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More Chapter 6 Terms

Vocabulary-Pathology-Dx & Therapeutic Procedures-Pharmacology-Abbreviations

blood clot Hard collection of fibrin, blood cells, and tissue debris that is the end result of hemostasis
coagulate To convert from a liquid to a gel or solid
dyscrasia General term indicating presence of a disease affecting blood
hematology Branch of medicine specializing in treating diseases and conditions of the blood
hematoma Collection of blood under skin as a result of blood escaping into the tissue from damaged blood vessels. Bruise.
hemostasis To stop bleeding or stagnation of blood flow through the tissues
packed cells Transfusion of only the formed elements and without plasma
whole blood The mixture of both plasma and formed elements
hemophilia Hereditary blood disease in which blood-clotting time is prolonged due to a lack of one vital clotting factor.
hyperlipidemia Condition of having too high a level of lipids such as cholesterol in the bloodstream.
septicemia Having bacteria or other toxins in the bloodstream. Blood poisoning
anemia A large group of conditions characterized by a reduction in the number of red blood cells or amount of hemoglobin in blood. Less oxygen reaches tissues.
aplastic anemia Severe form of anemia that develops as a consequence of loss of functioning red bone marrow. Results in decrease in number of all the formed elements.
hemolytic anemia Anemia that develops as the result of excessive loss of erythrocytes
hemolytic reaction Destruction of a patient’s erythrocytes that occurs when receiving a transfusion of an incompatible blood type. Transfusion reaction.
hypochromic anemia Anemia resulting from having insufficient hemoglobin in the erythrocytes.
iron-deficiency anemia Anemia that results from having insufficient iron to manufacture hemoglobin
pernicious anemia Anemia associated with insufficient absorbtion of vitamin B12 by the digestive system. B12 is necessary for erythrocyte production.
polycythemia vera Production of too many red blood cells by the bone marrow. Blood becomes too thick to easily flow through vessels.
sickle cell anemia Genetic disorder in which erythrocytes take on an abnormal curved or “sickle” shape. These cells are fragile and easily damaged, leading to hemolytic anemia.
thalassemia A genetic disorder in which the body is unable to make functioning hemoglobin, resulting in anemia
leukemia Cancer of white blood cell-forming red bone marrow resulting in a large number of abnormal, immature white blood cells.
blood culture and sensitivity (C&S) Sample of blood is incubated to check for bacterial growth. If bacteria are present, it is identified and tested to see what antibiotics it is sensitive to.
complete blood count (CBC) Combination of blood tests including: red blood cell count, white blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cell differential, & platelet count.
erythrocyte sedimentation rate Blood test to determine the rate at which mature red blood cells settle out of the blood after the addition of an anticoagulant. This is the indicator of the presence of an inflammatory disease.
hematocrit (HCT, Hct, crit) Blood test to measure the volume of red blood cells within the total volume of blood
hemoglobin Blood test to measure amount of hemoglobin present in a volume of blood
platelet count Blood test to determine the number of platelets in a volume of blood.
prothrombin time A measure of the body’s coagulation abilities by measuring how long it takes for a clot to form after prothrombin has been activated
red blood cell count (RBC) Blood test to determine number of erythrocytes in a volume of blood.
red blood cell morphology Examination of a specimen of blood for abnormalities in the shape. Used to detect diseases like sickle cell anemia.
sequential multiple analyzer computer (SMAC) Machine for doing multiple blood chemistry tests automatically.
white blood cell count (WBC) Blood test to measure the number of leukocytes in a volume of blood. An increase may indicate the presence of an infection or disease such as leukemia. A decrease can be caused by radiation therapy or chemotherapy
white blood cell differential (diff) Blood test to determine the number of each variety of leukocytes.
bone marrow aspiration Sample of bone marrow is removed by aspiration with a needle and examined for diseases such as leukemia or aplastic anemia
phlebotomy Incision into a vein in order to remove blood for a diagnostic test. Venipuncture.
autologous transfusion Procedure for collecting and storing a patient’s own blood several weeks prior to the actual need. It can then be used to replace blood after a surgery.
blood transfusion Artificial transfer of blood into the bloodstream
bone marrow transplant (BMT) Patient receives red bone marrow from a donor after the patient’s own bone marrow has been destroyed by radiation or chemotherapy
homologous transfusion Replacement of blood by transfusion of blood received from another person
plasmapheresis Method of removing plasma from the body without depleting the formed elements. Whole blood is removed and the cells and plasma are separated. The cells are returned to the patient along with a donor plasma transfusion.
anticoagulant Substance that prevents blood clot formation. Blood thinners
antihemorrhagic Substance that prevents or stops hemorrhaging. Hemostatic agent
antiplatelet agents Substance that interferes with the action of platelets. Prolongs bleeding time. Used to prevent heart attacks or strokes.
hematinic Substance that increases the number of erythrocytes or amount of hemoglobin in the blood
thrombolytic Able to dissolve existing clots
ALL Acute lymphocytic leukemia
AML Acute myelogenous leukemia
basos Basophilis
BMT Bone marrow transplant
CBC Complete blood count
CLL Chronic lymphocytic leukemia
CML Chronic myelogenous leukemia
Diff Differential
eosins, eos Eosinophils
ESR, SR, sed rate Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
HCT, Hct, crit Hematocrit
Hgb, Hb, HGB Hemoglobin
Lymphs Lymphocytes
Monos Monocytes
PA Pernicious anemia
PCV Packed cell volume
PMN, polys Polymorphonuclear neutrophil
PT, pro-time Prothrombin time
RBC Red blood cell count
Rh+ Rh-positive
Rh- Rh-negative
Segs Segmented neutrophils
SMAC Sequential multiple analyzer computer
WBC White blood cell count
allergen an antigen that causes an allergic reaction
allergist a physician who specializes in testing for and treating allergies
allergy hypersensitivity to a common substance in the environment or to a medication
autoimmune disease a disease resulting from the body’s immune system attacking its own cells as if they were pathogens. Examples include systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis
hives appearance of wheals as part of an allergic reaction
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) virus that causes AIDS; also known as a retrovirus
immunocompromised having an immune system that is unable to respond properly to pathogens. Also called immunodeficiency disorder
immunoglobulins antibodies secreted by B cells. All antibodies are immunoglobulins & assist in protecting the body from invasion of bacteria. The immunoglobulin IgA in colostrum, the first milk from the mother, helps protect newborns.
immunology a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases and other disorders of the immune system. Physician is an immunologist
inflammation the tissues’ response to injury from pathogens or physical agents. Characterized by redness, pain, swelling, and feeling hot to the touch
lymphedema edema appearing in the extremities due to the obstruction of the lymph flow through the lymphatic vessels
opportunistic infections infectious diseases associated with patients who have compromised immune systems and therefore a lowered resistance to infections and parasites. May be the result of HIV infection
urticaria severe itching associated with hive, usually linked to food allergy, stress, or drug reactions
anaphylactic shock life threatening condition resulting from severe allergic reaction. Instances that may trigger this reaction include bee stings, medications, or the ingestion of foods. Circulatory and respiratory problems occur.
elephantiasis Inflammation, obstruction, and destruction of the lymph vessels resulting in enlarged tissues due to edema
Hodgkin’s disease Also called Hodgkin’s lymphoma. Cancer of the lymphatic cells found in concentration in the lymph nodes Named after Thomas Hodgkin, a British physician, who first described it.
lymphadenitis inflammation of the lymph nodes. Referred to a swollen glands
mononucleosis acute infectious disease with a large number of abnormal lymphocytes. Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Abnormal liver function may occur
non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma cancer of the lymphatic tissues other than Hodgkin’s lymphoma
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease involving a defect in the cell-mediated immunity system. A syndrome of opportunistic infections occurring in the final stages of HIV infections. This virus attacks & destroys T4 lymphocytes, reducing the person’s ability to fight infection
AIDS-related complex (ARC) Early stage of AIDS. There is a positive test for the virus, but only mild symptoms of weight loss, fatigue, skin rash, and anorexia
graft vs. host disease serious complication of bone marrow transplant (graft). Immune cells from the donor bone marrow attack the recipient’s (host’s) tissues
Karposi’s sarcoma (KS) form of skin cancer frequently seen in patients with AIDS. It consists of brownish-purple papules that spread from the skin and metastasize to internal organs. Named for Moritz Kaposi, an Austrian dermatologist
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia pneumonia common in patients with AIDS that is caused by infection with an opportunistic parasite
sarcoidosis disease of unknown cause that forms fibrous lesions commonly appearing in the lymph nodes, liver, skin, lungs, spleen, eyes, and small bones of the hands and feet
severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome (SCIDS) disease seen in children born with a nonfunctioning immune system. Often these children are forced to live in sealed sterile rooms
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) a blood test for an antibody to the AIDS virus. A positive test means that the person has been exposed to the virus. There may be a false-positive reading, and then the Western blot test would be used to verify the results
Western blot test used as a backup to the ELISA blood test to detect the presence of the antibody to HIV (AIDS virus) in the blood
lymphangiography X-ray taken of the lymph vessels after the injection of dye into the foot. The lymph flow through the chest is traced.
Monospot test for infectious mononucleosis
scratch test form of allergy testing in which the body is exposed to an allergen through a light scratch in the skin
immunotherapy giving a patient an injection of immunoglobulins or antibodies to treat a disease. The antibodies may be produced by another person or animal(ex-antivenom for snake bites). More recent developments include treatments to boost activity of the immune system
vaccination exposure to a weakened pathogen that stimulates the immune system response and antibody production in order to confer protection against the full-blown disease. Also called immunization
lymphadenectomy removal of lymph node. This is usually done to test for malignancy
antihistamine blocks the effect of histamine released by the body during an allergic reaction
corticosteroids a hormone produced by the adrenal cortex that has very strong anti-inflammatory properties. Particularly useful in treating autoimmune diseases
immunosuppressants blocks certain actions of the immune system. Required to prevent rejection of a transplanted organ
protease inhibitor drugs inhibits protease, an enzyme viruses need to reproduce
reverse transcriptase inhibitor drugs inhibits reverse transcriptase, an enzyme needed by viruses to reproduce
AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
ARC AIDS-related complex
ELISA Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
GVHD graft vs. host disease
HD Hodgkin’s disease
HIV human immunodeficiency virus
Ig immunoglobulins
KS Kaposi’s sarcoma
mono mononeucleosis
NHL non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma
NK natural killer cells
PCP Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
SCIDS severe combined immunodeficiency syndrome
Created by: AltheaMathews