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Nervous System & Sen

Body funchtion class

QuestionAnswer
Nerve cells are AKA? neurons
The axon is the portion or a neuron that? carries impulses from one neuron to the next.
The axon is surrounded by a protective lipoprotein called? myelin sheaths
The myelin sheaths allow nerve impulses to travel at?` 200 miles/second
Unmyelinated nerve impulses travel at? 0.5 meter/second
a degenerative nerve disease caused by a degradation of the myelin sheaths is called? multiple sclerosis (MS)
CNS stands for? central nervous system
The CNS is made up of the? brain and spinal cord.
The PNS stands for? peripheral nervous system.
The PNS is made up of? all the nerves except the brain and spinal cord.
The PNS is made up of ? 1.Sensory neurons AKA afferent neurons.
The PNS is made up of? 2.Motor neurons AKA efferent neuron.
Sensory (afferent) neurons transmit changes in environment to the brain for? interpretation.
Changes in the environment are called? stimuli.
The Motor (efferent) neurons transmit commands from the brain to the? muscle to facilitate movement.
Smooth voluntary muscle movements are greatly influenced by the chemical neurotransmitter? dopamine
A disease caused by a deficiency of dopamine is called? Parkinson's disease (PD)
The ANS stands for? autonomic nervous system.
The ANS is considered? involuntary (reflex)
These reflexes include? Coughing, choking, sneezing, swallowing, and vomiting.
The ANS is subdivided into the? 1. Sympathetic division AKA "fight or flight reactions."
The sympathetic division uses a neurotransmitter (chemical) called? norepinephrine (NE) to transmit impulses.
The other ANS subdivision is the? Parasympathetic division
The parasympathetic division uses a neurotransmitter called? acetycholine (Ach)to transmit impulses.
The parasympathetic division operates during normal non-stressful situations ("rest and digest") that includes? Digestive processes
Another parasympathetic division operating during normal non-stressful situations ("rest and digest") include? Reproductive processes
Another parasympathetic division operating during normal non-stressful situations ("rest and digest") include? Eupnea (normal breathing)
Another parasympathetic division operating during normal non-stressful situations ("rest and digest") include? Normal heart rate (HR)
Changes that occur during the sympathetic ("fight or flight") response are? Tachycardia (fast heart rate)
Changes that occur during the sympathetic ("fight or flight") response are? Tachypnea (rapid breathing)
Changes that occur during the sympathetic ("fight or flight") response are? Bronchodilation
Changes that occur during the sympathetic ("fight or flight") response are? Pupillary dilation
Changes that occur during the sympathetic ("fight or flight") response are? Pallor due to- shunting of blood from the periphery to the large muscles of the arms and legs, brain, heart, and lungs.
The largest part of the brain is called the? cerebrum
The outer portion of the cerebrum is called the? cerebral cortex.
The cerebrum is divided into right and left halves called? hemispheres
These hemispheres are connected and communicate by the? corpus callosum.
Sections of the brain are called? lobes
The frontal lobe controls? 1. Voluntary muscle functions
The frontal lobe controls? 2. Moods
The frontal lobe controls? 3. Aggression
The frontal lobe controls? 4. Smell reception (olfactory)
The frontal lobe controls? 5. Motivation
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as? 1. Touch
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as? 2. Pain
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as? 3. Balance
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as? 4. Taste
The parietal lobes evaluate sensory stimuli such as? 5. Temperature.
The temporal lobes evaluate? 1. Hearing input.
The temporal lobes evaluate? 2. Smell
The temporal lobes evaluate? 3. Memory
The temporal lobes evaluate? 4. Judgement
The occipital lobe functions in receiving and interpreting? visual input.
Depression, migraines, anxiety, appetite, sexuality, and bipolar disorder are influenced by the chemical neurotransmitter? serotonin
The second largest portion of the brain is called the? cerebellum
The cerebellum is located at the? posterior back of the brain.
The cerebellum functions as a reflex center for? coordination and balance.
The brain stem consists of the? 1. Medulla oblongata
The brain stem consists of the? 2. Pons Varolii
The brain stem consists of the? 3. Midbrain
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling? 1.Consciousness and arousal
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling? 2. Regulation of diameter of blood vessels (BP)
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling? 3. Heart rate (HR)
The medulla and pons are responsible for controlling? 4. Ventilation (breathing)
The midbrain acts as the connection between the? cerebrum and the spinal cord.
The thalamus is the? principal relay station of sensory impulses that reach the cerebral cortex.
The hypothalamus controls? 1. The pituitary gland
The hypothalamus controls? 2. Feelings of rage and aggression
The hypothalamus controls? 3. Body temperature
The hypothalamus controls? 4. Thirst
The hypothalamus controls? 5. Sleep
The hypothalamus controls? 6. Food intake (satiation)
The spinal cord begins as the continuation of the? medulla oblongata.
The length of the spinal cord is approximately? 16 to 18 inches.
The function of the spinal cord is to? 1. Convey sensory impulses from the periphery to the brain.
The function of the spinal cord is to? 2. Conduct motor impulses from the brain to the periphery.
Branching off the spinal cord are the? 31 paired spinal nerves.
Most spinal nerves exit the vertebral column between the? adjacent vertebrae.
Spinal nerves consist of? 8 cervical pairs
Spinal nerves consist of? 12 thoracic pairs
Spinal nerves consist of? 5 lumbar pairs
Spinal nerves consist of? 5 sacral pairs
Spinal nerves consist of? 1 coccygeal pair.
The brain and spinal cord are surrounded by protective membranes called? meninges
The outer most meninx is called the? dura mater (tough mother)
The middle meninx is called the? arachnoid membrane (spider layer)
The innermost meninx is called the? pia mater (delicate mother)
Between the dura mater and arachnoid membrane is the? subdural space
The subdural space contains? serous fluid
Between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater is the? arachnoid space
The subarachnoid space contains? CSF (cerebrospinal fluid).
CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) circulates around the brain and spinal cord through cavities called? ventricles.
The CSF (cerebrospinal fluid) serves as a? shock absorber and circulates nutrients.
The white (opaque) portion of the eye is called the? sclera
The transparent anterior portion of a sclera is called the? cornea
The colored portion of the eye is called the? iris
The highly vascular layer of the eye is called the? choroid
The os in the center of the iris is called a? pupil
A pupil that decreases in size is called? pupillary constriction
A pupil that increases in size is called? pupillary dilation.
The crystalline structure located posterior to the pupil that focuses (accommodates) light on the retina is called the? crystalline lens
The retina is the portion of the eye that? perceives light
The retina is made up of the visual receptor cells called? rods and cones
The retina is an extension of the? optic nerve
The optic nerve transmits visual impulses to the? thalamus
The thalamus relays these impulses to the? occipital lobe for interpretation.
The anterior compartment of the eye is filled with liquid called the? aqueous humor
The posterior compartment of the eye is filled with liquid called the? vitreous humor
The external cartilagenous flap of an ear is called a? pinna AKA the auricle
The tube leading from the pinna (auricle) to the tympanic membrane is called the? external auditory canal.
The tympanic membrane is AKA? eardrum
The external auditory canal is lined with modified sebaceous glands that produce? cerumen AKA "earwax"
The middle ear is made up of three auditory ossicles (bones) called the? 1. Malleus (hammer)
The middle ear is made up of three auditory ossicles (bones) called the? 2. Incus (anvil)
The middle ear is made up of three auditory ossicles (bones) called the? 3. Stapes (stirrup)
The tubes that connect the middle ear to the pharynx for pressure equalization are called the? Eustachian tubes.
The structure is the inner ear that is responsible for perceiving sound vibrations and conducting these vibrations to the auditory (vestibulocochlear) nerve is called the? cochlea.
The connection between the stapes and the cochlea is called the? oval window
The structure is the inner ear which aids in balance (equilibrium) is called the? labyrinth
The labyrinth is made up of the? vestibule and semicircular canals.
Created by: Penny S