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Ap World History voc

chapters 1-17

QuestionAnswer
The holy book of the Zoroastrian religion. Avesta
Early Peruvian Amerindian culture. Chavin
Mesopotamian wedge-shaped writing begun by the Sumerians. Cuneiform
One of the earliest epics in world literature, originating in prehistoric Mesopotamia. Gilgamesh
Early Egyptian writing consisting of pictographs and symbols for letters and syllables. Hieroglyphics
An Indo-European people prominent in Anatolia (present-day Turkey) around 1200 b.c.e. Hittites
A people who invaded the Nile delta in Egypt and ruled it during the Second Intermediate Period around 1600 b.c.e. Hyksos
A chief Egyptian goddess with strong creative and nurturing associations. Isis
Kingdom in northeast Africa that had close relations with Egypt for several centuries in the pre-Christian epoch. Kush
An early and rich Greek culture centered on Mycenae and other cities that was destroyed by the "Sea Peoples" and the influx of Dorians from the north. Mycenaeans
The main city and later capital of the Assyrian Empire. Nineveh
A chief Egyptian god, ruler of the underworld. Osiris
With Ecbatana, one of the capitals of the Persian Empire in the 500s b.c.e. Persepolis
The site of great temple complexes along the Nile River in Egypt; Akhenaton´s capital. Tel el Amarna
a massive stepped tower upon which a temple dedicated to the chief god or goddess of a Sumerian city was built. ziggurat
A religion founded by the Persian Zoroaster in the seventh century b.c.e. characterized by worship of a supreme god, Ahura Mazda, who represents the good against the evil spirit, identified as Ahriman. Zoroastrianism
A nomadic pastoral people from Eurasia who invaded the Indus Valley and other regions in about 1500 b.c.e. Aryans
The caste of priests, which is the highest caste in Hinduism. Brahman
Sanskrit term for "slave" used by Aryans; refers to the dark skin color of Indus Valley peoples. Dasa
A town in the Indus Valley; also a name for the early civilization in that region. Harappa
A Sanskrit term meaning "deed" or "action"; a belief held by members of all religions in India that the amount of good or evil done in a given lifetime affected one´s destiny in the next existence. Karma
The warrior class of Aryan society. Kshatriyas
A Hindu epic poem. Mahabharata
One of the two chief towns of the ancient Indus Valley civilization. Mohenjo-Daro
Animal bones used in Shang China for divination. Contains earliest evidence of Chinese writing. Oracle bones
The oldest of the four Vedas, brought into India by the Aryans; the holiest works of Hinduism. Rig Veda
The sacred language of India, an Indo-European language introduced by the Aryans. Sanskrit
An important member of the Hindu pantheon, along with his wife Kali (Durga). God of destruction and fertility. Shiva
The Hindu writings dealing with philosophical issues. Upanishads
The third caste, consisting of the landholder and artisan class of Aryan society. Vaisyas
A Hindu savior god who, through his nine incarnations, saves the world from destruction; in one incarnation he was Krishna, in another Gautama Buddha. Vishnu
The school founded by Plato; Aristotle is its most famous student. Academy
Hindu, Buddhist, and Jain doctrine of not harming living creatures. Ahimsa
The body of writing containing conversations between Confucius and his disciples that preserves his worldly wisdom and pragmatic philosophies. Analects
The transportation of many Jews to exile in Babylon; occurred in the sixth century b.c.e. Babylonian Captivity
An empire of satellite Greek states under Athens in the fifth century b.c.e. Delian League
Hindu and Buddhist term for moral conduct. Dharma
State-owned slaves of the Spartans. Helots
A strict, monastic form of Buddhism claiming a close link with the Buddha´s teaching; also called Theravada. Hinayana Buddhism
Heavily armed infantry soldiers in ancient Greece. Hoplites
A Chinese philosophy of government emphasizing strong state authority. Legalism
A form of Buddhism; it deemphasized the monastic life and abstruse philosophy in favor of prayer to the Buddha and saintly and helpful bodhisattvas to attain nirvana. Mahayana Buddhism
The battle in 490 b.c.e. in which the Athenians defeated the Persians. Marathon
Conflicts between the neighbors Sparta and Messenia that resulted in Sparta´s conquest of Messenia around 600 b.c.e. Messenian Wars
Resident foreigners in ancient Athens; not permitted full rights of citizenship, but did receive the protection of the laws. Metics
A religion having only one god. Monotheism
Buddhist concept; the final liberation from suffering and reincarnation. Nirvana
In ancient Athens, the expulsion of a citizen for ten years. Ostracism
The classic Greek temple to Athena on the Acropolis in Athens´ center. Parthenon
The great war between Athens and Sparta and their respective allies in ancient Greece; fought between 431 and 404 b.c.e. and eventually won by Sparta. Peloponnesian War
An ancient seafaring people living along the coast north of Palestine; they dominated trade in the Mediterranean. Phoenicians
The land battle that, along with the naval battle of Salamis, ended the Persian Wars with a Greek victory. Plataea
The political and social community of citizens in ancient Greece. Polis
The naval battle that, with the battle of Plataea, ended the Persian Wars with a Greek victory. Salamis
A militaristic Greek city-state that vied with Athens for power in the Peloponnesian War. Sparta
China´s nature-oriented philosophy/religion. Taoism
A strict monastic form of Buddhism that claims close adherence to the teachings of Gautama Buddha. Also called Hinayana Buddhism. Theravada Buddhism
in an ancient Greek polis (or an Italian city-state during the Renaissance), a ruler who came to power in an unconstitutional way and ruled without being subject to the law. tyrant/tyranny
The decisive 31 b.c.e. battle in the struggle between Octavian and Marc Antony, in which Octavian´s victory paved the way for the Principate. Actium, Battle of
An early Indian political treatise that sets forth many fundamental aspects of the relationship of rulers and their subjects. It has been compared to Machiavelli´s well-known book The Prince and has provided principles upon which many aspects of social or Arthasastra
The best-known part of the Mahabharata, it details the proper relations between the castes and the triumph of the spirit over material creation. Bhagavad-Gita
Rival in the Mediterranean basin to Rome in the third century b.c.e.; it was destroyed by Rome. Carthage
The battle in 338 b.c.e. in which Philip of Macedon decisively defeated the Greeks and brought them under Macedonian dominance. Chaeronea
Hindu and Buddhist term for moral conduct. Dharma
A Hellenistic philosophy advocating the pursuit of pleasure (mental) and avoidance of pain as the supreme good. Epicureanism
The pre-Roman rulers of most of northern and central Italy and cultural models for early Roman civilization. Etruscans
The dynasty that ruled China from 202 b.c.e. to 221 c.e. Han dynasty
A chief Egyptian goddess with strong creative and nurturing associations. Isis
Type of feudal noble who held title and landed domain only for his lifetime; generally based originally on military service to his overlord. Knight
An important Hindu god who is an incarnation of the god Vishnu. Krishna
A Hindu epic poem. Mahabharata
The aristocratic upper class in ancient Rome. Patricians (patres)
The common people of ancient Rome. Plebeians
The state created by Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Great´s generals, in the Hellenistic era. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt
The three conflicts between Rome and Carthage that ended with the complete destruction of the Carthaginian Empire and the extension of Roman control throughout the western Mediterranean. Punic Wars
An early Indian political treatise that sets forth many fundamental aspects of the relationship of rulers and their subjects. It has been compared to Machiavelli´s well-known book The Prince and has provided principles upon which many aspects of social or Arthasastra
The best-known part of the Mahabharata, it details the proper relations between the castes and the triumph of the spirit over material creation. Bhagavad-Gita
Rival in the Mediterranean basin to Rome in the third century b.c.e.; it was destroyed by Rome. Carthage
The battle in 338 b.c.e. in which Philip of Macedon decisively defeated the Greeks and brought them under Macedonian dominance. Chaeronea
Hindu and Buddhist term for moral conduct. Dharma
A Hellenistic philosophy advocating the pursuit of pleasure (mental) and avoidance of pain as the supreme good. Epicureanism
The pre-Roman rulers of most of northern and central Italy and cultural models for early Roman civilization. Etruscans
The dynasty that ruled China from 202 b.c.e. to 221 c.e. Han dynasty
A chief Egyptian goddess with strong creative and nurturing associations. Isis
the outbreak of plague (mostly bubonic) in the mid-fourteenth century that killed from 25 to 50 percent of Europe's population. Black Death
Type of feudal noble who held title and landed domain only for his lifetime; generally based originally on military service to his overlord. Knight
An important Hindu god who is an incarnation of the god Vishnu. Krishna
A Hindu epic poem. Mahabharata
The aristocratic upper class in ancient Rome. Patricians (patres)
The common people of ancient Rome. Plebeians
The state created by Ptolemy, one of Alexander the Great´s generals, in the Hellenistic era. Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt
a Christian sacrament in which consecrated bread and wine are consumed in celebration of Jesus' Last Supper; also called the Lord's Supper or communion. eucharist
The three conflicts between Rome and Carthage that ended with the complete destruction of the Carthaginian Empire and the extension of Roman control throughout the western Mediterranean. Punic Wars
A Hindu text that illustrates important aspects of the religion; its heroes, Rama and his wife Sita, are worshipped as the embodiment of the ideal man and woman. Ramayana
A medieval urban organization that controlled the production and prices of many goods and services. Guild
The successor state to the empire of Alexander the Great in most of the Middle East. Seleucid kingdom
Greek name ("Holy Wisdom") of the cathedral in Constantinople, later made into a mosque by Ottoman Turkish conquerors. Hagia Sophia
The pilgrimage to Mecca and the sacred places of Islam. Hajj
A route linking China with India, Persia, Central Asia, and the Mediterranean region. It was an important conduit for ideas and goods. Silk Road
a philosophy founded by Zeno in the fourth century B.C. that taught that happiness could be obtained by accepting one's lot and living in harmony with the will of God, thereby achieving inner peace. Stoicism
Decisive battle of the Second Punic War; Roman victory in 202 b.c.e was followed by absorption of most of the Carthaginian Empire in the Mediterranean. Zama, Battle of
An agricultural estate of varying size normally owned by a noble or the clergy and worked by free and unfree peasants/serfs. Manor
The caliphs resident in Baghdad from the 700s c.e. until the tenth century. Abbasid dynasty
a Christian heresy that taught that Jesus was inferior to God. Though condemned by the Council of Nicaea in 325, Arianism was adopted by many of the Germanic peoples who entered the Roman Empire over the next centuries. Arianism
The nomadic inhabitants of the Arabian Peninsula and the eastern Mediterranean; they were the original converts to Islam. Bedouin
the outbreak of plague (mostly bubonic) in the mid-fourteenth century that killed from 25 to 50 percent of Europe's population. Black Death
A minority sect of Islam; adherents believe that kinship with Muhammad is necessary to qualify for the caliphate. ShiI
The continuation of the Roman imperium in its eastern provinces until its fall to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. Byzantine Empire
Arabic term for "successor" (to Muhammad); leader of Islam. Caliph
The scattering of the Jews from ancient Palestine. Diaspora
Edict that made Christianity an officially tolerated religion within the Roman Empire; issued by the emperor Constantine in 313. Edict of Milan
The caliphs resident in Damascus from 661 to 750 c.e. Umayyad dynasty
A Jewish religious group that lived near the Dead Sea at Qumran from around the middle of the second century b.c.e.; some of their ideas were similar to those found in early Christianity. Essenes
In medieval Europe, a person, usually a noble, who owed feudal duties to a superior, called a suzerain. Vassal
a Christian sacrament in which consecrated bread and wine are consumed in celebration of Jesus' Last Supper; also called the Lord's Supper or communion. eucharist
An artistic style, found mainly in architecture, that came into general European usage during the thirteenth century. Gothic style
A medieval urban organization that controlled the production and prices of many goods and services. Guild
Greek name ("Holy Wisdom") of the cathedral in Constantinople, later made into a mosque by Ottoman Turkish conquerors. Hagia Sophia
The pilgrimage to Mecca and the sacred places of Islam. Hajj
First constituted by Charlemagne, the Holy Roman Empire was a concept that served both political and religious purposes; it was eventually controlled by the Habsburgs centered in Austria, but it essentially had lost all its meaning by the early nineteenth Holy Roman Empire
an eighth-century Byzantine movement against the use of icons (pictures of sacred figures), which was condemned as idolatry. iconoclasm
A "great charter" issued in 1215 by King John of England that gave the aristocracy substantially increased powers, especially over taxation, and created a more uniform justice system. Magna Carta
An agricultural estate of varying size normally owned by a noble or the clergy and worked by free and unfree peasants/serfs. Manor
The Jewish governing council under the overlordship of Rome. Sanhedrin
the philosophical and theological system of the medieval schools, which emphasized rigorous analysis of contradictory authorities; often used to try to reconcile faith and reason. scholasticism
The sacred law of Islam; based on the Qur´an. Sharia
A minority sect of Islam; adherents believe that kinship with Muhammad is necessary to qualify for the caliphate. ShiI
The majority group in Islam; adherents believe that the caliphate should go to the most qualified individual and should not necessarily pass to the kin of Muhammad. Sunni
The caliphs resident in Damascus from 661 to 750 c.e. Umayyad dynasty
In medieval Europe, a person, usually a noble, who owed feudal duties to a superior, called a suzerain. Vassal
Caves in central India that are the site of marvelous early frescoes inspired by Hinduism and Buddhism. Ajanta Caves
The military-style government of the Japanese shoguns. Bakufu
The code of conduct of the samurai, or Japanese warriors. Bushido
The noble clan that controlled the government of Japan between the ninth and twelfth centuries. Fujiwara clan
Wife of the Hindu god Shiva, she was both the cosmic mother and the goddess of destruction. Kali
The rule by members of a noble Japanese clan from the late twelfth to the mid-fourteenth century in the name of the emperor, who was their puppet. Kamakura shogunate
The inhabitants of Cambodia; founders of a large empire in ancient Southeast Asia. Khmers
An important Hindu god who is an incarnation of the god Vishnu. Krishna
An eleventh- and twelfth-century c.e. revival of Confucian thought. It became the accepted doctrine in China, Japan, and Korea. Neo-Confucianism
A Japanese sect of Buddhism founded by the monk Nicheren in the thirteenth century. Nicheren sect
A collection of mythical stories about Hindu gods and goddesses. Puranas
A Hindu text that illustrates important aspects of the religion; its heroes, Rama and his wife Sita, are worshipped as the embodiment of the ideal man and woman. Ramayana
Hereditary warrior-aristocrats of feudal Japan. Samurai
The indigenous religion of Japan, it was polytheistic and stressed the importance of nature. Shintoism
An important member of the Hindu pantheon, along with his wife Kali (Durga). God of destruction and fertility. Shiva
Ruled China from 581 to 618 c.e.; era of disunity that paved the way for the T´ang dynasty. Sui dynasty
A Hindu savior god who, through his nine incarnations, saves the world from destruction; in one incarnation he was Krishna, in another Gautama Buddha. Vishnu
The earliest known government of Japan; headed by the Yamato family. Yamato state
The Japanese form of Ch´an Buddhism. Zen Buddhism
The center of the ancient Ethiopian kingdom. Axum
Aztec Last of a series of Amerindian masters of central Mexico prior to the arrival of the Spanish; developers of the great city of Tenochtitl‡n (Mexico City). Aztec
A language spoken by many peoples of central and eastern Africa; by extension, the name of the speakers. Bantu
Pre-Arab settlers of northern Africa and the Sahara. Berbers
Early Peruvian Amerindian culture. Chavin
Site in the Yucatan of Mayan urban development in the tenth to thirteenth centuries. ChichŽn Itz‡
The earliest of the extensive empires in western Africa and the Sahara; also a modern African state. Ghana
Title of the emperor of the Quechuan peoples of Peru prior to the arrival of the Spanish. Inka
The African Sudanese empire that was the successor to Ghana in the 1300s and 1400s. Mali
The spoken language of the Inka of Peru. Quechua
A West African state, centered on the bend of the Niger River, that reached its fullest extent in the sixteenth century before collapsing. Songhai
The majority group in Islam; adherents believe that the caliphate should go to the most qualified individual and should not necessarily pass to the kin of Muhammad. Sunni
A hybrid language based on Bantu and Arabic; used extensively in East Africa. Swahili
An Amerindian civilization centered in the Valley of Mexico; succeeded by the Aztecs. Toltec
A series of conflicts between the British and the native Africans in South Africa in the late nineteenth century. Zulu wars
Created by: mahmoudt