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NSCI 1001 Exam 1 UMN

Brain Functions, Structures, Anatomy, Vestibular

Collection of Neurons Nucleus
Collection of Nuclei Region
Layers of the Meninges (from outermost to innermost) Dura Mater (2 layers), Arachnoid, Pia Mater
Functions of the Ventricles Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Production, Bouyancy/Protection, Removal of Waste
Main Structures of the Forebrain Olfactory Bulb, Cerebrum, Thalamus, Hypothalamus
Lobes of the Cortex Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital,
Frontal Lobe Function Movement, Judgment, Impulse Control
Parietal Lobe Function Sensory Processing, Movement
Temporal Lobe Function Hearing, Language, Emotion
Occipital Lobe Vision
Location of Striatum Under the Cortex
Structures of the Striatum Caudate and Nucleus Accumbens
Caudate Function/Disorder Function: Sensory/Motor Function, Disorder: Schizophrenia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
Nucleus Accumbens Function/Disorder Function: Reward/Motivation, Disorder: Addictions
Hippocampus Function Learning Location in Space (Spatial Learning), Stress Regulation
Thalamus Function Relay information to cortex
Hypothalamus Function Sex, Eating, Stress
Main Structures of Midbrain Substantia Nigra, Inferior/Superior Colliculus, Ventral Tegmentum, Central Gray
Substantia Nigra Function/Disorder Function: Movement, Disorder: Parkinsons causes death of region
Inferior Colliculus (IS) Hearing
Superior Colliculus (SC) Vision
Central Gray Pain
Ventral Tegmentum Reward/Motivation
Main structures of Hindbrain Cerebellum, Pons/Medulla
Cerebellum Function Fine Movements, Posture, Balance
Pons and Medulla Function Sleep/Wakefulness, Breathing, Blood Pressure, Digestion, Autonomic Functions
Structures involved in Reward/Motivation Ventral Tegmentum and Nucleus Accumbens
Steps in Synaptic Transmission 1) Synthesis of Neurotransmitters, 2) Storage (in vesicles), 3) Release into synapse (activated by action potential), 4) Receptor Activation, 5) Inactivation
Dominant form of neurotransmitter inactivation Reuptake
Dopamine Synthesis Pathway L-DOPA --> Dopamine
Dopamine disorders Deficiency: Parkinsons, Excess: Schizophrenia
Dopamine Reuptake Inhibitor Amphetamine (Used to treat ADD)
Dopamine Receptors and Function D1) Stimulate post-synaptic neurons, D2) Inhibit post-synaptic neurons
Commonly prescribed antibiotic that caused destruction of vestibular system in case study Gentamicin
Rotation around each axis of balance (All 3) X-Axis (Pointing straight out from nose): Roll, Y-Axis (Ear to ear) - Pitch, Z-Axis (Top to bottom of head) - Yaw
Contribution of Camillo Golgi Developed Silver Stain (Stains 1 in 1000 Neurons)
Contribution of Santiago Ramon y Caja Utilized Golgi's Silver Stain to map nervous system
Contribution of Paul Broca Discovered region responsible for SPEECH PRODUCTION
Contribution of Carl Wernicke Discovered region responsible for SPEECH RECOGNITION
Broca's Aphasia Understanding is unphased Limited vocabulary
Wernicke's Aphasia Cannot understand spoken words Speech output is unphased
Brain division that contains: Olfactory Bulb Forebrain
Brain division that contains: Cerebrum Forebrain
Brain division that contains: Thalamus Forebrain
Brain division that contains: Hypothalamus Forebrain
Brain division that contains: Caudate Striatum
Brain division that contains: Nucleus Accumbens Striatum
Brain division that contains: Substantia Nigra Midbrain
Brain division that contains: Inferior/Superior Colliculus Midbrain
Brain division that contains: Ventral Tegmentum Midbrain
Brain division that contains: Central Gray Midbrain
Brain division that contains: Cerebellum Hindbrain
Brain division that contains: Pons/Medulla Hindbrain
Created by: 1278840111
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