatosis. too much iron. diffuse pain throughout body, rusty skin pigmenting. quite common
If you have your spleen removed, what cells in the liver will take over the job of removing damaged RBC's Kuppfer cells. aka stellate sinusoidal macrophages
There is a cell in the liver that was compared to your friend thathas good intentions and tries to help but usually makes things worse. It's a? Ito cell. in an attempt to heal damage to the liver they deposit bundles of type I collagen, however this is bad because now blood flow is reduced. They also store vitamin A
What cells monitor bile flow? cholangiocytes. bile flow may slow down, but it never stops.
What causes the release of bile into the duodenum? Fat in duodenum stimulates release of hormones that cause contraction of gall bladder and subsequent release of bile. common bile ducts, and hepatopancreatic ampulla--->duodenum
Rokitansk-Aschoff sinuses? not pathological on their own, but they can be reservoirs for bacteria predisposing to chronic infections and bile stone formation.
What are the cell types in the Islet's of Langerhans. What to they synthesize? reg's release of Pancreatic hormones
What does the exocrine pancrease contain and secrete? Proenzymes. Proteolytic, Amyolytic, Lipases, and Nucleolytic
What is pancreatitis? caused by gall stones, infection, trauma, stomach ulceration... It causes activation of pancreatic lipases while still in the pancreas=pancrease starts digesting itself. ***gall stones obstructing the hepatopancreatic ampulla***
The kidney is the most vacular organ receiving 25% of cardiac output. Some of its functions are? sythesizes and secretes erythropoietin and renin (bp regulation) , hydroxylation to activate Vit D (calcium metabolism)
What structures do you find in the cortex? renal corpuscles (Bowman's capsules).
What is in the medulla? collecting ducts and vasa recta (spec capillary network)
What is the "workhorse" of the kidney? the nephron. it includes just about everything,the renal corpuscle, all the tubules, thin and thick limbs of loop of henle, macual densa, collecting ducts.
What causes Minimal Change disease? diffuse effacement of the podocytes, now the filtration slits will allow protein through, so you find in urine. > 3.5 g protein/day. mostly effects kids
Vascualr pole contains? afferents, where arterioles enter and exit, also JGA. The urinary pole is where the proximal conv tubule (PCT) starts.
There are sevral ways the kidney filter, endothelial fenetsrations, charged basement membrane, filtration slits of podocytes. Which one is affected by Good Pateurs Disease? Anti GBM antibodies attack the basement membrane and a rapidly progressing glomerulonephritis.
The PCT has a smaller lumen which is less clear than the DCT. T/F? true, think cheerios for the DCT, however the DCT is about 1/3 shorter. DCT takes in Na+ and bicarbinate and puts out K+ and ammonia.
What is the function of the JGA? regulates bp. angiotensin II stimulates release of aldosterone which increases reabsorption of Na+, H20 follows and this increases blood volume and blood pressure. ATII also potent vasoconstrictor that helps reg renal and vascular resistance.
What are the main functions of the collecting tubules and ducts? As the last part of the neprhon they collect last bit of water and tweak the pH levels.
Two cell types acheive this, what are they? pricipal cells=H20 control via ADH. intercalated cells=secrete H+ and bicarbonate.
What does the vasa recta do? forms countercurrent exchange with the loop of Henle. descending arteriole rectas and ascending veulae rectae.
What is it about the blood supply to the kidney that will allow a wedge infarct to happen that may be avoided elsewhere? there are no anastamoses
What ducts empty into the calyx space. ducts of bellini in the area cribrosa---minor calyces--major calyces--renal pelvis--ureter--urianry bladder--voided through urethra
From the ureter onward, the epithelium is impermeable to_____________and__________? and increases in thickness as you go from calyces to bladder. salts and H20.
The ureter takes urine from what to what? paired tube structure. kidney to bladder. star shaped lumen.
There are 3 openings in the bladder (Trigone), it also has a detruser muscle that? smooth muscle that compresses entire organ and force urine into the urethra.
What are the 3 parts to a make urethra? 1. prostatic urethra-bladder to prostate gland. 2.Membranous urethra-prostrate to bulb of penis 3. penile urethra-surrounded by corpus spongiosum. distal epi is strat squa
A surge in what hormone cause the ovarian follicle to rupture releaseing the ovum (the corona radiata goes with it)? What happens to the follicle if there is no fertilization? LH. The corpus luteum will degenrate around 10-14days.
What is follicular atresia? the normal dying off of follicles since most will fail to mature completely, typically you only get one follicle from one ovary
What two structures help insure the ovum will enter the fallopian tubes? cilia within the uterine tubes and the finger like fimbria. otherwise you get and ectopic pregnancy, bad, but even worse if it is in the abdomen.
What is the fate of the corpus luteum if fertilization dies occur? the fertilized egg releases HCG and this stimulates the corpus luteum to continue to thrive and secrete more estrogen and progesterone.
Why is ovarian cancer so hard to detect? VERY non specific symptoms. incidence increases >55yrs. 5th most common in women.
What are the 4 region of the Uterine (fallopian) tube? which one does fertilization usually occuer in? 1. infundibulum 2.Ampulla 3. isthmus 4. intramural part. Fertilization is usually in the Ampulla, has highly folded mucosa and is where most peg cells are.
What do peg cells have to do with fertilization? secrete factors that capacitate (activate) sperm, also provides nutrition and protection form oocyte or zygote.
The endometrium of the uterus has 2 layers, one is shed during menstruation. What are they? 1. stratum functionalis=shed 2. stratum basalis=glands
uterine fibroids that are benign as far as cancer goes but can cause pain and comlications with pregnancy are called? Leiomyomas. If the patient is older and done with childbearing often have hysterectomies.
What is the significance of the glands in the uterus? they provide nourishment via glycoproteins to the zygote prior to implantation
The blood supply to the uterus is pretty cool. the basalis is supplied by straigh atreries and the functionals is supplied by coiled (spiral,helical) both via arcuate arteries. cool part. constriction of spiral arteries=death to tissue. Then dilation=rush of blood and tissue dislodged.
The transition zone between the cervix and the vagina (columnar to strat squa) is the site of most cervical cnacers. What are 2 things you can do to prevent or minimze the risk of cervical cnacer? vaccinate against HPV, AND have regular pap smears. The HPV vaccine like all other vaccines only works on certain variants so pap's for everybody that has a cervix.
What is the most notable thing about the vagina, histologically speaking? that there is not much notable. muscle and strat squa epi.
There are some tunicas associated with the covering of the testes, one doesn't really sound like it belongs tunica vaginalis-peritoneal remnant. tunica albuginia (same as ovary) dense CT tunica vascularis-vasculature and lymphatics
What are the 3 cell types in the seminiferous tubules? spermatogonia- diploid (2n)--meiosis--haploid sperm. Sertoli cells- sequester the sperm by forming the bllod testes barier. Leyding cells- (interstitial) found in between tubules, they produce testosterone
Why is it important to keep sperm seperate from blood? sperm isn't produced until puberty and at that point the T cells from the thymus would not recognize the sperm as "self"
What happens to the testosterone that the Leydig cells produce? diffuses to sertoli cells and helps with the maturation of spermatozoa
Sertoli cells are also stimulated by FSH to secrete ABP. The ABP increases the local testosterone concentration. 2 other functions? secrete fluid to nourish cells and phocytize shed cytoplasm from developing sperm
duct flow in testes? where is the sperm maturation and storage? rete testes---efferent duct---ductus epidiymus. maturation and storage is in epididymis.
Why is it important that the movement of sperm to the epididymus is driven solely by fluid pressure? conservation of energy. after the epididymis movement comes from smooth muscle contractions
What special type of epithelium do you find in the epididymis? pseudostratified columnar with stereocilia, thought to help with absorption of excess fluid
From epididymis sperm gets to the prostatic urethra via? ductus deferens, lots of smooth muscle=ejaculation
what are the 3 accessory reproductive glands. seminal vessicles, prostate gland, and bulbourethral gland.
which gland produces most of the semen and "packs the lunch" seminal vessicle (60%) lunch=vit C and fructose. also secrete alkaline substance and prostaglandins. Activity is dependent on testosterone.
which gland "roll out the red carpet"? bulbourethral gland. secretes alkaline substance to neutralize low pH of environments it will encounter on it's jouney and mucous to lubricate the urethra.
The prostate gland is divided into zones as well as layers. Which zone and which layer are the most common for prostate cancer? peripheral zone, (i heard digital rectal exams are next SP lab) and the outer layer aka true prostate which produces proteins(mostly enzymes)necessary for sperm function. testosterone dependent function too.
As men age concrettion called _______________build up in the prostate. It also hyptrophies with age. copora amylacia
what are the erectile tissues, which is paired, which forms the glans penis and contains the urethra? paired=corpus cavernosum(the eyes) corpus spongiosum (the mouth) contains the urethra and forms the glans penis.
Endocrine glands secrete hormones that act on distant cells. T/F? true, endocrine glands secrete into blood so they can travel all over the body. Some need transporters(hydrophobic)
What type of capillaries to endocrine glands have? fenestrated to dump hormones into the blood.
What are the 3 classes of hormones, are they hydrophobic or hydrophillic? 1. Proteins,poylpeptides=hydrophillic 2. Steroids,FA derivatives=hydrophobic 3. AA derivatives=both
Hydrophilic dont need transporters, but cannot cross membranes, so they activate second messenger systems. Hydrophobic hormones can cross membranes but need to be bound to carrier like? albumin, the most abundant
hydrophilic hormones include; insulin, glucagon, FSH, the Catecholamines (epi, norepi, and dopamine). So some hydrophobic hormones? thyroid hormones T3 and T4, progeterone, estradiol, teststerone. *act as transcription factors* they can bind to cytoplasmic or nuclear receptors.
The president and the VP of the endocrine system are? Prez= hypothalamus(master gland). VP= pituitary gland. they are connected via the hypophyseal portal system. this is important so that the hormones remain undiluted
the pituitary is only about the size of a pea, where in the skull does it sit? sella turcica.
Why are there 3 different names for each part of the pituitary? what are they? Anterior--pars distalis--adenohypophysis Posterior--pars nervosa--neurohypophysis. Anterior=from roof of mouth Posterior= down growth from brain
The endocrine system is generally controlled via positive and negative feedback loops from circulating signals. What is an example of a positive feedback loop? oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, the more contractions you have the more oxytocin released.
GH is a somatotrope produced by acidophils in the anterior pituitary, what happens when you have too much GH? Kids=gigantism. Adults=acromegally. GH upregulates metabolism and is involved in long bone and muscle growth.
Acidophils of the ant. pituitary also produce? prolactin. it responds to decrease in dopamine and prevents ovulation, stimulates mam glands, and maternal behavior. It is always active however Dopamine levels are usually sufficient to supress
The anterior pituitary also has basophilic cells that produce gonadotropes, corticotroipes and thyrotropes. What is the one thyroptrope? TSH, it stimulates the production of thyroid hormones (from the cuboidal folicular cells)
1 corticotrope is ACTH adrenocorticotropic hormone, what is its function? stimulates glucocorticoid synthesis in fasciculata and reticularis of adrenal gland
FSH and LH are the two ___________________synthesized by basophils in the ant. pituitary. gonadotropins. FSH stimulates developement of ovarian follicle and ABP in sertoli cells. LH stimulates steroidogenisis in ovarian follicles and coprus luteum, in men, controls the rate of testosterone synth in leydig cells.
The hypothalamus also releases a bunch of hormones that release or inhibit other hormones. Some are GHRH, GHIH, PIH (dopamine, but named b/c inhibits prolactin), GnRH, CRH, TRH.
the posterior pituitary aka pars nervosa is made up of axons and glia, specifically? 75% unmyelinated axons, the rest is astrocyte type glial cells(support cells) and herring bodies
2 hormones of the posterior pituitary are oxytocin and? ADH, antidiuretic hormone, involved with water reabsorption in the kidneys.
Parafollicular cells and follicular cells (principal cells) are found where? what do they produce? thyroid gland. parafollicular = calcitonin, it decreases blood Ca levels. Follicular cells produce T3 and T4 hormones which are involved in your basal metabolic rate.
What 2 things do you have to have make thyroid hormones? iodine and 2 tyrosines. No iodine = goiter
A disease where your TSH receptor is always active, skinny with bulging eyes(sometimes)? Grave's disease, it is a type of hyperthyroidism.
Hypothyroidism as a result of autoimmune destruction of the thyroid gland, causes obesity? Hashimoto's disease
The principal cells of the parathyroid gland produce a hormone that has an antagonistic effect on calcitonin, what is it? PTH, regulate Ca and phosphate levels. PTH causes an increase in osteoclast activity which raises blood Ca levels. Oxyphils are the other cells in the parathyroid, don't know what they do.
Where is the adrenal gland located? What are the layers? top of the kidneys. recap on the layers. glomerulosa=mineralocorticoids(aldosteron) SALT. Fasciculata =glucocorticoids (cortisol)SUGAR. Reticularis=weak androgens (testosterone)and glucocrticoids SEX. then the medulla
The medulla contains chromafin cells, what do they secrete? epi and nor epi.
Pineal gland regualates what via melatonin? circadian rhythms. tryptophan-->seratonin-->melatonin. Also has corpora arenacia "brain sand" possible link to thirst, hunger, sexual desire, biological clock.
There are 3 cell types in the Islets of Langerhans. alpha, beta and delta. what does each produce? alpha 15-20%=glucagon. beta 60-70%=insulin. delta 5% = somatostatin (reguates release of other pancreatic hormones)
Created by: pcwvsom