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Ch. 3 Skeletal

consists of the bones, bone marrow, cartilage, joints, ligaments, synovial membrane, synovial fluid, and bursa skeletal system
form of the connective tissue that is the second hardest tissue in the human body bone
tough, fibrous tissue that forms the outermost covering of bone periosteum
dense, hard, and very stron bone that forms the protective outer layer of bones compact bone
lighter, and not as strong, as compact bone spongy bone
means pertaining to the inner section medullary
tissue that lines the medullary cavity endosteum
located within the spongy bone, is hemopoietic tissue that manufactures red blood cells, hemoglobin, white blood cells, and thrombocytes red bone marrow
means pertaining to the formation of blood cells hemopoietic
functions as a fat storage area, is composed chiefly of fat cells and is located in the medullary cavity yellow bone marrow
smooth, rubber, blue-white connective tissue that acts as a shock absorber between bones. cartilage
covers the surfaces of bones where they come together to form joints articular cartilage
curved fibrous cartilage found in some joints, such as the knee and the temporomandibular joint of the jaw meniscus
shaft of a long bone diaphysis
coverd with articular cartilage, the wide end of a long bone epiphysis
end of the bone located nearest to the midline of the body proximal epiphysis
end of the bone located farthest away from the midline epiphysis
an opening in a bone through which blood vessels, nerves, and ligaments pass foramen
a normal projection on the surface of a bone that serves as an attachment for muscles and tendos process
bony projection located on the temporal bones just behind the ears mastoid process
also known as articulations joints
place of union between two or more bones joints
consisting of inflexible layers of dense connective tissue, hold the bones tightly together fibrous joints
also known as sutures fibrous joints
also known as soft spots fontanelles
allow only slight movement and consist of bones connectied entirely by cartilage cartilaginous joints
the cartilaginous joint known that allows some movement to facilitate childbirth pubic symphysis
created where two bones articulate to permit a variety of motions synovial joint
means to come together articulate
such as the hips and shoulders, allow a wide range of movement in many directions ball and socket joints
such as the knees and elbows, are synovial joints that allow movement primarily in one direction or plane hinge joints
outermost layer of strong fibrous tissue that resembles a sleeve as it surrounds the joint synovial capsule
lines the capsule and secretes synovial fluid synovial membrane
flows within the synovial cavity, acts as a lubricant to make the smooth movement of the joint possible synovial fluid
bands of fibrous tissue that form joints by connection one bone to another bone, or joining a bone to cartilage ligaments
a fibrous sac that acts a s acushion to ease movement in areas that are subject to friction such as in the shoulder, elbow, and knee joints where a tendon passes over a bone bursa
How many bones are there? 206
protects the major organs of the nervous, respiratory, and circulatory systems axial skeleton
means pertaining to an axis, which is an imaginary line that runs lengthwise through the center of the body axial
consists of 80 bones including those of the skull, the ribs, sternum, and thoracic vertebrae fo the thoracic cavity, and the other vertebrae of the spinal column axial skeleton
makes body movement possible and also protects the organs of digestion, excretion, and reproduction. appendicular skeleton
means referring to an appendage appendicular
anything that is attached to a major part of the body appendage
consists of 126 bones that are organized into upper extremities appendicular skeleton
shoulders, arms, forearms, wrists, and hands upper extremities
hips, thighs, legs, ankles, and feet lower extremities
consists of the eight bones that form the cranium, 14 bones that form the face, and 6 bones in the middle ear skull
made up of eight bones, portion of the skull that encloses the brain cranium
forms the forehead frontal bone
form the most of the roof and upper sides of the cranium, there are two parietal bones
forms the posterior floor and walls of the cranium occipital bone
form the sides and base of the cranium temporal bones
forms part of the base of the skull and parts of the floor and sides of the orbit sphenoid bone
is the bony socket that surrounds and proctects the eyeball orbit
forms part of the posterior portion of the nose, the orbit, and the floor of the cranium. ethmoid bone
the six tiny bones of the middle ear auditory ossicles
is located in the temporal bone on each side of the skull, is the opening of the external auditory canal of the outer ear external auditory meatus
is the external opening of a canal meatus
form the upper part of the bridge of the nose nasal bones
also known as the cheekbones, articulate with the frontal bone zygomatic bones
also known as the maxillae, form the most of the upper jaw maxillary bones
form part of the hard palate of the mouth and the floor of the nose. palatine bones
make up part of the orbit at the inner angle of the eye lacrimal bones
are the thin, scroll-like bone that form part of the interior of the nose inferior conchae
forms the base for the nasal septum vomer bone
is the cartilage wall that divides the two nasal cavities nasal septum
also known as the jawbone, is the only movable bone of the skull mandible
also known as the TMJ temporomandibular joint
also known as the rib cage, is the bony structure that protects the heart and the lungs thoracic cavity
also known as costals, attach posteriorly to the thoracic vertebrae costals
the first seven pair of ribs that are attached anteriorly to the sternum true ribs
the next three pair of ribs, that are attached anteriorly to cartilage that joins with the sternum false ribs
the last two pairs of ribs that are only attached posteriorly floating ribs
also known as the breastbone, forms the middle of the front of the rib cage and is divided into three parts sternum
is the bony structure that forms the upper portion of the sternum manubrium
is the bony structure that forms the middle portion of the sternum body of the sternum
is the structure made of cartilage that forms the lower portion of the sternum xiphoid process
also known as the shoulder girdle which supports the arms and hands pectoral girdle
a structure that encircles the body girdle
also known as the collar bone, is a slender bone that connects the manubrium of the sternum to the scapula clavicle
also known as the shoulder blade scapula
is an extension of the scapula that forms the high point of the shoulder acromion
is the bone of the upper arm humerus
is the smaller and shorter bone in the forearm radius
is the larger and longer bone of the forearm ulna
commonly known as the funny bone, is a large projection on the upper end of the ulna olecranon process
are the bones that form the wrist carpals
are the five bones that form the palms of the hand metacarpals
are the 14 bones of the fingers phalanges
also known as the vertebral column, supports the head and body, and protects the spinal cord vertebral column
is a single segment of the spinal column vertebra
means pertaining to the vertebrae vertebral
are the bony strucure units of the spinal column vertebrae
is the solid anterior portion body of the vertebra
is the posterior portion of a vertebra lamina
is the opening in the middle of the vertebra vertebral foramen
are the first set of seven vertebrae that form the neck cervical vertebrae
pertaining to the neck cervical
make up the second set of 12 vertebrae thoracic vertebrae
pertaining to the thoracic cavity thoracic
make up the third set of five vertebrae and form the inward curve of the lower spine lumbar vertebrae
relating to the part of the back and sides between the ribs and the pelvis lumbar
is the slightly curved, triangular-shaped bone near the base of the spine that forms the lower portion of the back sacrum
also known as the tailbone, forms the end of the spine and is actually made up of four small vertebrae that are fused together coccyx
are made of cartilage, separate and cushion the vertebrae from each other intervertebral disks
protects internal organs and supports the lower extremities, is also known as the pelvis or hips pelvic girdle
is the broad blade-shaped bone that forms the back and sides of the pubic bone ilium
is the slightly movable articulation between the sacrum and posterior portion of the ilium sacroiliac
which forms the lower posterior portion of the pubic bone, bears the weight of the body when sitting ischium
forms the anterior portion of the public bone, is located just below the urinary bladder pubis
the ileum, ischium, and pubis are separate at birth; however, they fuse to form the left and right pubic bones
also known as the hip socket, is the large circular cavity in each side of the pelvis that articulates with the head of the femur to form the hip joint acetabulum
is the upper leg bone femur
is the largest bone in the body thigh bone
articulates with the acetabulum head of the femur
is the narrow area just below the head of the femur femoral neck
pertaining to the femur femoral
the complex joints that make possible movement between the upper and lower leg knees
also known as the kneecap, is the bony anterior portion of the knee. patella
referring to the posterior space behind the knee where hte ligaments, vessels, and muscles related to this joint are located popliteal
make possible the movements of the knee cruciate ligaments
also known as the shinbone, is the larger weight-bearing bone in the anterior of the lower leg tibia
is the smaller of the two bones of the lower leg fibula
is the rounded bony protuberance on each side of the ankle malleolus
form the joint between the lower leg and the foot, are each made up of seven short tarsal bones ankles
these bones are similar to the bones of the wrist, but are larger in size tarsal
is the anklebone that articulates with the tibia and fibula talus
also known as the heel bone, is the largest of the tarsal bones calcaneus
form that part of the foot to which the toes are attached metatarsals
are the bones of the toes phalanges
holds a Doctor of Chiropractic degree and specializes in the manipulative treatment of disorders originating from misalignment of the spine chiropractor
involves manually adjusting the positions of the bones manipulative treatment
also known as an orthopedist, is a physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and disorders involving the bones, joints, and muscles orthopedic surgeon
holds a Doctor of Osteopathy degree and uses traditional forms of medical treatment in addition to specializing in treating health problems by spinal manipulation osteopath
used to mean any bone disease osteopathy
holds a Doctor of Podiatry or Doctor of Podiatric Medicine degree and specializes in diagnosing and treating disorders of the foot. podiatrist
is the loss, or absence, of mobility in a joint due to disease, injury, or a surgical procedure ankylosis
means being capable of movement mobility
is stiffness of the joints, especially in the elderly arthrosclerosis
is an inflammation of a bursa bursitis
is the abnormal softening of cartilage chondromalacia
is a slow-growing benign tumor derived from cartilage cells chondroma
is an inflammation of the cartilage that connects a rib to the sternum costochondritis
also known as a bunion, is an abnormal enlargement of the joint at the base of the great toe hallux valgus
is blood within a joint hemarthrosis
is inflammation of the synovial membrane that results in swelling and pain of the affected joint synovitis
also known as luxation, is the total displacement of the bone from its joint dislocation
is the partial displacement of a bone from its joint subluxation
is an inflammatory condition of one or more joints arthritis
is an obsolete term for arthritis to describe any painful disorder of the joints rheumatism
also known as wear and tear arthritis, is most commonly associated with aging osteoarthritis
the wearing away of the articular cartilage within the joints degenerative joint disease
means the breaking down or impairment of a body part. degenerative
also known as spinal osteoarthritis, is a degenerative disorder that can cause the loss of normal spinal structure and function spondylosis
also known as gout is a type of arthritis characterized by deposists of uric acid in the joints gouty arthritis
is a byproduct that is normally excreted by the kidneys uric acid
commonly known by its abbreviation RA, is a chronic autoimmune disorder in which the joints and some organs of other body systems are attacked rheumatoid arthritis
is a form of rheumatoid arthritis that primarily causes inflammation of the joints between the vertebrae ankylosing spondylitis
the progressive stiffening of a joint or joints ankylosing
means the inflammation of the vertebrae spondylitis
is an autoimmune disorder that affects children aged 16 years or less with symptoms that include stiffness, pain, joint swelling, skin rash, fever, slowed growth, and fatigue juvenile rheumatoid arthritis
also known as a slipped or ruptured disk, is the breaking apart of an intertebral disk that results in pressure on spinal nerve roots herniated disk
also known as low back pain, is pain of the lumbar region of the spine lumbago
is the forward slipping movement of the body of one of the lower lumbar vertebrae on the vertebra or sacrum below it spondylolisthesis
is a congenital defect that occurs during early pregnancy when the spinal canal fails to close completely around the spinal cord to protect it spina bifida
pertaining to the spin spina
means split bifida
is an abnormal increase in the outward curvature of the thoracic spine as viewed from the side, also known as humpback or dowager's hump kyphosis
is an abnormal increase in the forward curvature of the lumbar spine, also known as swayback lordosis
is an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine scoliosis
is a malformation of the skull due to the premature closure of the cranial sutures craniostenosis
is a bone disorder of unknown cause that destroys normal bone structure and replaces it with fibrous tissue fibrous dysplasia
also known as osteodynia, mean pain in a bone ostealgia
is an inflammation of bone osteitis
also known as adult rickets, is abnormal softening of bones in adults osteomalacia
is an inflammation of the bone marrow and adjacent bone osteomyelitis
is the death of bone tissue due to lack of insufficient blood supply osteonecrosis
also known as osteitis deformans, is a bone disease of unknown cause paget's disease
is an inflammation of the periosteum periostitis
also known as infantile osteomalacia, is a deficiency disease occurring in children rickets
formerly known as dwarfism, is condition resulting from the failure of the bones of the limbs to grow to an an appropriate length short stature
also known as clubfoot, describes any congenital deformity of the foot involving the talus talipes
is a relatively rare malignant tumor that originates in a bone primary bone cancer
means progressively worse and life-threatening malignant
is a tumor that occurs in the bones of the upper arm, legs, pelvis, or rib ewing's sarcoma
describes tumors that have metastasized to bones from other organs such as the breasts and lungs secondary bone cancer
is a type of cancer that occurs in blood-making cells found in the red bone marrow myeloma
is a benign bony projetion covered with cartilage osteochondroma
means something that is not life-threatening and does not recur benign
is a marked loss of bone density and an increase in bone porosity that is frequently associated with aging osteoporosis
is thinner than average bone density in a young person osteopenia
also known as a vertebral crush fracture, occurs when the bone is pressed together on itself compression fracture
named for the Irish surgeon Abraham Colles, is also known as a fractured wrist colles' fracture
also known as a broken hip, is usually caused by weakening of the bones due to osteoporosis and can occur either spontaneously or as the result of a fall osteoporotic hip fracture
pertaining to or caused by the porous condition of bones osteoporotic
which is a broken bone fracture
also known as a simple fracture, is one in which the bone is broken, but there is no open wound in the skin closed fracture
also known as a compound fracture, is one in which the bone is broken and there is an open wound in the skin open fracture
is one in which the bone is splintered or crushed comminuted fracture
means crushed into small pieces comminuted
incomplete fracture, is one in which the bone is bent and only partially broken greenstick fracture
occurs at an angle across the bone oblique fracture
occurs when a weakened bone breaks under normal strain pathologic fracture
is a fracture in which the bone has been twisted apart spiral fracture
is an overuse injury, is a small crack in the bone that often develops from chronic excessive impact stress fracture
occurs straight across the bone transverse fracture
can form when a long bone is fractured and fat cells from yellow bone marrow are released into the blood fat embolus
also known as crepitus, is the grating sound heard when the ends of a broken bone move together crepitation
forms a bulging deposit around the area of the break callus
is also a thickening of the skin caused by repeated rubbing callus
also known as an x-ray is the use of x-radiation to visualize bone fractures and other abnormalities radiograph
is the visual examination of the internal structure of a joint arthroscopy
is a diagnostic test that may be necessary after abnormal types or numbers of red or white blood cells are found in a complete blood count test bone marrow biopsy
is the use of a syringe to withdraw the liquid bone marrow bone marrow aspiration
is used to image soft tissue structures such as the interior of complex joints Magnetic resonance imaging
is used to determine losses or changes in bone density bone density testing
is a screening test for osteoposoris or other conditions that cause a loss of bone mass ultrasonic bone density testing
a low-exposure radiographic measurement of the spine and hips to measure bone density dual x-ray absorptiometry
is used to treat certain types of cancers, such as leukemia nd lymphomas, that affect bone marrow bone marrow transplant
uses healthy bone marrow cells from a compatible donor, often a sibling allogenic bone marrow transplant
means originating within another allogenic
the patient receives his own bone marrow cells which have been harvested, cleased, treated, and then store before the remaining bone marrow is destroyed autologous bone marrow transplant
means originating within an individual autologous
is a mechanical appliance, such as a leg brace or splint, that is specially designed to control, correct, or compensate for impaired limb function orthotic
is a substitute for a diseased or missing body part, such as a leg that has been amputated prosthesis
also known as surgical ankylosis, is the surgical fusion of two bones to stiffen a joint, such as an ankle, elbow, or shoulder arthrodesis
is th surgical loosening of an ankylosed joint arthrolysis
is the surgical removal of a bursa bursectomy
is a minimally invasive procedure for the treatment of the interior of a joint arthroscopic surgery
is the surgical repair of damaged cartilage chondroplasty
is the surgical removal of a synovial membrane synovectomy
means the surgical repair of a damaged joint arthroplasty
means that all of the parts of the knee were replaced total knee replacement
describes a procedure in which only part of the knee is replaced partial knee replacement
also known as a total hip arthroplasty, performed to restore a damaged hip to full function total hip replacement
is an alternative to removing the head of the femur bone-conserving hip resurfacing
is the replacement of a worn or failed implant revision surgery
is performed to treat a herniated intervertebral disk percutaneous diskectomy
is performed to treat osteoporosis-related compression fractures percutaneous vertebroplasty
is the surgical removal of a lamina, or posterior portion, of a vertebra laminectomy
is a technique to immobilize part of the spine by joining together two or more vertebrae spinal fusion
is the surgical removal of a portion of the skull craniectomy
is a surgical incision or opening into the skull craniotomy
is the surgical repair of the skull cranioplasty
is the surgical fracture of a bone to correct a deformity osteoclasis
is the surgical removal of bone ostectomy
is the surgical repair of a bone or bones osteoplasty
is the surgical suturing, or wiring together, of bones osteotomy
is an incision through the periosteum to the bone periosteotomy
also known as manipulation, is the attempted realignment of the bone involved in a fracture or joint dislocation closed reduction
also known as stabilization, is the act of holding, suturing, or fastening the bone in a fixed position with strapping or a cast immobilization
is a pulling force exerted on a limb in a distal direction in an effort to retun the bone or joint to normal alignment traction
is a fracture treatment procedure in which pins are placed through the soft tissue and bone so that an external appliance can be used to hold the pieces of bone firmly in place during healing external fixation
also known as open reduction internal fixation, is a fracture treatment in which a plate or pins are place directly into the bone to hold the broken pieces in place internal fixation