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Terminology Body Sys

Med’11 Foundation: Terminology

Angi/o Vessel
Aort/o Aorta
Arteri/o Artery
Arteriol/o Arteriole
Cardi/o Heart
Coron/o Heart
Phleb/o Vein
Ven/o Vein
Venul/o Venule
Aneurysm Local widening of an artery caused by weakness in the arterial wall or breakdown of the wall from atherosclerosis
Angina Chest pain caused by decreased blood flow to heart muscle (Angina pectoris)
Arrhythmia Abnormal heartbeat (rhythm) E.g. Fibrillation, Flutter
Atherosclerosis Hardening of arteries with a collection of cholesterol-like plaque.
Congestive heart failure Inability of the hear to pump its required amount of blood. Blood accumulates in the lungs, causing pulmonary edema.
Hypertension High blood pressure Essential: no apparent cause Secondary: another illness is the cause of hypertension
Myocardial infarction Heart attack
Infarction Area of dead (necrotic) tissue
Shock A group of signs and symptoms (paleness of skin, weak and rapid pulse, shallow breathing) indicating poor oxygen supply to tissues and insufficient return of blood to heart
Lymph/o Lymph fluid
Lymphaden/o Lymph node
Lymphangi/o Lymph vessel
Splen/o Spleen
Thym/o Thymus gland
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Suppression or deficiency of the immune response (destruction of lymphocytes) caused by exposure to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
Lymphoma Malignant tumor of lymph nodes and lymphatic tissue (E.g. Hodgkin disease)
Mononucleosis Acute infectious disease with enlargement of lymph nodes and increased numbers of lymphocytes and monocytes in the bloodstream
Sarcoidosis Inflammatory disease in which small nodules, or tubercles, form in lymph nodes and other organs
Adenoid/o Adenoid
Alveol/o Air sac; alveolus
Bronch/o Bronchial tube
Bronchiol/o Bronchiole
Cyan/o Blue
Epiglotto/o Epiglottis
Laryng/o Larynx
Nas/o Nose
Rhin/o Nose
Pharyng/o Pharynx
Phren/o Diaphragm
Pneumon/o Lung
Pulmon/o Lung
Tonsill/o Tonsils
Trache/o Trachea
Asphyxia Extreme decrease in the amount of oxygen in the body with increase of carbon dioxide leads to loss of consciousness or death
Asthma Spasm and narrowing of bronchi, leading to bronchial airway obstruction
Atelectasis Collapsed lung
Emphysema Hyperinflation of air sacs with destruction of alveolar walls (Type of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, along with bronchitis and asthma)
Hemoptysis Spitting up of blood
Hemothorax Blood in the pleural cavity
Pneumoconiosis Abnormal condition of dust in the lungs
Pneumonia Inflammation and infection of alveoli, which fill with pus or products of the inflammatory reaction
Tuberculosis An infectious disease caused by bacteria (bacilli); the lungs and other organs are affected. Signs and symptoms are cough, weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and pleuritic pain
An/o anus
Append/o appendix
Appendic/o appendix
cholecyst/o gallbladder
col/o colon
colon/o colon
duoden/o duodenum
esophag/o esophagus
gastr/o stomach
hepat/o liver
ile/o ileum
jejun/o jejunum
or/o mouth
pancreat/o pancreas
pharyng/o pharynx
proct/o anus and rectum
rect/o rectum
sigmoid/o sigmoid colon
stomat/o mouth
Cholelithiasis Abnormal condition of gallstones
Cirrhosis Chronic disease of the liver with degeneration of liver cells
Colonic polyposis Condition in which polyps protrude from the mucous membrane lining the colon.
Diverticulosis Abnormal condition of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) in the wall of the intestine (often the colon)
Diverticulitis Inflammation and infection with the diverticula
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) Condition in which contents of the stomach flow back into the esophagus
Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Inflammation of the terminal (last) portion of the ileum (Crohn disease) or inflammation of the colon (ulcerative colitis)
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Signs and symptoms are cramping, abdominal bloating, constipation, and diarrhea. Although IBS causes distressing symptoms, it doesn’t permanently harm the intestine.
Hapatocellular carcinoma Cancer (primary) of the liver
Jaundice Yellow-orange coloration of the skin and other tissues, from high levels of bilirubin in the bloodstream (hyperbilirubinemia)
Adren/o Adrenal gland
Adrenal/o Adrenal gland
Hypophys/o Pituitary gland
Oophor/o Ovary
Ovari/o Ovary
Orch/o Testis
Orchi/o Testis
Orchid/o Testis
Pancreat/o Pancreas
Parathyroid/o Parathyroid gland
Pituitar/o Pituitary gland
Thym/o Thymus gland
Thyroaden/o Thyroid gland
Thyroid/o Thyroid gland
Acromegaly Enlargement of extremities caused by hypersecretion from the anterior portion of the pituitary gland after puberty
Cushing syndrome A group of clinical features produced by excess secretion of cortisol from the adrenal cortex. These signs and symptoms include obesity, moonlike facies (fullness of the face), hyperglycemia, and osteoporosis.
Diabetes mellitus Disorder of pancreas that causes inc in bld gluc levels Type 1: onset usually in childhood, involves complete deficiency of insulin in body Type 2: onset usually in adulthood, involves some insulin deficiency&resistance of tissues to action of i
Goiter Enlargement of the thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism Overactivity of the thyroid gland; also called Graves disease or exopthalmic (eyeballs bulge outward) goiter
Cardioversion Brief discharges of electricity passing across the chest to stop a cardiac arrhythmia. Also called defibrillation
Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Vessels taken from the patient’s legs or chest are connected to coronary arteries to make detours around blockages
Endarterectomy Surgical removal of the innermost lining of an artery to remove fatty deposits and clots
Heart transplantation A donor heart is transferred to a recipient
Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) A balloon-tipped catheter (a flexible, tubular instrument) is threaded into a coronary artery to compress fatty deposits and the recurrence of blockages less likely. Also called balloon angioplasty
Thrombolytic therapy Drugs such as tPA (tissue plasminogen activator) and streptokinase are injected into a patient’s bloodstream to dissolve clots that may cause a heart attack
Aortic stenosis Narrowing of the largest artery
Anastomosis Surgical creation of an opening between 2 gastrointestinal organs E.g. gastrojejunostomy, cholecystojejunostomy, choledochoduodenostomy
Colostomy Surgical creation of a new opening of the colon to the outside of the body
Ileostomy Surgical creation of a new opening of the ileum to the outside of the body
Laparoscopic surgery Removal of organs or tissues via a laparoscope (instrument inserted into the abdomen through a small incision) E.g. laparoscopic cholecystectomy, laparoscopic appendectomy. It is a form of minimally invasive surgery
Chemotherapy Treatment with powerful drugs to kill cancer cells (Hodgkin disease, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma) and viruses such as the HIV
Radiotherapy (radiation therapy) Treatment with high-dose to destroy malignant lesions in the body
Endotracheal intubation A tube is placed through the nose or mouth into the trachea to establish an airway during surgery and for placement on a respirator (a machine that moves air into and out of the lungs)
Thoracentesis A needle is inserted through the skin between the ribs and into the pleural space to drain a pleural effusion
Thoracotomy Incision of the chest to remove a lung (pneumonectomy) or a portion of a lung (lobectomy)
Tracheostomy Creation of an opening into the trachea through the neck and the insertion of a tube to create an airway
Cyst/o Urinary bladder
Vesic/o Urinary bladder
Nephr/o Kidney
Ren/o Kidney
Pyel/o Renal pelvis
Ureter/o Ureter
Urethr/o Urethra
Albuminuria Abnormal condition of protein (albumin) in the urine
Anuria Abnormal condition of no urine production
Dysuria Painful urination
Glycosuria Abnormal condition of glucose in the urine
Hematuria Abnormal condition of blood in the urine
Nephrolithiasis Abnormal condition of stones in the kidney
Renal failure Condition in which the kidneys stop functioning and don’t produce urine
Uremia Condition of high levels of urea (nitrogenous waste material) in the blood
Dialysis Waste materials (urea, creatinine, uric acid) are separated from the blood by a machine (hemodialysis).
Peritoneal dialysis Alternative to dialysis, a peritoneal catheter delivers a special fluid into the abdominal cavity, and then the fluid, which now contains waste materials that have seeped from the blood into it, is drained
Lithotripsy Shock waves are beamed into a patient to crush urinary tract stones. The stone fragments then pass out of the body with urine. Also called extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)
Renal transplantation A donor kidney is transferred to a recipient
Urinary catheterization A catheter is passed through the urethra and into the urinary bladder for short-term or long-term drainage of urine
Created by: Salma O