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The Endocrine Syste

Fundamentals of Body Structures and Functions

QuestionAnswer
The endocrine glands are ductless glands that secrete their hormones directly into the? bloodstream
Hormones are chemical? catalysts
A chemical catalyst causes a? reaction to occur
Hormones help maintain the body's internal environment within certain narrow ranges. This balancing act is called? homeostatsis
The pituitary gland is located at the? base of the brain.
The pituitary gland is the size of a? pea
The pituitary gland is AKA? hypophysis or "master gland"
It is called the "master gland" because? its hormones control the functions of many other endocrine glands.
Even though the pituitary gland (hypophysis) is called the "master gland" it is controlled bye the? hypothalamus (wife).
The pituitary gland (hypophysis) is divided into two sections called the? anterior and posterior lobes.
The anterior lobe produces? 1. GH which stands for - growth hormone.
GH (growth hormone)stimulates cell metabolism and cause? cells to divide (replicate) and increase in size.
Significant amounts of GH (growth hormone) is secreted until age? 20
Insufficient amounts of GH (growth hormone) can cause? dwarfism.
A synthetic GH (growth hormone) is called? Humatrope (somatropin)
Excessive amounts of GH (growth hormone) can cause? giantism
TSH (T7)which stands for? thyroid stimulating hormone and is AKA thyrotropin.
TSH stimulates the? thyroid to produce its hormones
ACTH which stands for? adrenocorticotropic hormone
Tropic means it comes from the? pituitary.
ACTH stimulates the? adrenal glands to produce their hormones.
MSH which stands for? melanocyte stimulation hormone
A hereditary disorder characterized by and absence of melanin called? albinism.
FSH which stands for? follicle stimulating hormone.
FSH stimulates the? a. ovaries to start the maturation process of a follicle (oocyte) into an ovum.
FSH stimulates the? b. Testes to create spermatozoa (spermatogenesis).
LH which stands for? luteinizing hormone
LH stimulates? a. ovulation
LH stimulates? b. The production of progestrone to maintain pregnancy.
LH simulates? c. Production of testosterone in males.
Lactogenic hormone AKA? prolaction
Lactogenic hormones stimulates the production of? milk (lactation).
The posterior lobe of the pituitary produces? 1. ADH which stands for -antidiuretic hormone AKA vasopression
ADH (antidiuretic hormone) influences the volume of? urine produced
Insufficient production of ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is called? diabetes insipidus (DI)
A synthetic ADH (antidiuretic hormone) is called? Pitressin (vasopressin)
OT which stands for? oxytocin
OT stimulates the? uterus to contract during labor.
A synthetic oxytocin is called? Pitocin ("Pit drip").
Oxytocin is also known as the? binding hormone.
Binding refers to? male-female and mother-neonate bonding.
The thyroid gland is located on the right and left sides of the? trachea just inferior to the larynx.
The thyroid produces the following hormones? 1. T4 also known as thyroxine.
The thyroid produces the following hormones? 2. T3 also known as triliodothyronine
The thyroid produces the following hormones? 3. Calcitionin
T3 and T4 are both commonly referred to as the? thyroxine.
T3 and T4 are responsible for the regulation of? carbohydrate, protein, and fat metabolism.
Metabolism refers to the rate at which the body? utilizes (burns) energy.
Hyperthyroidism is called? Grave's disease
Hypothyroidism is called? myxedema
A synthetic thyroxine is called? Synthroid (levothyroxine)
Calcitonin is released when the? blood calcium levels rise.
Calcitonin causes the deposit of? the calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (p) in bones.
The parathyroid glands are located? embedded in the posterior surface of the thyroid gland.
The parathyroid glands are the size of? raisins
The parathyroid glands secrete? parathyroid hormone (PTH) AKA parathromone.
PTH (parathyroid hormone) causes osteocytes to? release stored calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) into the blood.
Release the PTH (parathyroid hormone) will occur when? serum Ca(calcium) levels fall.
The adrenal glands are located just superior to the? kidneys
The adrenal glands are AKA? suprarenal glands.
The inner portion of the adrenal glands is called the? adrenal medulla.
The outer portion of the adrenal glands is called the? adrenal cortex.
The adrenal medulla produces? Adrenalin AKA epinephrine.
Adrenalin (epinephrine) contributes to the? "fight or flight" response.
This response the "fight or flight" includes: 1. the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
This response the "fight or flight" includes: 2. Tachycardia
This response the "fight or flight" includes: 3. Tachypnea
This response the "fight or flight" includes: 4. Bronchodilation
This response the "fight or flight" includes: 5. Hypertension
This response the "fight or flight" includes: 6. Pallor
The adrenal cortex produces? 1. Aldosterone
The adrenal cortex produces? 2. Cortisol (hydrocortisone)
The hormones are AKA? steroids (corticosteroids)
Anabolic steroids, the type used by athletes, are synthetic versions of? testosterone
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes? 1. Sudden death (MI, CVA)
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes? 2. Liver cancer
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes? 3. Aggressiveness ("roid rage")
Aldosterone regulates the balance of electrolytes (salts) include? 1. Phosphorus (P) Mineral salts sodium (Na)
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes? 2. Potassium (K)
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes? 3. Chloride (Cl)
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes? 4. Calcium (Ca) (Mineral salts)
Conditions associated with anabolic steroid use includes? 5. Phosphorus (P) Minerals salts
The actions of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include? 1. Maintain proper glucose concentration in the blood between meals
The actions of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include? 2. Helps reduce the inflammatory response
The actions of cortisol (hydrocortisone) include? 3. Aids the body with stressful situations.
Hypersecretions of cortisol is called? Cushing's Disease
Hyposecretions of cortisol is called? Addison's disease.
A synthetic cortisol is called? cortisone.
The pancreas is located posterior to the? stomach (retrogastric)
The purpose of the pancreas includes the production of? insulin and glucagon
Insulin is secreted when the? blood sugar(BS) rises after eating a meal.
The insulin allows the glucose (BS) to? enter the cells.
When the glucose enters the cells the blood sugar (BS) level will? fall
When the blood sugar (BS) falls too low the pancreas will secrete? glucagon
Glucagon will stimulate the? liver to convert glycogen to glucose.
This action will cause the glucose (BS) to? rise.
A normal blood sugar (BS) is? 1. 90 - 130 mg/dL (a.c. meals) 2. Less than 180 mg/dL (2 hours p.c. after meals).
Hyposecretion of insulin and/or the difficult utilization of glucose (insulin resistance) by the cells is called? diabetes mellitus (DM).
A synthetic insulin is called? Humulin (insulin)
Medications designed to stimulate the pancreas to produce more insulin or aid the cells in glucose utilization are called? oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics).
Risks factors for DM include? 1. Heredity
Risks factors for DM include? 2. Obesity
Risks factors for DM include? 3. Over consumption of refined sugars
Risks factors for DM include? 4. Over consumption of food
Risks factors for DM include? 5. Sedentary lifestyle
Risks factors for DM include? 6. Gestational DM
Risks factors for DM include? 7. African American, Native American, Hispanic, Asian American.
Risks factors for DM include? 8. Chronic hypertension.
Diabetes mellitus that develops in children is called? juvenile onset DM or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) or type I diabetes mellitus.
Type I DM is the most serious form of DM and requires? 1. Daily injections of insulin
Type I DM is the most serious form of DM and requires? 2. Strict diet control
Type I DM is the most serious form of DM and requires? 3. Regimented exercise
DM (diabetes mellitus) that develops in adulthood is called? maturity onset DM or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) or type 11 DM
This type of DM is less severe and can often be controlled by? proper diet alone or proper diet and oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics) such as Diabenese or Glucophage.
Oral hypoglycemics (antidiabetics) stimulate the pancreas to? secrete more insulin and/or allows the cells to utilize glucose more efficiently.
Signs and symptoms of DM include? A. Polyuria(excessive urination)
Signs and symptoms of DM include? B. Glycosuria (sugar in the ruin)
Signs and symptoms of DM include? C. Polydipsia (excessive thirst)
Signs and symptoms of DM include? D. Ketouria (keytones in the urine)
Signs and symptoms of DM include? E. Weight loss
Signs and symptoms of DM include? F. Fatigue
Signs and symptoms of DM include? G. Poor wound healing
Complications of DM include? 1. Atherosclerosis leading to MI, CVA, or occlusion of a leg artery resulting in gangrene.
Treatment includes for diabetes is? A. Strict diet based on number of calories per day divided into proper portions of carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Treatment includes for diabetes is? B. Correct dosages of insulin based on self-blood glucose monitoring (SBGM).
Treatment includes for diabetes is? Regular exercise because diet intake and insulin (Humulin) dosage are based on the metabolic needs of the individual.
Diet insulin, or exercise cannot be altered without creating an? Insulin excess or deficiency.
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic? 1. Fails to take enough insulin
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic? 2. Increase caloric intake
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic? 3. Decreases exercise
Sign and symptoms of diabetic coma include? 4. Lethargy
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic? 5. Loss of consciousness and coma
Treatments include? administration of insulin and hydration.
Insulin shock (deficient BS) results when a diabetic? 1. Administers too much insulin
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic? 2. Does not eat enough food.
Diabetic coma (elevated BS) can result when a diabetic? 3. Exercises excessively
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include? 1. Shallow breathing.
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include? 2. Diaphoresis (profuse sweating)
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include? 3. Syncope (fainting)
Signs and symptoms of insulin shock include? 4. LOC and coma (loss of conciousness)
Treatment includes? administration of sugar in any form.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? a. Follow prescribed diet exactly
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? b. take prescribed insulin or hypoglycemics are directed.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? c. Monitor BS every day
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? d. follow daily exercise regiment.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? e. Always wear feet protection to prevent injury from stubbing, fire ants, sand spurs, etc.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? f. Have a podiatrist take care of ANY foot needs IMMEDIATELY such as clipping toe nails, corns, bunions, calluses, wounds, etc to prevent accidental injury.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? g. A medical alert bracelet or necklace should be worn at all times.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? h.Always check temperature of bath water before stepping into bath to prevent scalding
Even a small wound to a diabetic's feet can result in uncontrolled infection due to poor wound healing and can eventually lead to? amputation of the extremity.
Diabetics that have difficulty controlling their blood sugar are called? "brittle diabetics."
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? 1. Highly irregular menses.
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? 2. More than 40 days between cycles
To prevent potentially dangerous medical emergencies, diabetics should take the following precautions? 3. A waist size greater than 40 inches in men and 35 inches in women.
Some studies indicate that type II DM can double the risk of? Alzheimer's Disease (AD).
GTT stands for? glucose tolerance test
PPBS stands for? postprandial blood sugar
FBS stands for? fasting blood sugar
A1c (HbA1c) stands for? provides an average of your BS control over a 6 to 12 week period
A1c (HbA1c) normal range is? 4% -6% (DM.7%)
PBI stands for? protein bound iodine (thyroid)
RAIU stands for? radioactive iodine uptake test (thyroid)
HCG stands for? human chorionic gonadotropn (serum and urine pregnancy test)
Created by: Penny S