Busy. Please wait.
or

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
or

Username is available taken
show password

why

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.

By signing up, I agree to StudyStack's Terms of Service and Privacy Policy.


Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.

Remove ads
Don't know
Know
remaining cards
Save
0:01
To flip the current card, click it or press the Spacebar key.  To move the current card to one of the three colored boxes, click on the box.  You may also press the UP ARROW key to move the card to the "Know" box, the DOWN ARROW key to move the card to the "Don't know" box, or the RIGHT ARROW key to move the card to the Remaining box.  You may also click on the card displayed in any of the three boxes to bring that card back to the center.

Pass complete!

"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
Retries:
restart all cards




share
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Urinary System 3

Class for Disease Processes

QuestionAnswer
Acute glomerulonephritis is an? inflammation of the kidneys primarily affecting children and young adults
Acute glomerulonephritis usually occurs 1-4 weeks after a? streptococcal infection (throat or skin)
Signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include? 1. Chills and pyrexia (fever)
Signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include? 2. Anorexia (loss of appetite)
Signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include? 3. General weakness.
Signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include? 4. Generalized edema (swelling) especially in the face and ankles.
Signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include? 5. Albuminuria (protein in the urine)
Signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include? 6. Hematuria (blood in the urine)
Signs and symptoms of acute glomerulonephritis include? 7. Casts (molds) in the urine.
The Px (prognosis) for acute pyelonephritis is generally good if? a chronic degeneration of nephrons (kidney cells) does not occur
Chronic glomerulonephritis is an? inflammation of the kidneys that may persist for years with remissions and relapses.
Chronic glomerulonephritis is usually accompanied by? HTN (high blood pressure)
Another sign of chronic glomerulonephritis is? low specific gravity of the urine.
The end result of chronic glomerulonephritis can be? renal atrophy and RF (no development)
The RF causes? Urema (azotemia)
Uremia (azotemia) means? a blood condition of excessive nitrogenous (N) waste.
RF (renal failure) prevents the kidneys from eliminating nitrogenous (N) waste.
Blood tests commonly used to detect renal failure (RF) include? 1. BUN (blood urea nitrogen)
Blood tests commonly used to detect renal failure (RF) include? 2. Creatinine clearance
Blood tests commonly used to detect renal failure (RF) include? 3. Cys (cystatin c (cysC)
Causes of ARF (acute renal failure) include? 1. Hypovolemic shock.
Causes of ARF (acute renal failure) include? 2. Blood type or Rh incompatibility
Causes of ARF (acute renal failure) include? 3. Kidney disease
Causes of ARF (acute renal failure) include? 4. Trauma
Causes of ARF (acute renal failure) include? 5. Poisoning
Signs and symptoms of Acute Renal Failure include? 1. Oliguria (scanty urine)
Signs and symptoms of Acute Renal Failure include? 2. Anuria (no urine production)
Signs and symptoms of Acute Renal Failure include? 3. Uremia (azotemia) (excessive nitrogenous waste).
Signs and symptoms of Acute Renal Failure include? 4. Ammonia breath
Signs and symptoms of Acute Renal Failure include? 5. Hyperkalemia (blood condition of excessive potassium)
Signs and symptoms of Acute Renal Failure include? 6. Muscle weakness that can lead to cardiac arrest.
Tx (treatment) of Acute Renal failure includes? 1. Remedy the cause.
Tx (treatment) of Acute Renal failure includes? 2. HD (hemodialysis) until the kidneys begin to function properly.
Another type of dialysis is called? CAPD (continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is usually caused by long standing kidney disease such as? 1. Chronic glomerulonephritis
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is usually caused by long standing kidney disease such as? 2. Chronic HTN (hypertension)
Chronic Renal Failure (CRF) is usually caused by long standing kidney disease such as? 3. DN (diabetic nephropathy)
Tx (treatment) for CRF (chronic renal failure) include? 1. HD (hemodialysis)
Tx (treatment) for CRF (chronic renal failure) include? 2.Kidney transplantation.
CRF (chronic renal failure) can also be caused by? ATN (acute tubular necrosis)
Causes of ATN (acute tubular necrosis) include nephrotoxic agents such as? 1. Certain antibiotics (Gentamicin)
Causes of ATN (acute tubular necrosis) include nephrotoxic agents such as? 2. Dyes used in diagnostic procedures.
Pyelonephritis is a? suppurative (pus forming) inflammation of a renal pelvis.
Pyelonephritis is usually caused by pyogenic (pus creating) organisms such as? 1. E. coli (escherichia)
Pyelonephritis is usually caused by pyogenic (pus creating) organisms such as? 2. Strep (streptococci)
Pyelonephritis is usually caused by pyogenic (pus creating) organisms such as? 3. Staph (staphylococci)
The microorganisms can cause? abscesses (collection of pus) to form.
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include? 1. Chills and pyrexia (fever)
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include? 2. Back and abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include? 3. Dysuria (painful urination)
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include? 4. Pyuria (pus in the urine)
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include? 5. Bacteriuria (Bacteria in the urine).
Signs and symptoms of pyelonephritis include? 6. Hematuria (blood in the urine)
Tx (treatment) of pyelonephritis includes the use of? antibiotics (Bactrium)
The Px (prognosis) for pyelonephritis is? good
Renal carcinoma occurs more frequently in? 50 to 60 year old men.
The incidence of renal carcinoma doubles for? smokers.
The Px (prognosis) for renal carcinoma is poor because? metastases to the lungs, liver, bone and brain usually occur before signs and symptoms appear.
The chief sign of renal carcinoma is? painless hematuria (blood in the urine).
A WT(Wilm's Tumor) is a? malignant fast growing renal tumor is very young children.
The Px (prognosis) for WT (Wilm's tumor) is? poor but remission rates are increasing.
The medical terms for kidney stones are? nephrolithiasis and urinary (renal) calculi.
Urinary calculi occurs more frequently in? 20 to 40 year old men (4 to 1)
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis occur when a? calculus obstruct a ureter.
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis include? 1. Sharp severe retroperitoneal (flank) pain radiating to the inguinal (stomach)region.
Signs and symptoms of nephrolithiasis include? 2. Hematuria (blood in the urine).
Causes of nephrolithiasis include? 1. Dietary Ca (calcium) excess
Causes of nephrolithiasis include? 2. Dietary protein and Na (sodium) excess.
Causes of nephrolithiasis include? 3. Hyperparathyroidism.
A calculus that fills the renal pelvis completely is called a? staghorn calculus
Tests commonly used to detect a renal calculus include? 1.KUB (kidneys, ureters, and bladder (x-rays)
Tests commonly used to detect a renal calculus include? 2. Renal ultrasound
Tests commonly used to detect a renal calculus include? 3. CT (computerized tomography)
Tests commonly used to detect a renal calculus include? 4. IVP (intervenous pyelogram)
Tx (treatment) for a calculus that impedes the flow of urine is a? ESWL (extracorporal shock wave lithotripsy)
Hydronephrosis occurs when? the kidney becomes extremely dilated with urine.
Causes of hydronephrosis include? 1. Renal calculus (stone)
Causes of hydronephrosis include? 2. Tumor
Causes of hydronephrosis include? 3. BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia.
Tx (treatment) for hydronephrosis involves? removal of the obstruction before permanent damage to a kidney(s) occurs.
The leading risk factor for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) include? 1. DM (diabetes mellitus)
The leading risk factor for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) include? 2. Chronic HTN (hypertension)
The leading risk factor for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) include? 3. WT (weight) gain.
The leading risk factor for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) include? 4. Smoking
Women who drink two or more cans of regular soda per day are? twice as likely to develop (CKD) Chronic kidney disease
Cystitis is an ? inflammation of the urinary bladder AKA "bladder infection."
Cystitis is more common in women because? the female urethra is shorter than in males.
The chief causative agent of cystitis is? E coli (escherichia coli)
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include? 1. Urinary frequency
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include? 2. Urgency (sudden urge to void)
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include? 3. Dysuria (painful urination)
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include? 4. Bacteriuria (bacteria in the urine)
Signs and symptoms of cystitis include? 5. Pyuria (pus in the urine).
Tx (treatment) for cystitis includes? 1. Forcing fluids
Tx (treatment) for cystitis includes? 2. Antibiotics.
The Px (prognosis) for cystitis is? good
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? 1. Wiping from front to back after a (bowel movement) BM.
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? 2. take showers for hygiene instead of baths.
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? 3. do not douche unless directed by a physician.
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? 4. refrain from wearing tight fitting pants.
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? 5. Wearing cotton underwear.
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? 6. Urinate after coitus (intercourse)
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? 7. Increase fluid intake every day and include cranberry juice.
Methods to decrease the incidence of cystitis include? Vitamin C supplement taken in the evening.
Urethritis is? inflammation of the urethra.
Urethritis in males may be caused by? GC (gonococci)
Signs and symptoms of urethritis include? 1. Dysuria (painful urination)
Signs and symptoms of urethritis include? 2. Balanorrhea (purulent discharge from the glans penis)
Signs and symptoms of urethritis include? 3. Testicular edema (swelling)
Urethritis in females commonly accompanies? cystitis (inflammation of the urinary bladder.
Tx (treatment) for urethritis includes? antibiotics (amoxicillin)
PID stands for? pelvic inflammatory disease
PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) refers to? inflammation of the female pelvic reproductive organs
Common causes of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) include the? STDs (sexually transmitted diseases. GC (gonorrhea) and chlamydia.
Signs and symptoms of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) include? 1. Lower abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) include? 2. Pyrexia (fever)
Signs and symptoms of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) include? 3. Dysuria (painful urination.
Signs and symptoms of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) include? 4. Pungent leukorrhea (aromatic vaginal discharge.
Signs and symptoms of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) include? 5. Dyspareunia (painful copulation)
A complication of untreated PID (pelvic inflammatory disease include? infertility (inability to reproduce)
Tx (treatment) of PID (pelvic inflammatory disease) includes? antibiotics, ASA (aspirin), bed rest, and fluids.
Vaginitis is and inflammation of the vagina commonly caused by? 1. Candida albicans (candidiasis)
Vaginitis is and inflammation of the vagina commonly caused by? 2. Trichomonas (trichomoniasis)
Candidiasis is AKA? yeast infection
Candida proliferation (growth) can occur with the over use of? antibiotics or douches
Candida proliferation (growth) can destroy the? normal vaginal flora (beneficial microbes) allowing opportunistic yeast infections to occur.
Signs and symptoms of vaginitis include? 1. Pungent leukorrhea (aromatic vaginal discharge)
Signs and symptoms of vaginitis include? 2. Vaginal pruritus (itching)
Signs and symptoms of vaginitis include? 3. Vaginal burning and soreness.
A common Tx (treatment) for candidiasis is? Monistat (miconazole)
A common Tx (treatment) for trichomoniasis is? Flagyl (metronidazole)
The incidence of yeast infections can be reduced by drinking 2 or more glasses of? milk daily
Atrophic vaginitis is caused by? atrophy of the vaginal walls
Atrophic vaginitis is commonly caused by? a decrease in estrogen associated with menopause.
A common complaint of atrophic vaginitis is? dyspareunia (painful intercourse)
Tx (treatment) for atrophic vaginitis includes? 1. ERT (estrogen replacement therapy AKA HRT (hormone replacement therapy
Tx (treatment) for atrophic vaginitis includes? 2. Antibiotic creams
Tx (treatment) for atrophic vaginitis includes? 3. Steroid creams
Tx (treatment) for atrophic vaginitis includes? 4. K-Y Jelly
Puerperal sepsis is an infection of the endometrium occurring after? parturition (childbirth) or abortion (termination of a pregnancy
The most common cause of puerperal sepsis is? poor aseptic technique during parturition or abortion.
Cervical cancer refers to a? malignancy of the Cx (cervix)
Cervical cancer has a good Px (prognosis) if? detected before metastasis.
The most common test to detect cervical malignancy is the? PAP test (smear) every two years.
After age 30 and after 3 consecutive negative PAP tests? every 3 years.
No PAP required after a? hysterectomy
Pap tests should begin within? 3 years of becoming sexually active or by age 21.
A cervical lesion detected before metastasis is called? CIS (carcinoma in situ)
Tx (treatment) for in situ includes? 1. Conization (surgical removal of the affected section of the cervix
Tx (treatment) for in situ includes? 2. Cryosurgery (freezing affected tissue.
Tx (treatment) for in situ includes? 3. Cauterization (burn affected tissue)
Tx (treatment) for in situ includes? 4. Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus.
Risk factors for cervical malignancy include? 1. Poor hygiene
Risk factors for cervical malignancy include? 2. HPV (human papillomavirus)
Risk factors for cervical malignancy include? 3. Multiple sexual partners
Risk factors for cervical malignancy include? 4. Intercourse at an early age
Risk factors for cervical malignancy include? 5. Smoking
Cervical cancer is the ? 2nd most common cancer in women after breast cancer.
Every 47 minutes a woman in the US is diagnosed with a? cervical malignancy
Fibroid tumors are? benign tumors of the myometrium (muscle layer of the uterus)
Fibroid tumors are also called? leiomyomas
Fibroid tumors are more common in? African American and obese women
The risk of developing leiomyomas is? 1 in 5 women under the age of 50
Signs and symptoms of fibroid tumors include? 1. Pelvis pain.
Signs and symptoms of fibroid tumors include? 2. Menorrhagia (excessive or prolonged menses)
Signs and symptoms of fibroid tumors include? 3. Metrorrhagia (bleeding between menses.
Signs and symptoms of fibroid tumors include? 4. Dyspareunia (painful coitus)
Tx (treatment)for leiomyomas include? 1. Myomectomy (excision of the myomas)
Tx (treatment)for leiomyomas include? 2. Myolysis (coagulation of the artery feeding the tumor).
Tx (treatment)for leiomyomas include? 3. Hysterectomy (surgical removal of the uterus).
The most common ovarian neoplasm is an? ovarian cyst
An ovarian cyst is usually a? benign (nonmalignant)fluid filled sac.
An ovarian cyst will usually resolve with time but a large cyst that interferes with blood flow can be? removed surgically.
PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)is characterized by? androgen (testosterone) and insulin imbalance.
Signs and symptoms of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)include? 1. WT (weight gain) and HTN (hypertension)
Signs and symptoms of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)include? 2. Increased facial and body hair.
Signs and symptoms of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)include? 3. Alopecia (loss of hair)
Signs and symptoms of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)include? 4. Irregular menses (menstruation)
Signs and symptoms of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)include? 5. MDD (major depressive disorder)
Signs and symptoms of PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome)include? 6. Infertility (inability to reproduce)
PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) can increase the risk for? cardiovascular disease and DM (diabetes mellitus)
Tx (treatment) for PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) includes? 1. Healthy diet
Tx (treatment) for PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) includes? 2. Regular exercise.
Tx (treatment) for PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) includes? 3. BCPs (birth control pills
Tx (treatment) for PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome) includes? 4. Stop smoking
An ovarian malignancy is the? fifth leading cause of cancer death in women.
Signs and symptoms of an ovarian malignancy include: 1.Prolonged abdominal bloating and pelvic pain.
Signs and symptoms of an ovarian malignancy include: 2. Chronic fatique
Signs and symptoms of an ovarian malignancy include: 3. Anorexia (loss of appetite)
Signs and symptoms of an ovarian malignancy include: 4. WT (weight) loss
Signs and symptoms of an ovarian malignancy include: 5. Prolonged urinary frequency.
Risk factors for an ovarian malignancy include? 1. High fat diet
Risk factors for an ovarian malignancy include? 2. Nulliparity (no live births)
Risk factors for an ovarian malignancy include? 3. Family history of ovarian, breast, or colorectal cancer.
Risk factors for an ovarian malignancy include? 4. Childbearing after age 30
Risk factors for an ovarian malignancy include? 5. Delayed menopause
Ovarian malignancies occur more frequently? perimenopausal (around or after) and postmenopausal (after)
Tx Treatment for an ovarian malignancy includes? 1. Oophorectomy (excision of an ovary and hysterectomy (excision of the uterus.
Tx Treatment for an ovarian malignancy includes? 2. Chemotherapy (antineoplastics)
Tx Treatment for an ovarian malignancy includes? 3. Radiation therapy
A chemical in the blood that can elevate with the presence of an ovarian malignancy is? CA-125
The risk of ovarian neoplasms decreases with the use of? BCPs (birth control pills)
The most common breast malignancy is an? adenocarcinoma
Adenocarcinomas occurs more often in? 1. Nulliparity (no live births)
Adenocarcinomas occurs more often in? 2. Women with a family hx (history) of breast Ca (cancer).
Adenocarcinomas frequently occur around the time of? menopause
Common signs of a breast malignancy include? 1. A hard fixed lump in the upper outer quadrant of a breast.
Common signs of a breast malignancy include? 2. Axillary lymphadenopathy (armpit swollen lymph nodes).
Common signs of a breast malignancy include? 3. Papillary (nipple) retraction.
Common signs of a breast malignancy include? 4. the skin can pucker and/or dimple.
Common signs of a breast malignancy include? 5. Papillary (nipple) discharge
ACS (American Cancer Society) mammogram recommendations include? 1. Annually for 40 - 49 year olds if personal or family history exists.
ACS (American Cancer Society) mammogram recommendations include? 2. Ages 50 - 75 every two years.
BSE (breast self examination)should be performed? every month starting at age 20.
A woman's lifetime risk of developing a breast malignancy is? 1 in 8 (2nd leading cause of cancer death in US woman.
Confirmation of the suspected tumor can be made with a? stereotactic needle biopsy (Bx)
Malignant breast tumors can? metastasize to the lungs, liver, brain and bone via the lymphatic system.
Tx for breast malignancy includes? 1. Lumpectomy (excision of a lump)
Tx for breast malignancy includes? 2. Mastectomy (excision of a breast)
Tx for breast malignancy includes? 3. Radiation therapy
Tx for breast malignancy includes? 4. Chemotherapy (antineoplastics)
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include? 1. ETOH (alcohol)
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include? 2. Smoking
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include? 3. Sedentary lifestyle (little to no regular exercise.
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include? 4. Consuming sugary sweets 3 or more times per week.
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include? 5. ERT (estrogen replacement therapy)
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include? 6. BCPs (birth control pills)
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include? 7. Nulliparity (no live births)
Factors that increase the incidence of a breast malignancy include? 8. Folate (folic acid) deficiency
Foods rich in folate (folic acid)include? leafy green vegetables, fortified cereals, legumes, citrus, bananas, melons, and blackberries.
Breast malignancy risk can be significantly reduced by? moderate exercise, healthy weight, and breastfeeding.
Breast malignancies are more common in women over the age of? 45
The younger a person is with a breast malignancy? the more aggressive the disease.
The most common benign tumor of a breast is called a? fibroadenoma
Fibroadenomas are usually solid, round, rubbery, painless and? move freely
A second type of benign tumor of a breast is called? FCC (fibrocystic changes) AKA "lumpy breasts"
FCC (fibrocystic changes) usually occur in both breasts and increase in size and tenderness just prior to? menses (menstruation)
A third type of benign breast tumor is a fluid filled? cyst
Breast cysts are round, moveable, and may increase in size and become tender just prior to? menses (menstruation)
TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) is commonly caused by proliferation of? staph (staphylococcus)
TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome)is associated with? tampon use.
Signs of TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) include? 1. Hyperthermia (pyrexia of > 014
Signs of TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) include? 2. Rash
Signs of TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) include? 3. Peeling skin
Signs of TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) include? 4. GI distress (diarrhea + vomiting)
Signs of TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) include? 5. Hypotension (low blood pressure)
Tx (treatment) for TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) includes? 1. Fluid replacement
Tx (treatment) for TSS (Toxic Shock Syndrome) includes? 2. Antibiotic therapy
Women who use tampons are encouraged to? change them frequently and avoid super-absorbent.
PMS (Premenstrual Syndrome) is a group of symptoms that start 1 to 2 week? before menstruation (menses) and usually cease (stop)with the onset of menses (menstruation)
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 1. Low abdominal bloating and pain
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 2. Breast swelling and tenderness
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 3. Cephalagia (headache)
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 4. WT (weight) gain.
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 5. Acne
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 6. Insomnia (difficulty sleeping)
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 7. Mood swings
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 8. Anxiety
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 9. MDD (major depressive disorder) / or clinical depression.
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 10. Irritability
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 11. Hostility
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 12. Crying spells
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 13. Food cravings (sweet and salty)
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 14. Clumsiness
Signs and symptoms of PMS include? 15. Fatigue
Tx (treatment) of PMS includes? 1. Increase water intake
Tx (treatment) of PMS includes? 2. Regular exercise
Tx (treatment) of PMS includes? 3. Support groups
Tx (treatment) of PMS includes? 4. Stress management techniques
Tx (treatment) of PMS includes? 5. The avoidance of salt, sugar, caffeine, and alcohol.
Tx (treatment) of PMS includes? OTC (over the counter) analgesics
PMDD (premenstrual dysphoric disorder is a severe form of? PMS (premenstrual syndrome)
The signs and symptoms of PMDD are severe enough to? interfere with work, social activities and relationships.
Tx for PMDD includes? sedatives and antidepressants.
Endometriosis is condition caused by? ectopic (out of place) endometrium (inner lining of the uterus)
The ectopic endometrium responds to the cyclic hormonal stimulation and can cause? 1. pelvic pain and bloating.
The ectopic endometrium responds to the cyclic hormonal stimulation and can cause? 2. Menorrhagia (excessive or prolonged menses).
The ectopic endometrium responds to the cyclic hormonal stimulation and can cause? 3. Metrorrhagia (bleeding between menses)
The ectopic endometrium responds to the cyclic hormonal stimulation and can cause? 4. Fatigue
The ectopic endometrium responds to the cyclic hormonal stimulation and can cause? 5. Sterility (infertility)
Tx (treatment) for endometriosis includes? 1. Laparoscopic (visualzation of the abdomenopelvic cavity)excision of the ectopic endometrium.
Tx (treatment) for endometriosis includes? 2. OCP's (oral contraceptive pills) causing amenorrhea (no meneses)
An EP(ectopic pregnancy) occurs when a fertilized ovum implants in tissue other than the? uterus
The most common site for an EP (ectopic pregnancy) is a? fallopian tube (oviduct, uterine tube) AKA "tubal pregnancy."
Causes of EPs (ectopic pregnancies) include? 1. Salpingitis (inflammation of a uterine tube) associated with Sty's (sexually transmitted diseases) causing fallopian adhesions) tissue that stick together.
Causes of EPs (ectopic pregnancies) include? 2. Endometriosis (ectopic endometrium)
Signs and symptoms of an EP (ectopic pregnancy) usually appear withing 2 months and include? 1. Unilaterel (one sided)abdominal and/or pelvic pain.
Signs and symptoms of an EP (ectopic pregnancy) usually appear withing 2 months and include? 2. Vaginal bleeding
Signs and symptoms of an EP (ectopic pregnancy) usually appear withing 2 months and include? 3. Vertigo (dizziness)
Signs and symptoms of an EP (ectopic pregnancy) usually appear withing 2 months and include? 4. Weakness and syncope (fainting)
Signs and symptoms of an EP (ectopic pregnancy) usually appear withing 2 months and include? N + V (nausea and vomiting)
Tx (treatment) for an EP (ectopic pregnancy) include? 1. Termination of pregnancy with methotrexate or laparoscopic salpingostomy.
A spontaneous abortion is AKA? a miscarriage
A spontaneous abortion during the first trimester is often caused by a? fetal genetic abnormality (anomaly)
A spontaneous abortion usually occurs between the? 7th and 12 weeks of gestation (pregnancy)
Causes of miscarriage include? 1. Infection
Causes of miscarriage include? 2. drugs, ETOH (alcohol), smoking and caffeine.
Causes of miscarriage include? 3. Poor nutrition.
Causes of miscarriage include? 4. Toxins (poisons)
Causes of miscarriage include? 5. Radiation.
The surgical procedure performed to scrape the endometrium if placental tissue remains after a miscarriage is called a? D + C (dilation and curettage)
Toxemia is AKA? preeclampsia.
Preeclampsia only occurs during? pregnancy (usually after 20 weeks)
The principal signs include? 1. PIH (pregnancy induced hypertension)
The principal signs include? 2. Albuminuria (protein in the urine)
The principal signs include? 3. Edema (swelling in the face, arms, and legs).
The principal signs include? 4. Unusual WT (weight) gain.
If seizures develop, the condition is called? eclampsia
Prevention techniques include? 1. Prenatal care 2. Proper nutrition.
Prostatitis is an inflammation of the prostate commonly caused by? E coli (escherichia) or GC (gonococci)
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include? 1. Urgency (need to void immediately)
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include? 2. Frequency (frequent urination)
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include? 3. Dysuria (painful urination)
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include? 4. Pyuria (pus in the urine)
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include? 5. Hematuria (blood in the urine)
Signs and symptoms of prostatitis include? 6. Painful ejaculation.
Prostatitis usually responds well to? antibiotic therapy.
BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy) is a? nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate.
Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is more common after the age of? 50
The enlarged prostate can frequently be palpated by? DRE (digital rectal examination)
Because the enlarged prostate squeezes the urethra the patient will complain of? dysuria (difficulty initiating the flow of urine) and urinary retention (inability to start the flow of urine.
Untreated urinary retention can cause? hydronephrosis
Tx (treatment) for BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy) includes? 1. Avodart or Flomax
Tx (treatment) for BPH (benign prostatic hypertrophy) includes? 2. Cystoscopy (viewing the urinary bladder) and TURP (transurethral resection of the prostate.
A prostatic carcinoma may be small and initially? asymptomatic (no symptoms)
Signs and symptoms of a prostatic carcinoma include? 1. Dysuria (difficulty urinating)
Signs and symptoms of a prostatic carcinoma include? 2. Hematuria (blood in the urine)
Signs and symptoms of a prostatic carcinoma include? 3. Anorexia (loss of appetite) and WT (weight) loss.
Signs and symptoms of a prostatic carcinoma include? 4. Nocturia (chronic night urination)
Signs and symptoms of a prostatic carcinoma include? 5. Urinary incontinence (inability to control urination) AKA - enuresis.
The blood test to detect a predisposition to prostatic carcinoma is? PSA (prostatic specific antigen)
A PSA should be performed annually for men over the age of? 50 (45 for African -Americans)
Prostatic carcinoma can metastasize to the? rectum, lymph, and bone.
A good Px (prognosis) depends on? early detection
Treatment for prostatic carcinoma includes? 1. Chemotherapy (estrogen)
Treatment for prostatic carcinoma includes? 2. Bilateral orchiectomy (surgical removal of the testes).
Treatment for prostatic carcinoma includes? 3. Radiation therapy
Treatment for prostatic carcinoma includes? 4. Prostatectomy (excision of the prostate).
Cryptorchidism refers to? descended testicle.
Cryptorchidism can eventually cause? sterility (infertility)
Treatment for cryptorchidism includes? orchiopexy (surgical fixation of a testes) or orchiectomy (excision of a testicle.
Impotence is the inability to achieve or maintain and erection AKA? ED (erectile dysfunction)
Causes of erectile dysfunction include? 1.Poorly controlled stress.
Causes of erectile dysfunction include? 2. Arterioclerosis (hardening of the arteries.
Causes of erectile dysfunction include? 3. DM (diabetes mellitus)
Causes of erectile dysfunction include? 4. Complications of prostatectomy (excision of the prostate)
Causes of erectile dysfunction include? 5. Trauma
Causes of erectile dysfunction include? 6. Urologic disorders
Causes of erectile dysfunction include? 7.side effects from medications (hypertensives, sedatives, antihistamines, antidepressants, and antipsycotics).
Causes of erectile dysfunction include? 8. Drug and/or alcohol abuse.
Tx (treatment) for ED (erectile dysfunction) includes? 1. Viagra, Levitra,and Cialis. 2. Penile implants.
STDs are also known as? STIs (sexually transmitted infections)
Methods to reduce incidence of STIs (sexually transmitted infections) include? 1. Abstinence (no sexual contact with another)
Methods to reduce incidence of STIs (sexually transmitted infections) include? 2. Monogamy (mutually exclusive sexual contact.
Methods to reduce incidence of STIs (sexually transmitted infections) include? Barriers (condoms)
Chlamydia is the most common STD (sexually transmitted diseases) and the number one cause of? PID (pelvic inflammatory disease.
Untreated chlamydia can cause? sterility (infertility) in women
Chlamydia infections are often? asymptomatic (no symptoms)
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for women may include? 1. Dysuria (difficulty/painful urination).
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for women may include? 2. Pungent (aromatic) vaginal discharge.
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for women may include? 3. Dyspareunia (painful coitus)
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for women may include? 4. Dysmenorrhea (painful menses)
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for women may include? 5.Abdominal pain.
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for women may include? 6. Vaginal pruritus (itching)
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for men may include? 1. Dysuria (painful urination)
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for men may include? 2. Balanorrhea (purulent discharge from the glans penis.
Signs and symptoms of chlamydia for men may include? 3. Testicular edema (swelling)
Chlamydia can be cured with? antibiotics.
Gonorrhea is caused by GC (gonococci) and is the? second most common STD (sexually treated disease).
Untreated gonorrhea can cause? sterility (infertility) in men and women.
Gonorrhea transmitted to a fetus during delivery can cause? blindness and possibly death
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea usually appear? 2 - 10 days after exposure.
Gonorrhea infections can be? asymptomatic (no symptoms)
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for women may include? 1. Greenish-yellow vaginal discharge
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for women may include? 2. Lower abdominal and pelvic pain.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for women may include? 3. Pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx.
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for women may include? 4. Dysuria (painful urination)
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for men may include? 1. Greenish-yellowish balanorrhea (discharge from the glans penis)
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for men may include? 2. Dysuria (painful urination)
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for men may include? 3. pharyngitis (inflammation of the pharynx)
Signs and symptoms of gonorrhea for men may include? Testicular edema (swelling)
Gonorrhea can be cured with? antibiotics
The primary stage of syphilis is characterized by one or more painless ulcers that appear on the penis, labia, lips, tongue, or anus called? chancres.
A chancre will develop within a? 10 to 90 days after sexual contact (highly contagious)
A chancre will heal and disappear in? 3 to 6 weeks.
This primary stage is treatable with? PCN (penicillin)
If primary syphilis is left untreated the secondary stage begins within? 6 weeks to 6 months after exposure and usually lasts 1 to 3 months.
The secondary stage is characterized by? a non pruritic rash (itching) rash typically on the palms and soles.
The secondary stage is treatable with? (PCN) Penicillin
The tertiary (third) stage can occur? years after the primary infection
The tertiary stage occurs in approximately? 30% of people infected with syphilis.
Complications of the tertiary stage include? heart disease, blindness, mental illness, and death.
Blood tests for syphilis include? 1. VDRL 2. RPR 3. EIA
Genital herpes is an extremely painful chronic viral disease caused by the? HSV II (herpes simplex virus)
In the US, the HSV (herpes simplex virus) II affects? 1 in 4 women and 1 in 5 men.
Symptoms of HSV (herpes simplex virus) II generally occur within? 3 weeks of exposure.
Signs and symptoms of HSV (herpes simplex) II include? 1. Multiple painful, itching, burning, blister-like lesions that appear on the genitalia, buttocks, and thighs.
Signs and symptoms of HSV (herpes simplex) II include? 2. Dysuria (painful urination)
Signs and symptoms of HSV (herpes simplex) II include? 3. Vaginal discharge
The active lesions appear when the? immune system is compromised.
This diease is more easily transmitted when the lesions are? active
Outbreaks of genital herpes can be treated with? antiviral drugs. There is no cure.
There are approximately 30 different types of the? HPV (human papillomavirus)
75 - 80% of all males and females will be? infected with the HPV (human papillomavirus) during their lifetime.
For most, the immune systems will? defeat the HPV (human papillomavirus)
90% of HPV (human papillomavirus) lesions are caused by? 2 types of HPV (human papillomavirus)
HPV (human papillomavirus) lesions may appear within? weeks of several months of the sexual exposure.
HPV (human papillomavirus) lesions commonly appear on the? penis and scrotum in men and on the perineum of women.
The primary symptoms of the HPV (human papillomavirus) are? pruritus (itching) and pain.
About 75% of all cervical malignancies are caused by? 2 other types of the HPV (human papillomavirus)
Uncircumcised men are? three times more likely to be infected with the HPV (human papillomavirus)
A vaccine is available for these four types of the HPV (human papillomavirus) called? Gardasil (approved for males and females ages 9 to 26.
Tx (treatment) for the HPV (human papillomavirus) includes? 1. Antiviral medications
Tx (treatment) for the HPV (human papillomavirus) includes? 2. Electrocautery (electrical burning)
Tx (treatment) for the HPV (human papillomavirus) includes? 3. Cryosurgery (freezing)
Created by: Penny S