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Chapter 13 Upshur

Chapter 13 Vocabulary

The "father of the Turks"; a World War I officer who led Turkey into the modern age and replaced the Ottoman Empire in the 1920s. AtatŸrk, Mustafa Kemal
The armed conflict, 1899Ð1902, between the Boers (the Dutch colonists who had been the earliest European settlers of South Africa) and their British overlords; won by the British after a hard fight. Boer War/Boers
A revolt by peasants, supported by the Ch´ing court, against the European imperialists in 1900; it was quickly suppressed by the Western powers. Boxer Rebellion
Conflict fought in the Crimea between Russia on one side and Britain, France, and the Ottoman Empire on the other, from 1853 to 1856; ended by the Peace of Paris with a severe loss in Russian prestige. Crimean War
In 1898 British forces and French forces, both bent on increasing the imperial holdings of their respective countries, came head to head in Fashoda in the Sudan. Diplomacy averted a war between the two countries. Fashoda Crisis
An international organization founded after World War I to maintain peace and promote amity among nations; the United States did not join. League of Nations
A series of steel and concrete fortifications along the French border with Germany. The French believed the Maginot Line would protect them from a German attack, but it was outflanked by the German Blitzkrieg. Maginot Line
An early-twentieth-century idea proposed by the United States that all should have access to trade with China. Open Door Policy
A canal built across the Isthmus of Panama. Completed in 1914 by the United States, it linked the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, helping international commerce and extending American naval power. Panama Canal
The 1904Ð1905 conflict that resulted in defeat for Russia, which weakened the position of the Tsar; simultaneously, the international power and prestige of Japan increased substantially. Russo-Japanese War
powerful business cartels formed in Japan during the Meiji era and outlawed following World War II. Zaibatsu
Created by: Firemeter