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Cardiovascular works

how the cardiovaculary system works

Arteries carry? oxygenated blood
Oxygen is abbreviated? O2
Arterioles refer to? small arteries
Veins carry? De-oxygenated blood
De-oxygenated blood contains? carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide is abbreviated? CO2
Venules refer to? small veins
Capillaries refer to? the smallest of the arteries and veins
Vasodilation refers to? increased diameter of the arteries
Vasoconstriction refers to? decreased diameter of the arteries
Vasodilation will cause? hypotension
Vasoconstriction will cause? hypertension
The body cavity where the heart is housed is called the? thoracic cavity
The region directly between the sternum and vertebrae is called? mediastinum
The pericardium refers to the? membranous sac around the heart
The epicardium refers to the? outer layer of the heart
The myocardium refers to the? muscle layer of the heart
The endocardium refers to the? inner layer of the heart
The chambers of the heart are separated by walls called the? septa
De-oxygenated blood (CO2) is returned to the heart via the? venae cavae (superior and inferior)
The superior and inferior venae cavae are the? largest veins in the body
The venae cavae deliver the de-oxygenated (CO2) to the? right atrium
The right atrium is the? superior right chamber of the heart
The de-oxygenated blood (CO2)moves through the? tricuspid valve
The tricuspid valve allows de-oxygenated blood to enter the? right ventricle
The right ventricle is the? inferior right chamber of the heart.
The purpose of the tricuspid valve is to prevent the blood from? regurgitating
The sound caused by valvular regurgitation is called a? murmur (bruit)
The right ventricle pumps the de-oxygenated blood (CO2) through the? pulmonary trunk
The valve at the entrance of the pulmonary trunk is the? pulmonary semi-lunar valve
The de-oxygenated blood (CO2) then enters the? the right and left pulmonary arteries
The pulmonary arteries carry the de-oxygenated blood (CO2) to the? lungs
The lungs are where ---- takes place? respiration
Respiration is the? exchange of gases
The gases that are exchanged are? oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
The oxygenated blood (O2) returns from the lungs through the? pulmonary veins
The pulmonary veins deliver the oxygenated blood (O2) to the? left atrium
The left atrium is the? superior left chamber of the heart
The oxygenated blood (O2) then moves through the? bicuspid valve (AKA) mitral valve
The bicuspid (mitral) valve allows the oxygenated blood (O2) enter the? left ventricle
The left ventricle is the? inferior left chamber of the heart
The purpose of the bicuspid (mitral) valve is to prevent blood from? regurgitating
The sound caused by the regurgitating is called a? murmur (bruit)
The left ventricle pumps the oxygenated blood (O2) through the? aortic semi-lunar valve
the aortic semi-lunar valve allows the oxygenated blood (O2) to enter the? 1. Ascending aorta 2. Aortic arch 3. Descending thoracic aorta 4. Abdominal aorta
The aorta branches off into arteries, arterioles,and capillaries that will distribute the oxygen (O2) to the? tissues of the body
Strands of tendon that anchor the cusps of the bicuspid (mitral) and tricuspid valves preventing prolapse are called? chordae tendineae
The carotid arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the? brain
The coronary arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the? heart muscle
The subclavian arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the? arms and superior thorax
The mesenteric arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the? intestines
The phrenic arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the? diaphragm
The diaphragm is the? main muscle of ventilation
The abdominal aorta bifurcates into the? iliac arteries
The iliac arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the? pelvis and thighs
The femoral arteries deliver oxygenated blood to the? legs
Other capillaries, venules, and veins will return the de-oxygenated blood (CO2) to the? venae cavae and the circuit is complete
The jugulars drain de-oxygenated blood from the? Head
The saphenous veins drain de-oxygenated blood from the? legs
The saphenous veins are commonly used for? coronary artery bypass grafts (CABG)
Another vessel used for CABG is the? mammary artery.
a heart-lung machine does what? a machine that respirates the blood when the heart is stopped for surgical procedures.
C-reactive protein (CRP)? inflammatory indicator and powerful risk factor for heart disease
CPK (CK) + LDH (LD) means? enzymes (chemicals) in the blood that indicate muscle damage
CPK-MB ("isoenzymes" or "isos") means? very specific enzymes in the blood that indicate cardiac damage
The azygos veins drains de-oxygenated blood from the? thorax
The median cubital (anticubital) veins are commonly used to perform? phlebotomy (venipuncture)
The human heart is the muscle intended to pump blood to the? entire body
The two distinct components that make up this process are? 1. The electrical impulse that stimulates the heart to beat. 2. The mechanical beating of the heart in response to the electrical stimulation, resulting in the pumping for the blood.
An abnormal heart rhythm is called an? arrhythmia AKA dysrhythmia
Blood is necessary to? Transport nutrients and water for the digestive tract to all the cells of the body.
These nutrients include? a. vitamins and minerals which are used for chemical process and reactions.
Carbohydrate which are used for? energy
Proteins which are used for? growth and repair.
Fats are used for? vitamin absorption and cellular wall creation.
2. Transports waste products for the body's cells to the? lungs,sweat glands, and kidney for excretion.
3. Transports hormones from the endocrine glands to target cells and organs in the? body
4. Transports enzymes to body cells in order to? regulate chemical processes and reactions.
5.Dissipates excess body heat through? dilated blood vessels in the skin
6.Transports leukocytes and antibodies to defend the body against? pathogens
7. Helps regulate body pH by? transporting buffers and amino acids
Normal blood pH is? 7.35-7.45
Blood pH below 7.35 is considered? acidotic (acidosis)
Blood pH above 7.45 is considered? alkalitic (alkaline, alkalosis, or basic).
An average woman has approximately? 5 liters of blood
An average male has approximately? 6 liters of blood
Whole blood (WB) is made up of: 1.erythrocytes (red blood cells) 2.leukocytes (white blood cells) 3. thrombocytes (clot cells or platelets.
Erythrocytes are responsible for? respiration
Respiration is the? exchange of gases
The gases that are exchanged are? oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2)
Erythrocytes appear as biconcave disks with edges that are? thicker than the center of the cell (cream savers)
Erythrocytes do not have nuclei so they do not have the ability to? divide (replicate) can not duplicate
Erythropoiesis means the formation of the erythrocytes.
Erythropoiesis occurs in the? red bone marrow AKA myeloid tissue
A normal erythrocyte count is? 4-6 million/mm3
Erythropoietin is a hormone produced by the? kidneys
Erythropoietin is necessary for? erythrocyte development.
Erythrocytes live for approximately? 120 days
Erythrocytes die at a rate of? 2,000,000/second
Hemolysis means? the break up or destruction of blood (RBCs)
Bilirubin is? dead,broken up erythrocytes
Hyperbilirubinemia means? a blood condition of excessive bilirubin.
Hyperbilirubinemia causes? jaundice or icterus.
Jaundice (icterus) is a? yellowish, orange discoloration to the skin or sclera.
Hyperbilirubinemia can be caused by? liver, gall bladder, or pancreatic dysfunction.
The blood protein found inside RBCs that is necessary for RBCs to carry O2 and CO2 is called? hemoglobin
A normal hemoglobin range is? 12-17g/dL
The element necessary for healthy hemoglobin is called? iron (Fe)
Foods rich in iron (Fe) include? red meat and dark green leafy vegetables.
Hematocrit ("crit"0 is the measure of the? packed cell volume (PCV)
PCV is the percentage of? blood attributed to erythrocytes (RBCs)
H+H stands for? hemoglobin (Hgh) and hematocrit (Hct of ("crit")
MCH stands for? mean cell hemoglobin
MCHC stands for? mean cell hemoglobin concentration
Anemia refers to? erythrocytopenia and/or a deficiency of hemoglobins.
Erythrocytopenia is a? deficiency of erythrocytes (RBCs)
Leukocytes are part of your? immune response against foreign proteins.
Foreign proteins are called? antigens
A normal leukocyte count is? 5000-11,000mm3
Leukocytosis is an? elevated leukocyte count (WBC)
Infection can cause a leukocytosis of? 20,000mm3
Leukopoiesis means? the formation of leukocytes (WBCs)
Leukopoiesis occurs in the? red bone marrow
1 Monocytes are? phagocytes
Phagocytes are? eating cells (PAC-MEN)
Phagocytes consume? antigens
Neutrophils are? phagocytes
basophils release? histamine and heparin.
Histamine triggers the? inflammatory response
Heparin prevents? clotting and promotes blood flow
Eosinophils lessen allergic reactions and increase in number in the event of? a parasitical worm infestation (helminths).
Lymphocytes help produce? antibodies
Antibodies are necessary to defeat? viral infections
Leukocytopenia means? a deficiency of white cells
Leukemia refers to a? blood condition of extreme leukocytosis or immature leukocytes (WBCs)
Thrombocytes (platelets) are needed for? proper coagulation.
A normal thrombocyte count is? 150,000-300,000mm3
Thrombocytes (platelets) are produced at a rate of? 200,000,000/day
Thrombopoiesis occurs in the? red bone marrow.
Hemophilia is a genetic coagulopathy caused by a deficiency of a? clotting factor
Thrombus - thrombi are? clot(s)
Embolus- emboli are a? floating clots
Thrombolysis or thrombolytic means? the break up or destruction of clots
Anticoagulant means? against coagulation (clotting)
Thrombocytopenia means? a deficiency of platelets (clot cells)
Thrombocytosis means? a abnormal condition of excessive platelets.
A bleeding time is a? test to determine a person's ability to coagulate?
INR (international normalization ratio) is a? test to determine a person's ability to coagulate.
Coagulation panel (profile) consists of? INR, prothrombin, (PT), platelet count,and bleeding time.
DIC stands for? disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
DIC causes the coagulation process to? collapse, followed by hypovolemic shock (exsanguination) and death
Plasma is the? liquid portion of the blood
Plasma is made up of? water, plasma proteins, salts, gases, nutrients, nitrogenous wastes,hormones, vitamins, and minerals
Plasma makes up approximately? 55% of the blood volume
The cells and other elements make up? 45% of the blood volume
A plasma protein necessary for proper fluid balance is? albumin
Two plasma proteins that play a vital role in coagulation are? fibrinogen and prothrombin (PT)
Proper prothrombin production requires adequate amounts of? vitamin K
Foods rich in vitamin K include? green leafy vegetables
Serum is? plasma without fibrinogen or prothrombin (PT)
Plasmapheresis refers to the? separation of the plasma from the blood cells
FFP stands for? fresh frozen plasma
Cryoprecipitates refers to? FFP (fresh frozen plasma) with clotting factors.
FFP (fresh frozen plasma) can be stored? indefinitely
A bone marrow biopsy (Bx)is a? test commonly used to determine cancers of the blood.
Myelogenic means? pertaining to created by the bone marrow.
Hematocytopenia means? a deficiency of blood cells
Hematoma refers to a? mass of blood
Dyscrasia refers to? any blood abnormality
Morphology means? the study of shapes
Hypercholesterolemia is a? blood condition of excessive cholesterol
Hematologist is a? specialist in the study of blood.
Hemostasis (hemostatic) means? the stoppage or controlling of bleeding.
A complete blood count (CBC) is a count of the numbers of? 1. Erythrocytes (RBCs) 2. Leukocytes (WBCs) 3. Thrombocytes (platelets) 4. Hemoglobin (Hgh) and hematocrit (Hct) 5. ESR or "sed rate" (erythrocyte sedimentation rate)
An elevated ESR includes? inflammation
A differential ("diff") is an? individual count of the five different types of leukocytes.
The four blood types are? A, B, AB and O
Each blood type has a + or - called an? Rh factor
The universal donor is type? O+
The universal recipient is type? AB+
A negative Rh blood type can be given ? to a positive RH blood type
A positive Rh CANNOT be given to a? negative Rh blood type
Blood is transfused in? Units (U)
Donated blood has a refrigerated shelf life of? 42 days
Type and cross-match (screen) (T+CM) means? determining blood type and compatibility with other blood types
PRBCs stands for? packed red blood cells
A lipid profile (panel) includes? 1. Total cholesterol should be <200mg/DL 2.HDL(high density lipoproteins ("good cholesterol") should be >60mg/dL 3.Triglycerides should be <200mg/dL 4.LDL(low density lipoproteins)should be <100mg/dL
Created by: Penny S