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Path Q2


Study of disease Pathology
Father of medicine Hippocrate
Studies changes in the structure and function of the body which can be observed with the unaided eye. Gross pathology
Studies changes which occur in cells of the body at the microscopic level Mircroscopic, cellular, or histo-pathology
Deals with general or broad disease processes, such as necrosis or inflammation, which may affect the entire body or wide-spread tissues and organs General pathology
Studies disease processes affecting individual body areas or systems, such as pathology of the respiratory system or diseases of the skin Special pathology
Study of tissues which have been removed from the body for pathological study. (biopsy) Pathological Anatomy
Laboratory study of standardized tests on, body fluids, and secretions. (blood tests) Clinical pathology
Studying the functional changes in the body resulting from disease Physiological pathology
Deals with both medical and legal issues surrounding death Medical-legal pathology
Post mortem exam Autopsy
Any change in the structure or function of the body as a result of injury to the tissues Disease
Rapid onset-short duration Acute
Gradual onset-long duration Chronic
Acute diseas that ends in death (heart attack) Fulminating disease
Symptoms and signs of a disease reappear after a period of remission Recurrent disease
A disease caused by a living microorganism Infectious disease
Diseases which are easily transmitted from person-to-person Contagious
Refers to the presence of macroscopic organisms in or on the body (ticks) Infestation
Cause of disease is not known Idiopathic
Disease results from the nature of ones working conditions (Coalminers disease) Occupational
Diseases which are always present to some degree in a given area or community Endemic
Diseases which are found to occur only occasionally in a community (polio) Sporadic
Disease which affect a much larger than normal number of people in a community at one time Epidemic
Diseases which affect the majority of the population in a very large area, possibly even worldwide (aids) Pandemic
Refers to the number of cases of a disease within a certain population at a given time Prevalence
Development of a disease after birth Acquired disease
Present at or before birth Congenital disease
A disease transmitted from parent to offspring. Genetic diseases are hereditary. Hereditary disease
A disease characterized by the presence of a fever Febrile disease
The state of being poisoned Intoxication
A disease caused by the lack of some essential element Deficience disease
One which results from a physicians treatment of patient Iatrogenic
Any defect in formation, structure, or position of a body part Malformations or anomalies
Absence of a body part Aplasia
Under development of a body part Hypoplasia
A defect in the walls of the lower part of the spinal cord. Spina bifida
And excess number of fingers or toes Polydactylism
Protrusion of an organ through the wall of the body cavity in which it is contained Hernia
And abnormal tract or channel through the tissues, connecting one body cavity with another, or connecting a cavity with the surface of the body Fistula
A sac-like structure, containing fluid or a semi-solid substance. Cyst
Genetic defect resulting in various degrees of mental retardation, a dwarfed physique, and certain characteristic abnormalities of the head and extremities Down's Syndrome (Monogolism)
Any change produced by a disease (cold sore, peptic ulcer, broken bone, abscess, chancres) Lesion
Diseases have readily identifiable characteristic lesions Organic disease
A disease with no apparent underlying organic disorder Functional disease
Subjective manifestation of a disease. Those things which cannot be measured such as pain or malaise ("Just dont feel good") Symptom
Objective manifestation of disease. Those things which can be measured such as blood pressure, body temperature, swelling, heart rate Sign
A group of signs and symptoms that occur together. The sum of the signs and symptoms of any pathological condition Syndrome
The determination of what disease exists. Analysis of patient history, signs, symptoms, and results of tests ordered by the physician Diagnosis
The process by which a physician will rule out certain diseases with similar signs and symptoms so that an accurate determination can be made Differential diagnosis
Prediction of the outcome of a disease Prognosis
Abatement; temporary or permanent disappearance of signs and symptoms Remission
A sudden increase in the severity of signs and symptoms Exacerbation
Any unfavorable condition that may arise during a disease Complication
The cause of a disease Etiology
The development of a disease, what it causes, what changes it produces, and how it affects the structure Pathogenesis
Remote aftereffects of disease. May appear 20 or 30 years after the acute stage. Sequelae
A disease that arises during the course of another disease (Patient with cancer has a heart attack) Intercurrent disease
Non-pus forming Non-suppurative disease
A disease that can be transmitted from one person to another Communicable disease
A state of hypersensitivity of the immune system; an overreaction to a harmless substance called an allergen Allergy
A disease with no apparent underlying organic disorder Functional disease
The various pathological processes indication some disturbance in cell metabolism Regressive tissue change
Some sort of substance has infiltrated the tissues of the body and accumulated in abnormal amounts Infiltration
When coloring matters pass into the tissues and accumulate, causing discoloration Pigmentation
Coloring matter is from normal pigment present in the body Endogenous
Pigment which entered the body from outside Exogenous
Orange to yellowish pigment present in bile Bilirubin
When bilirubin collects in the tissues causing a yellowish discoloration of the skins Jaundice
Results from the hemolysis of red blood cells Post-mortem stain
Abnormal amounts of melanin, accumulates in the tissues Melanosis
Caused by coal dust Anthracosis
Inhalation of stone dust (sandblasting) Silicosis
Inhalation of cotton dust and related foreign materials (textile industry) Byssinosis
Deterioration of cells within the body due to changes which occur within the cytoplasm of the cells and which affects their normal functions Degeneration
Waxy, starch-like substance deposited in the tissues Amyloid disease
The appearance cells take on when they are somewhat swollen and contain an abnormal amount of water. Cloudy swelling (Cellular swelling)
When calcium is deposited within the tissues of the body with no attempt at bone formation Pathological calcification
The decrease in size of a once normal body part Atrophy
Decrease in size is normal, regular occurence in the human body Physiological atrophy
Normal cell death with replacement Necrobiosis
Cell death (gangrene) Necrosis
No oxygen Anoxia
Dry gangrene Coagulation necrosis
Caused by saprophytic bacteria "eating" dead cells Moist, wet, true gangrene
Various functional and structural problems which occur in the different organs of the body Pathological atrophy
Without proper nutrients, maintenance of the normal structure, function, and size of the tissue may be impaired Inadequate nutrition
Muscles require nervous stimulation to contract, create movement, and perform normal function; decreased in size due to loss of function Inadequate nercous stimulation
Broken arm or leg with several weeks in cast Disuse
The protection(antibodies)are made by the host Active immunity
The protection comes from an outside source Passive immunity
The study of neoplasms or tumors Oncology
When an organ increases in size due to the failure of another organ (Kidney or lung) Compensatory hypertrophy
Any new, abnormal growth of tissue in the dosy which serves no useful purpose Neoplasm
A type of growth that is not neoplastic in nature. Increase in the size of a body part due to an increase in the size of individual cells Hypertrophy
An increase in the size of a body part due to an increase in the number of cells in that organ Hyperplasia
A replacement of one type of tissue in a mojor category by another type of tissue in that same category Metaplasia
The more serious, life-threatening type; those we normally refer to as cancers Malignant
Non-cancerous Benign
Malignant tumors can spread from one body area to another Metastasis
Any agent capable of causing cancer Carcinogen
Smooth or involuntary muscle tissue Leiomyoma
Voluntary muscle tissue Rhabdomyoma
Created by: arc123