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Chap 1-4

Introduction; Healthcare structure, Safety & Infection Control

What is Phlebotomy? Practice of drawing blood
Phlebo means Vein
~tomy neans To make an incision
A phlebotomist needs skills like: Technical skills, organization, detail oriented,nterpersonal skills, handling stress, being professional
Phlebotomists personal characteristics Dependability, Honesty & Integrity, Positive attitude, Empathy & Compassion, Professional detachment, Prof appearance, Interpersonal skills, and telephone skills
Professional Organizations and Standards Develop standards and monitor training in the field
What are the three aspects Professional Organizations and Standards? Accreditation, Certification and Continuing Medical Education Units
Accreditation Programs that train phlebotomists receive approval from a professional org by meeting and documenting established requirements called Standards
Certification Evidence that an individual has demonstrated proficiency in a particular area of practice.
Continuing Education Units (CEUs) Provides updated on new information, Regulations and techniques and help refresh a phlebotomists skills
What is informed consent? That patient must be informed of intended treatment and their risks before they are performed
What is confidentiality? All information regarding a patient's condition including types of tests ordered or results is confidential
HIPAA - Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act Covers the privacy of patient's medical information
AIDS Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome
CLIA '88 Clinical Lab Improvement Act of 1988
CLSs Clinical Lab Scientists
CLTs Clinical lab Technicians
EDTA Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid
MRI Magnetic Resonance Imaging
SST Serum Separator Tube
Fiscal & Information services Responsible for adminissions and medical records, billing, accounting and other financial aspects
Support services Includes all aspects of physical plant of the hosp., e.g., cleaning, maintenance, food and security
Nursing services Provides direct care to patients
Professional services Provide services at physicians requests
Cardiac Catheterization Evaluates and treats patients with cardiovascular diseases
Clinical Laboratory Analyses samples from patients at request of physicians or other health care personnel
Nuclear Medicine Uses radioisotopes to perform tests and treat diseases
Occupational Therapy Assess patients and design adaptive aids or compensatory strategies to help with physical or mental impairments
Pharmacy Prepares and dispenses drugs that have been prescribed by physicians
Physical Therapy Assess patients wboth before and after treatment and devise plans of physical treatment
Radiation Therapy Treats cancer using x-rays or other high energy radiation sources to destory the tumor
Radiology or Medical Imaging Interprets a range of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures using various forms of radiant energy
Respiratory Therapy Provide treatment for respiratory discorders. They often perform arterial punctures for the determination of arterial blood gases
Blood Bank or Immunohematology Deals with blood transfusions
Blood typing checks for two major antigens groups ABO Group and Rh Group
Autologous donation When a patient donates their own blood for transfusion
SST Serum Separator Tube
What color is Serum Clear, pale yellow fluid
Hemostasis Refers to the process by which the body stops blood from leaking out of a wound
CLINICAL LAB IMPROVEMENT ACT OF 1988 (CLIA '88) Passed by Congress which mandated the regulation of all facilities that perform patient test.
Accreditation is required for Healthcare facilities to receive Medicare or Medicaid reimbursement
JOINT COMMISSION Labs must be inspected and accredited every 2 yrs
C P R Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
M S D S Materials Safety Data Sheet
N F P A National Fire Protection Association
Safety Hazards Biological, Physical, Sharps, Chemical, Radioactive, Electrical, Fire or explosive, Latex sensitivity
Physical hazards Mostly a matter of common sense plus learning important habits
Sharp hazards Mostly needles and lancets
Needle Stick Safety and Prevention Act of 2001 Requires all employers switch to safety needle devices to minimize risk of accidental sticks
OSHA Hazardous Communication Standard Requires all manufacturers label hazardous materials
The National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) label Is a design recofnized by firefighters that warns of the location of hazardous materials in the event of fire
If chemical spills on you Proceed immediately to a safety shower or eyewash station and flush affected area with water for a minimum of 15min
Radioactive hazards Are used in health care facilities to perform diagnostic tests and deliver treatment
Radioactive hazard symbol should be displayed in areas which radioactivity is in use
Electrical hazards Usually result in shock or fire
Emergency Response to Electric shock Turn off the equipment by unplugging it or switching off the circuit breaker
Fire and Explosive Hazards May occur in labs due to chemical or electrical accidents
Acronym RACE: Rescue, Alarm, Confine, Extinguish
Acronym PASS Pull the pin, Aim at base of fire, Squeeze handle and Sweep
Classes of fire and extinguishers There are five classes of fire identified by NFPA
Type A Contain water or dry chemicals - used for wood, paper and cloth
Type B Contain dry chemicals, carbon dioxide, or environmentally safe fluorocarbons - used for grease, oil, and flammable liquids
Type C Are safe for electrical fires
Type D Agents are dry powders - used for flammable metals
Type K Used in kitchens for cooking oils and grease
MRI hazards Uses extremely powerful magnet to creat images of body
Emergency First-Aid Procedures Healthcare works should be training in CPR techniques and refresh their skills biannually
Bleeding Aid Apply direct pressure to bleed; Elevate the limb unless fracture is suspected; Maintain pressure until medical assistance is available
CPR procedure Determine if victim is conscious and call for help; If victim unresponsive, begin chest compressions or use an AED if available (defibrillator); Perform chest compressions by pushing down on chest btwn 1.5-2" Compression shold be at rate of 100 per min
Disaster Emergency plan Usually in place for disaster emergencies such floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, or fire
Latex sensitivity FDA require labeling of medical gloves that contain naturual rubber latex or powder
Preventing latex reactions Individuals with known sensitivity to latex should wear medical alert bracelet
A I D S Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome
P P E Personal Protective Equipment
Infection Is an invasion and growth of a microorganism in the human body that causes disease
Pathogens Infectious organisms - e.g., viruses, bacteria, fungi, protists
Nosocomial infections Infections contracted by patients in hospitals
Chain of infection Requires a continuous link through three primary elements.
Infection links Reservoir, means of transmission and host
Other links include portal of exit, portal of entry
The Reservoir The source of infection
Fomite A source - e.g., a contaminated object
Host Susceptible patientm profesional worker, visitor
Microorganisms can be transmitted by Droplet or airborne routes (direct or indirect)
Disease transmission can be spread by five means: Contact, Droplet, Airborne, Common vehicle, Vector
Breaking chain of infection Practicing appropriate hand hygiene, using PPE and Standard Precaution practices and also Isolation
Antiseptic Agent used to clean living tissue, preventing sepsis or infection
PPE Consists of barriers and respirators used alone or in combination to protect skin, mucous membrane and clothing
Standard Precautions refers to Infection control measures that use barrier protection
Order of putting on PPE 1) Gown 2) mask, respirator, googles or face shield 3)Gloves
Order of removing PPE 1) Gown and gloves 2)hand hygiene 3) googles/shield 4) mask/respirator 5) hand hygiene after removing all PPE
Occupational Safety & Health Administration's Bloodborne Pathogens Standard (OSHABPS) Clarifies issues regarding sharps safety
Isolation Control Measures Is used to protect the patient from infectious agents in the environment or carried by staff or visitors or can be used to protect staff, visitors and other patients
Protective Environment (PE) Units for minimizing risk of acquiring environmental fungal infections. Immunocompromised patients may have their own isolation unit
Isolation precaution are based on two-tiered systems 1) Includes precautions used for all patients in the hospital, without regard to their diagnosis or infection status; 2) Uses expanded precautions (EPs) - for pts known be or suspected of being infected with a highly transmissible pathogen
Airborne Precautions Used for patients known to have or suspected of having a disease transmitted by airborne droplet nuclei - e.g., meeasles, varicella and tb
Droplet Precautions Used for pts known to have or suspected of having a disease transmitted y large infectious droplets that can be deposited on the conjunctivae or mucous membranes of a susceptible host
Contact Precautions Used for patients known to have or suspected of having diseases or conditions transmitted by direct patient contact or by contact with items in the patient's environment
Bloodborne pathogens Infectious agents carried in the blood, certain body fluids, and unfixed tissues as defined in OSHA's Bloodborne Pathogen Stds
Principal accidental risk for a phlebotomist Is contracting a BBP from a needle stick
Viral survival Practice risk minimizing procedures by disinfecting your environment- equipment, control spills, clean up.
10% bleach solution should be made every day to be used as a disinfectant
Examples of Blood pathogens Babesiosis, Colorado tick fever, Hep B, C & D, HIV, Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I & II, Malaria and syphilis
Phlebotomy means Incision of a vein
First step in routine blood collection? Correctly and positively identifying patient
Which acronym is not a certification agency for phlebotomists NAACLS (National Accrediting Agency for Clinical Lab Sciences
Which term is evidence that an individual has demonstrated proficiency in a particular area of practice Certification
A phlebotomist must ensure that patient understands and agrees to have blood drawn by which process? Informed Consent
The Health Insurance Portability & Accountability Act of '96 regulates Privacy of Health information
What should you do if a pt refuses to have their blood drawn? Notify pts physician
The term informed consent means? A patient must be informed of all intended treatments and risks before the treatment is performed
True statement Phlebotomy is an ancient profession dating back at least 3500 yrs
Which state has led the way in state regulation of phlebotomy? California
What is an additive? A substance added in blood tests to prevent blood from clotting
What is an antiseptic A solution or agent for eliminating bacteria
What is a bevel? The opening of a needle
What is a centrifuge? Machine used to separate blood
What is hematology? Study of blood
What is plasma? A blood component
What is hemoglobin? RBCs that circulate in body carrying oxygen
What is a vein? A blood vessel (carries blood towards the heart)
What is hematoma? Blood clot under the skin
What is a tourniquet? A rubber strip used to constrict or slow blood flow
Anticoagulant An additive that thins out blood to prevent clotting
Aorta Largest artery in the body originating from the left ventricle and supplies blood to the whole body (systemic)
Basophils WBCs - fights infection
RBCs Erythrocytes - carry oxygen all over the body
Platelets (thrombocytes) Are RBCs that form clots
Capillaries The smallest of body's blood vessels; very fragile. Carry bright red or darker red depending on gas exchange
Coagulation Clotting
Dermapuncture Piercing of skin
Hemoglobin A protein molecule in RBCs that carries Oxygen thru' out the body
Palpate Feel of the skin/part of body
Plasma A yellow liquid component of blood
Created by: Moshort
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